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PCMCIA(9)                BSD Kernel Developer's Manual               PCMCIA(9)

     PCMCIA pcmcia_function_init, pcmcia_function_enable,
     pcmcia_function_disable, pcmcia_io_alloc, pcmcia_io_free, pcmcia_io_map,
     pcmcia_io_unmap, pcmcia_mem_alloc, pcmcia_mem_free, pcmcia_mem_map,
     pcmcia_mem_unmap, pcmcia_intr_establish, pcmcia_intr_disestablish,
     pcmcia_cis_read_1, pcmcia_cis_read_2, pcmcia_cis_read_3,
     pcmcia_cis_read_4, pcmcia_cis_read_n, pcmcia_scan_cis -- support for PCM-
     CIA PC-Card devices

     #include <&lt;machine/bus.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;dev/pcmcia/pcmciareg.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;dev/pcmcia/pcmciavar.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;dev/pcmcia/pcmciadevs.h>&gt;

     pcmcia_function_init(struct pcmcia_function *pf,
         struct pcmcia_config_entry *cfe);

     pcmcia_function_enable(struct pcmcia_function *pf);

     pcmcia_function_disable(struct pcmcia_function *pf);

     pcmcia_io_alloc(struct pcmcia_function *pf, bus_addr_t start,
         bus_size_t size, bus_size_t align, struct pcmcia_io_handle *pciop);

     pcmcia_io_free(struct pcmcia_function *pf,
         struct pcmcia_io_handle *pcihp);

     pcmcia_io_map(struct pcmcia_function *pf, int width, bus_size_t offset,
         bus_size_t size, struct pcmcia_io_handle *pcihp, int *windowp);

     pcmcia_io_unmap(struct pcmcia_function *pf, int window);

     pcmcia_mem_alloc(struct pcmcia_function *pf, bus_size_t size,
         struct pcmcia_mem_handle *pcmhp);

     pcmcia_mem_free(struct pcmcia_function *pf,
         struct pcmcia_mem_handle *pcmhp);

     pcmcia_mem_map(struct pcmcia_function *pf, int width,
         bus_addr_t card_addr, bus_size_t size,
         struct pcmcia_mem_handle *pcmhp, bus_size_t *offsetp, int *windowp);

     pcmcia_mem_unmap(struct pcmcia_function *pf, int window);

     void *
     pcmcia_intr_establish(struct pcmcia_function *pf, int level,
         int (*handler)(void *), void *arg);

     pcmcia_intr_disestablish(struct pcmcia_function *pf, void *ih);

     pcmcia_cis_read_1(struct pcmcia_tuple *tuple, int index);

     pcmcia_cis_read_2(struct pcmcia_tuple *tuple, int index);

     pcmcia_cis_read_3(struct pcmcia_tuple *tuple, int index);

     pcmcia_cis_read_4(struct pcmcia_tuple *tuple, int index);

     pcmcia_cis_read_n(struct pcmcia_tuple *tuple, int number, int index);

     pcmcia_scan_cis(struct device *dev,
         int (*func)(struct pcmcia_tuple *, void *), void *arg);

     The machine-independent PCMCIA subsystem provides support for PC-Card
     devices defined by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Asso-
     cation (PCMCIA).  The PCMCIA bus supports insertion and removal of cards
     while a system is powered-on (ie, dynamic reconfiguration).  The socket
     must be powered-off when a card is not present.  To the user, this
     appears as though the socket is "hot" during insertion and removal

     A PCMCIA controller interfaces the PCMCIA bus with the ISA or PCI busses
     on the host system.  The controller is responsible for detecting and
     enabling devices and for allocating and mapping resources such as memory
     and interrupts to devices on the PCMCIA bus.

     Each device has a table called the Card Information Structure (CIS) which
     contains configuration information.  The tuples in the CIS are used by
     the controller to uniquely identify the device.  Additional information
     may be present in the CIS, such as the ethernet MAC address, that can be
     accessed and used within a device driver.

     Devices on the PCMCIA bus are uniquely identified by a 32-bit manufac-
     turer ID and a 32-bit product ID.  Additionally, devices can perform mul-
     tiple functions (such as ethernet and modem) and these functions are
     identified by a function ID.

     PCMCIA devices do not support DMA, however memory on the device can be
     mapped into the address space of the host.

     Drivers attached to the PCMCIA bus will make use of the following data

     struct pcmcia_card
              Devices (cards) have their identity recorded in this structure.
              It contains the following members:

                      char            *cis1_info[4];
                      int32_t         manufacturer;
                      int32_t         product;
                      u_int16_t       error;
                      SIMPLEQ_HEAD(, pcmcia_function) pf_head;

     struct pcmcia_function
              Identifies the function of the devices.  A device can have mul-
              tiple functions.  Consider it an opaque type for identifying a
              particular function of a device.

     struct pcmcia_config_entry
              Contains information about the resources requested by the
              device.  It contains the following members:

                      int             number;
                      u_int32_t       flags;
                      int             iftype;
                      int             num_iospace;
                      u_long          iomask;
                      struct {
                              u_long  length;
                              u_long  start;
                      } iospace[4];
                      u_int16_t       irqmask;
                      int             num_memspace;
                      struct {
                              u_long  length;
                              u_long  cardaddr;
                              u_long  hostaddr;
                      }               memspace[2];
                      int             maxtwins;
                      SIMPLEQ_ENTRY(pcmcia_config_entry) cfe_list;

     struct pcmcia_tuple
              A handle for identifying an entry in the CIS.

     struct pcmcia_io_handle
              A handle for mapping and allocating I/O address spaces.  It con-
              tains the tag and handle for accessing the bus-space.

     struct pcmcia_mem_handle
              A handle for mapping and allocating memory address spaces.  It
              contains the tag and handle for accessing the bus-space.

     struct pcmcia_attach_args
              A structure used to inform the driver of the device properties.
              It contains the following members:

                      int32_t                 manufacturer;
                      int32_t                 product;
                      struct pcmcia_card      *card;
                      struct pcmcia_function  *pf;

     pcmcia_function_init(pf, cfe)
              Initialise the machine-independent PCMCIA state with the config
              entry cfe.

