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MAN(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   MAN(1)

NAME
     man -- display manual pages

SYNOPSIS
     man [-acfhklw] [-C file] [-I os=name] [-K encoding] [-M path] [-m path]
         [-O option=value] [-S subsection] [-s section] [-T output] [-W level]
         [section] name ...

DESCRIPTION
     The man utility displays the manual pages entitled name.  Pages may be
     selected according to a specific category (section) or machine architec-
     ture (subsection).

     The options are as follows:

     -a      Display all of the manual pages for a specified section and name
             combination.  Normally, only the first manual page found is dis-
             played.

     -C file
             Use the specified file instead of the default configuration file.
             This permits users to configure their own manual environment.
             See man.conf(5) for a description of the contents of this file.

     -c      Copy the manual page to the standard output instead of using
             more(1) to paginate it.  This is done by default if the standard
             output is not a terminal device.

     -f      A synonym for whatis(1).  It searches for name in manual page
             names and displays the header lines from all matching pages.  The
             search is case insensitive and matches whole words only.  This
             overrides any earlier -k and -l options.

     -I os=name
             Override the default operating system name for the mdoc(7) Os and
             for the man(7) TH macro.

     -h      Display only the SYNOPSIS lines of the requested manual pages.
             Implies -a and -c.

     -K encoding
             Specify the input encoding.  The supported encoding arguments are
             us-ascii, iso-8859-1, and utf-8.  By default, the encoding is
             automatically detected as described in the mandoc(1) manual.

     -k      A synonym for apropos(1).  Instead of name, an expression can be
             provided using the syntax described in the apropos(1) manual.  By
             default, it displays the header lines of all matching pages.
             This overrides any earlier -f and -l options.

     -l      A synonym for mandoc(1) -a.  The name arguments are interpreted
             as filenames.  No search is done and file, path, section, and
             subsection are ignored.  This overrides any earlier -f, -k, and
             -w options.

     -M path
             Override the list of standard directories which man searches for
             manual pages.  The supplied path must be a colon (':') separated
             list of directories.  This search path may also be set using the
             environment variable MANPATH.  The subdirectories to be searched,
             and their search order, are specified by the ``_subdir'' line in
             the man configuration file.

     -m path
             Augment the list of standard directories which man searches for
             manual pages.  The supplied path must be a colon (':') separated
             list of directories.  These directories will be searched before
             the standard directories or the directories specified using the
             -M option or the MANPATH environment variable.  The subdirecto-
             ries to be searched, and their search order, are specified by the
             ``_subdir'' line in the man configuration file.

     -O option=value
             Comma-separated output options.  For each output format, the
             available options are described in the mandoc(1) manual.

     -S subsection
             Restricts the directories that man will search to those of a spe-
             cific machine(1) architecture.  subsection is case insensitive.

             By default manual pages for all architectures are installed.
             Therefore this option can be used to view pages for one architec-
             ture whilst using another.

             This option overrides the MACHINE environment variable.

     [-s] section
             Restricts the directories that man will search to a specific sec-
             tion.  The currently available sections are:

                   1         General commands (tools and utilities).
                   2         System calls and error numbers.
                   3         Libraries.
                   3f        Fortran programmer's reference guide.
                   3p        perl(1) programmer's reference guide.
                   4         Device drivers.
                   5         File formats.
                   6         Games.
                   7         Miscellaneous.
                   8         System maintenance and operation commands.
                   9         Kernel internals.
                   X11       An alias for X11R6.
                   X11R6     X Window System.
                   local     Pages located in /usr/local.
                   n         Tcl/Tk commands.

             The man configuration file, man.conf(5), specifies the possible
             section values, and their search order.  Additional sections may
             be specified.

     -T output
             Select the output format.  The default is locale.  The other out-
             put modes ascii, html, lint, man, pdf, ps, tree, and utf8 are
             described in the mandoc(1) manual.

     -W level
             Specify the minimum message level to be reported on the standard
             error output and to affect the exit status.  The level can be
             warning, error, or unsupp; all is an alias for warning.  By
             default, man is silent.  See the mandoc(1) manual for details.

     -w      List the pathnames of the manual pages which man would display
             for the specified section and name combination.

     Guidelines for writing man pages can be found in mdoc(7).

     If both a formatted and an unformatted version of the same manual page,
     for example cat1/foo.0 and man1/foo.1, exist in the same directory, and
     at least one of them is selected, only the newer one is used.  However,
     if both the -a and the -w options are specified, both file names are
     printed.

ENVIRONMENT
     MACHINE   As some manual pages are intended only for specific architec-
               tures, man searches any subdirectories, with the same name as
               the current architecture, in every directory which it searches.
               Machine specific areas are checked before general areas.  The
               current machine type may be overridden by setting the environ-
               ment variable MACHINE to the name of a specific architecture,
               or with the -S option.  MACHINE is case insensitive.

     MANPAGER  Any non-empty value of the environment variable MANPAGER will
               be used instead of the standard pagination program, more(1).

     MANPATH   The standard search path used by man may be overridden by spec-
               ifying a path in the MANPATH environment variable.  The format
               of the path is a colon (':') separated list of directories.
               The subdirectories to be searched, as well as their search
               order, are specified by the ``_subdir'' line in the man config-
               uration file.

     PAGER     Specifies the pagination program to use when MANPAGER is not
               defined.  If neither PAGER nor MANPAGER is defined,
               /usr/bin/more -s will be used.

FILES
     /etc/man.conf  default man configuration file

EXIT STATUS
     The man utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

SEE ALSO
     apropos(1), intro(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), intro(2), intro(3),
     intro(4), intro(5), man.conf(5), intro(6), intro(7), mdoc(7), intro(8),
     intro(9)

STANDARDS
     The man utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'')
     specification.

     The flags [-aCcfhIKlMmOSsTWw], as well as the environment variables
     MACHINE, MANPAGER, and MANPATH, are extensions to that specification.

HISTORY
     A man command first appeared in Version 3 AT&T UNIX.

     The -w option first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX; -f and -k in 4BSD;
     -M in 4.3BSD; -a in 4.3BSD-Tahoe; -c and -m in 4.3BSD-Reno; -h in 4.3BSD
     Net/2; -C in NetBSD 1.0; and -s and -S in OpenBSD 2.3.

BSD                             March 28, 2017                             BSD