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RSSADAPT(9)              BSD Kernel Developer's Manual             RSSADAPT(9)

     rssadapt, ieee80211_rssadapt_choose, ieee80211_rssadapt_input,
     ieee80211_rssadapt_lower_rate, ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate,
     ieee80211_rssadapt_updatestats -- rate adaptation based on received sig-
     nal strength

     #include <&lt;net80211/ieee80211_var.h>&gt;
     #include <&lt;net80211/ieee80211_rssadapt.h>&gt;

     ieee80211_rssadapt_input(struct ieee80211com *ic,
         st construct ieee80211_node *ni, struct ieee80211_rssadapt *ra,
         int rssi);

     ieee80211_rssadapt_lower_rate(struct ieee80211com *ic,
         const struct ieee80211_node *ni, struct ieee80211_rssadapt *ra,
         const struct ieee80211_rssdesc *id);

     ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate(struct ieee80211com *ic,
         struct ieee80211_rssadapt *ra, const struct ieee80211_rssdesc *id);

     ieee80211_rssadapt_updatestats(struct ieee80211_rssadapt *ra);

     ieee80211_rssadapt_choose(struct ieee80211_rssadapt *ra,
         const struct ieee80211_rateset *rs, const struct ieee80211_frame *wh,
         u_int len, int fixed_rate, const char *dvname, int do_not_adapt);

     The rssadapt module provides rapid adaptation of transmission data rate
     to 802.11 device drivers based on received-signal strength (RSS).  A
     driver needs only to provide rssadapt with indications of RSS and fail-
     ure/success of transmissions for each 802.11 client or peer.  For each
     transmit packet, rssadapt chooses the transmission data rate that offers
     the best expected throughput, given the packet's length and destination.

     rssadapt models an 802.11 channel very simply (see also the BUGS
     section).  It assumes that the packet-error rate (PER) is determined by
     the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) at the receiver, the transmission data
     rate, and the packet length.  The S/N determines the choice of data rate
     that yields the lowest PER for all packets of a certain length.

     ieee80211_rssadapt_choose(ra, rs, wh, len, fixed_rate, dvname,

             Choose the transmission data rate for a packet.

             ra            Ordinarily, the rssadapt state object belonging to
                           the node which is the packet destination.  However,
                           if the destination is a broadcast/multicast
                           address, then ra belongs to the BSS node,
             rs            A list of eligible data rates for the node; for
                           example, the rates negotiated when the node associ-
                           ated with the network.
             len           The packet length in bytes, including the 802.11
                           header and frame check sequence (FCS).
             fixed_rate    If the operator has set the data rate using, for
                           example, ifconfig wi0 media ds1, then fixed_rate
                           tells the index of that rate in rs.  rssadapt obeys
                           a fixed data rate whenever the 802.11 standard
                           allows it: sometimes the standard requires multi-
                           cast/broadcast packets to be transmitted at a so-
                           called ``basic rate''.
             dvname        The device driver uses dvname to indicate the name
                           of the interface for the purpose of diagnostic and
                           debug messages.  The driver sets dvname to NULL
                           when no messages are desired.
             do_not_adapt  If do_not_adapt is non-zero, then
                           ieee80211_rssadapt_choose() will choose the highest
                           rate in rs that suits the destination, regardless
                           of the RSS.
             The return value of ieee80211_rssadapt_choose() is an index into
             rs, indicating its choice of transmit data rate.

     ieee80211_rssadapt_input(ic, ni, ra, rssi)
             The RSS serves as a rough estimate of the S/N at each node.  A
             driver provides RSS updates using ieee80211_rssadapt_input(),
             whose arguments are:

             ic    The wireless interface's 802.11 state object.
             ni    The 802.11 node whose RSS the driver is updating.
             ra    The node's rssadapt state object.
             rssi  The node's received signal strength indication.  The range
                   of rssi is from 0 to 255.

     ieee80211_rssadapt_lower_rate(ic, ni, ra, id)
     ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate(ic, ra, id)
             Drivers call ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate() and
             ieee80211_rssadapt_lower_rate() to indicate transmit successes
             and failures, respectively.

             ic      The 802.11 state object.
             ni      The neighbor to whom the driver transmitted.
             ra      The neighbor's rssadapt state object.
             id      Displays statistics on the transmission attempt.

             An 802.11 node is eligible for its RSS thresholds to decay every
             1/10 to 10 seconds.  It is eligible more often (every 1/10 sec-
             ond) at high packet rates, and less often (every 10 seconds) at
             low packet rates.  A driver assists rssadapt in tracking the
             exponential-average packet rate by calling
             ieee80211_rssadapt_updatestats() every 1/10th second for each
             node's ieee80211_rssadapt object.

             ra      The neighbor's rssadapt state object.

     rssadapt monitors the RSS from neighboring 802.11 nodes, recording the
     exponential average RSS in each neighbor's ieee80211_rssadapt structure.
     rssadapt uses transmit success/failure feedback from the device driver to
     fill a table of RSS thresholds.  The table is indexed by packet size, L,
     and a data rate, R, to find out the minimum exponential-average RSS that
     a node must show before rssadapt will indicate that a packet L bytes long
     can be transmitted R bits per second with optimal expected throughput.

