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PMAP(9)                  BSD Kernel Developer's Manual                 PMAP(9)

     pmap -- machine dependent interface to the MMU

     #include <&lt;machine/pmap.h>&gt;

     The architecture-dependent pmap module describes how the physical mapping
     is done between the user-processes and kernel virtual addresses and the
     physical addresses of the main memory, providing machine-dependent trans-
     lation and access tables that are used directly or indirectly by the mem-
     ory-management hardware.  The pmap layer can be viewed as a big array of
     mapping entries that are indexed by virtual address to produce a physical
     address and flags.  These flags describe the page's protection, whether
     the page has been referenced or modified and other characteristics.

     The pmap interface is consistent across all platforms and hides the way
     page mappings are stored.

     void pmap_init(void)

     The pmap_init() function is called from the machine-independent uvm(9)
     initialization code, when the MMU is enabled.

     Modified/referenced information is only tracked for pages managed by
     uvm(9) (pages for which a vm_page structure exists).  Only managed map-
     pings of those pages have modified/referenced tracking.  The use of
     unmanaged mappings should be limited to code which may execute in inter-
     rupt context (such as malloc(9)) or to enter mappings for physical
     addresses which are not managed by uvm(9).  This allows pmap modules to
     avoid blocking interrupts when manipulating data structures or holding
     locks.  Unmanaged mappings may only be entered into the kernel's virtual
     address space.  The modified/referenced bits must be tracked on a per-
     page basis, as they are not attributes of a mapping, but attributes of a
     page.  Therefore, even after all mappings for a given page have been
     removed, the modified/referenced bits for that page must be preserved.
     The only time the modified/referenced bits may be cleared is when uvm(9)
     explicitly calls the pmap_clear_modify() and pmap_clear_reference() func-
     tions.  These functions must also change any internal state necessary to
     detect the page being modified or referenced again after the modi-
     fied/referenced state is cleared.

     Mappings entered by pmap_enter() are managed, mappings entered by
     pmap_kenter_pa() are not.

     int pmap_enter(pmap_t pmap, vaddr_t va, paddr_t pa, vm_prot_t prot, int
     flags) void pmap_kenter_pa(vaddr_t va, paddr_t pa, vm_prot_t prot) void
     pmap_remove(pmap_t pmap, vaddr_t sva, vaddr_t eva) void
     pmap_kremove(vaddr_t va, vsize_t size)

     The pmap_enter() function creates a managed mapping for physical page pa
     at the specified virtual address va in the target physical map pmap with
     protection specified by prot:

     PROT_READ   The mapping must allow reading.

     PROT_WRITE  The mapping must allow writing.

     PROT_EXEC   The page mapped contains instructions that will be executed
                 by the processor.

     The flags argument contains protection bits (the same bits used in the
     prot argument) indicating the type of access that caused the mapping to
     be created.  This information may be used to seed modified/referenced
     information for the page being mapped, possibly avoiding redundant faults
     on platforms that track modified/referenced information in software.
     Other information provided by flags:

     PMAP_WIRED    The mapping being created is a wired mapping.

     PMAP_CANFAIL  The call to pmap_enter() is allowed to fail.  If this flag
                   is not set, and the pmap_enter() call is unable to create
                   the mapping, perhaps due to insufficient resources, the
                   pmap module must panic.

     The access type provided in the flags argument will never exceed the pro-
     tection specified by prot.

     The pmap_enter() function is called by the fault routine to establish a
     mapping for the page being faulted in.  If pmap_enter() is called to
     enter a mapping at a virtual address for which a mapping already exists,
     the previous mapping must be invalidated.  pmap_enter() is sometimes
     called to change the protection for a pre-existing mapping, or to change
     the ``wired'' attribute for a pre-existing mapping.

     The pmap_kenter_pa() function creates an unmanaged mapping of physical
     address pa at the specified virtual address va with the protection speci-
     fied by prot.

     The pmap_remove() function removes the range of virtual addresses sva to
     eva from pmap, assuming proper alignment.  pmap_remove() is called during
     an unmap operation to remove low-level machine dependent mappings.