              Provide power to the socket containing the device specified by
              device function pf.

              Remove power from the socket containing the device specified by
              device function pf.

     pcmcia_io_alloc(pf, start, size, align, pciop)
              Request I/O space for device function pf at address start of
              size size.  Alignment is specified by align.  A handle for the
              I/O space is returned in pciop.

     pcmcia_io_free(pf, pcihp)
              Release I/O space with handle pcihp for device function pf.

     pcmcia_io_map(pf, width, offset, size, pcihp, windowp)
              Map device I/O for device function pf to the I/O space with han-
              dle pcihp.  An I/O window of size size is mapped at offset
              offset in the chipset I/O window.  The width of data access is
              specified by width.  Valid values for the width are:

              PCMCIA_WIDTH_AUTO  Use the largest I/O width reported by the

              PCMCIA_WIDTH_IO8   Force 8-bit I/O width.

              PCMCIA_WIDTH_IO16  Force 16-bit I/O width.

              A handle for the mapped I/O window is returned in windowp.

     pcmcia_io_unmap(pf, window)
              Unmap the I/O window window for device function pf.

     pcmcia_mem_alloc(pf, size, pcmhp)
              Request memory space for device function pf of size size.  A
              handle for the memory space is returned in pcmhp.

     pcmcia_mem_free(pf, pcmhp)
              Release memory space with handle pcmhp for device function pf.

     pcmcia_mem_map(pf, width, card_addr, size, pcmhp, offsetp, windowp)
              Map device memory for device function pf to the memory space
              with handle pcmhp.  The address of the device memory starts at
              card_addr and is size size.  The width of data access is speci-
              fied by width.  Valid values for the width are:

              PCMCIA_WIDTH_MEM8   Force 8-bit memory width.

              PCMCIA_WIDTH_MEM16  Force 16-bit memory width.

              A handle for the mapped memory window is returned in windowp and
              a bus-space offset into the memory window is returned in

     pcmcia_mem_unmap(pf, window)
              Unmap the memory window window for device function pf.

     pcmcia_intr_establish(pf, level, handler, arg)
              Establish an interrupt handler for device function pf.  The pri-
              ority of the interrupt is specified by level.  When the inter-
              rupt occurs the function handler is called with argument arg.
              The return value is a handle for the interrupt handler.
              pcmcia_intr_establish() returns an opaque handle to an event
              descriptor if it succeeds, and returns NULL on failure.

     pcmcia_intr_disestablish(pf, ih)
              Dis-establish the interrupt handler for device function pf with
              handle ih.  The handle was returned from

     pcmcia_cis_read_1(tuple, index)
              Read one byte from tuple tuple at index index in the CIS.

     pcmcia_cis_read_2(tuple, index)
              Read two bytes from tuple tuple at index index in the CIS.

     pcmcia_cis_read_3(tuple, index)
              Read three bytes from tuple tuple at index index in the CIS.

     pcmcia_cis_read_4(tuple, index)
              Read four bytes from tuple tuple at index index in the CIS.

     pcmcia_cis_read_n(tuple, number, index)
              Read n bytes from tuple tuple at index index in the CIS.

     pcmcia_scan_cis(dev, func, arg)
              Scan the CIS for device dev.  For each tuple in the CIS, func-
              tion func is called with the tuple and the argument arg.  func
              should return 0 if the tuple it was called with is the one it
              was looking for, or 1 otherwise.

     During autoconfiguration, a PCMCIA driver will receive a pointer to
     struct pcmcia_attach_args describing the device attached to the PCMCIA
     bus.  Drivers match the device using the manufacturer and product mem-

     During the driver attach step, drivers will use the pcmcia function pf.
     The driver should traverse the list of config entries searching for a
     useful configuration.  This config entry is passed to
     pcmcia_function_init() to initialise the machine-independent interface.
     I/O and memory resources should be initialised using pcmcia_io_alloc()
     and pcmcia_mem_alloc() using the specified resources in the config entry.
     These resources can then be mapped into processor bus space using
     pcmcia_io_map() and pcmcia_mem_map() respectively.  Upon successful allo-
     cation of resources, power can be applied to the device with
     pcmcia_function_enable() so that device-specific interrogation can be
     performed.  Finally, power should be removed from the device using

     Since PCMCIA devices support dynamic configuration, drivers should make
     use of powerhook_establish(9).  Power can be applied and the interrupt
     handler should be established through this interface.

     PCMCIA devices do not support DMA.

     This section describes places within the NetBSD source tree where actual
     code implementing or using the machine-independent PCMCIA subsystem can
     be found.  All pathnames are relative to /usr/src.

     The PCMCIA subsystem itself is implemented within the file
     sys/dev/pcmcia/pcmcia.c.  The database of known devices exists within the
     file sys/dev/pcmcia/pcmciadevs_data.h and is generated automatically from
     the file sys/dev/pcmcia/pcmciadevs.  New manufacturer and product identi-
     fiers should be added to this file.  The database can be regenerated
     using the Makefile sys/dev/pcmcia/Makefile.pcmciadevs.

     pcic(4), pcmcia(4), tcic(4), autoconf(9), bus_dma(9), bus_space(9),

     Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA), PC Card
     95 Standard, 1995.

     The machine-independent PCMCIA subsystem appeared in NetBSD 1.3.

BSD                              June 4, 2001                              BSD