     The pmap_kremove() function removes an unmanaged mapping at virtual
     address va of size size.

     A call to pmap_update() must be made after pmap_kenter_pa() or
     pmap_kremove() to notify the pmap layer that the mappings need to be made

     void pmap_unwire(pmap_t pmap, vaddr_t va) void pmap_protect(pmap_t pmap,
     vaddr_t sva, vaddr_t eva, vm_prot_t prot) void pmap_page_protect(struct
     vm_page *pg, vm_prot_t prot)

     The pmap_unwire() function clears the wired attribute for a map/virtual-
     address pair.  The mapping must already exist in pmap.

     The pmap_protect() function sets the physical protection on range sva to
     eva, in pmap.

     The pmap_protect() function is called during a copy-on-write operation to
     write protect copy-on-write memory, and when paging out a page to remove
     all mappings of a page.  The pmap_page_protect() function sets the per-
     mission for all mapping to page pg.  The pmap_page_protect() function is
     called before a pageout operation to ensure that all pmap references to a
     page are removed.

     boolean_t pmap_is_modified(struct vm_page *pg) boolean_t
     pmap_clear_modify(struct vm_page *pg) boolean_t pmap_is_referenced(struct
     vm_page *pg) boolean_t pmap_clear_reference(struct vm_page *pg)

     The pmap_is_modified() and pmap_clear_modify() functions read/set the
     modify bits on the specified physical page pg.  The pmap_is_referenced()
     and pmap_clear_reference() functions read/set the reference bits on the
     specified physical page pg.

     The pmap_is_referenced() and pmap_is_modified() functions are called by
     the pagedaemon when looking for pages to free.  The
     pmap_clear_referenced() and pmap_clear_modify() functions are called by
     the pagedaemon to help identification of pages that are no longer in

     void pmap_copy_page(struct vm_page *src, struct vm_page *dst) void
     pmap_zero_page(struct vm_page *page)

     The pmap_copy_page() function copies the content of the physical page src
     to physical page dst.

     The pmap_zero_page() function fills page with zeroes.

     pmap_t pmap_create(void) void pmap_reference(pmap_t pmap) void
     pmap_destroy(pmap_t pmap)

     The pmap_create() function creates an instance of the pmap structure.

     The pmap_reference() function increments the reference count on pmap.

     The pmap_destroy() function decrements the reference count on physical
     map pmap and retires it from service if the count drops to zero, assuming
     it contains no valid mappings.

     vaddr_t pmap_steal_memory(vsize_t size, vaddr_t *vstartp, vaddr_t *vendp)
     vaddr_t pmap_growkernel(vaddr_t maxkvaddr) void pmap_update(pmap_t pmap)
     void pmap_collect(pmap_t pmap) void pmap_virtual_space(vaddr_t *vstartp,
     vaddr_t *vendp) void pmap_copy(pmap_t dst_pmap, pmap_t src_pmap, vaddr_t
     dst_addr, vsize_t len, vaddr_t src_addr)

     Wired memory allocation before the virtual memory system is bootstrapped
     is accomplished by the pmap_steal_memory() function.  After that point,
     the kernel memory allocation routines should be used.

     The pmap_growkernel() function can preallocate kernel page tables to a
     specified virtual address.

     The pmap_update() function notifies the pmap module to force processing
     of all delayed actions for all pmaps.

     The pmap_collect() function informs the pmap module that the given pmap
     is not expected to be used for some time, giving the pmap module a chance
     to prioritize.  The initial bounds of the kernel virtual address space
     are returned by pmap_virtual_space().

     The pmap_copy() function copies the range specified by src_addr and
     src_len from src_pmap to the range described by dst_addr and dst_len in
     dst_map.  pmap_copy() is called during a fork(2) operation to give the
     child process an initial set of low-level mappings.

     fork(2), uvm(9)

     The 4.4BSD pmap module is based on Mach 3.0.  The introduction of uvm(9)
     left the pmap interface unchanged for the most part.

     Ifdefs must be documented.

     pmap_update() should be mandatory.

BSD                            November 16, 2014                           BSD