     When the driver indicates a unicast packet is transmitted unsuccessfully
     (that is, the NIC received no ACK for the packet), rssadapt will move the
     corresponding RSS threshold toward the exponential average RSSI at the
     time of transmission.  Thus several consecutive transmit failures for the
     same <L, R> tuple will ensure that the RSS threshold rises high enough
     that rate R is abandoned for packets L bytes long.  When the driver indi-
     cates a successful transmission, the RSS threshold corresponding to the
     same packet length, but the next higher data rate, is lowered slightly.
     The RSS threshold is said to ``decay''.  This ensures that occasionally
     rssadapt indicates the driver should try the next higher data rate, just
     in case conditions at the receiver have changed (for example, noise
     levels have fallen) and a higher data rate can be supported at the same
     RSS level.

     The rate of decay is controlled.  In an interval of 1/10th second to 10
     seconds, only one RSS threshold per neighbor may decay.  The interval is
     connected to the exponential-average rate that packets are being trans-
     mitted.  At high packet rates, the interval is shortest.  It is longest
     at low packet rates.  The rationale for this is that RSS thresholds
     should not decay rapidly if there is no information from packet transmis-
     sions to counteract their decay.

     An ieee80211_rssdesc describes a transmission attempt.

           struct ieee80211_rssdesc {
                   u_int                    id_len;
                   u_int                    id_rateidx;
                   struct ieee80211_node   *id_node;
                   u_int8_t                 id_rssi;

     id_len is the length, in bytes, of the transmitted packet.  id_node
     points to the neighbor's ieee8021_node, and id_rssi is the exponential-
     average RSS at the time the packet was transmitted.  id_rateidx is an
     index into the destination neighbor's rate-set, id_node-&gt;ni_rates, indi-
     cating the transmit data rate for the packet.

     ieee80211_rssadapt contains the rate-adaptation state for a neighboring
     802.11 node.  Ordinarily a driver will ``subclass'' ieee80211_node.  The
     ieee80211_rssadapt structure will be a subclass member.  In this way,
     every node's rssadapt condition is independently tracked and stored in
     its node object.

         struct ieee80211_rssadapt {
                 u_int16_t               ra_avg_rssi;
                 u_int32_t               ra_nfail;
                 u_int32_t               ra_nok;
                 u_int32_t               ra_pktrate;
                 u_int16_t               ra_rate_thresh[IEEE80211_RSSADAPT_BKTS]
                 struct timeval          ra_last_raise;
                 struct timeval          ra_raise_interval;

     ra_avg_rssi is the exponential-average RSS, shifted left 8 bits.
     ra_nfail indicates the number of transmit failures in the current update
     interval; ra_nok the number of transmit successes in the current update
     interval.  ra_pktrate indicates the exponential average number of trans-
     mit failure/success indications over past update intervals.  This approx-
     imates the rate of packet-transmission.  ra_rate_thresh contains RSS
     thresholds that are indexed by <packet length, data rate> tuples.  When
     this node's exponential-average RSS exceeds ra_rate_thresh[i][j], then
     packets at most 128 x 8^i bytes long are eligible to be transmitted at
     the rate indexed by j.

     ra_last_raise and ra_raise_interval are used to control the rate that RSS
     thresholds ``decay''.  ra_last_raise indicates when
     ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate() was last called and ra_raise_interval
     indicates the minimum period between consecutive calls to
     ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate().  If ieee80211_rssadapt_raise_rate() is
     called more than once in any period, the second and subsequent calls are

     This section describes places within the OpenBSD source tree where actual
     code implementing or using rssadapt can be found.  All pathnames are rel-
     ative to /usr/src.

     The code for rssadapt is in the file sys/net80211/ieee80211_rssadapt.c.

     ath(4) contains a reference implementation.  See sys/dev/ic/ath.c.

     ath(4), ieee80211(9)

     Javier del Prado Pavon and Sunghyun Choi, "Link Adaptation Strategy for
     IEEE 802.11 WLAN via Received Signal Strength Measurement", ICC'03, pp.
     1108-1113, Anchorage, Alaska, May 2003.

     rssadapt first appeared in NetBSD and was ported to OpenBSD by Todd C.
     Miller <millert@OpenBSD.org>

     David Young <dyoung@NetBSD.org>

     To cope with interference from microwave ovens, frequency-hopping radios,
     and other sources of RF pulse-trains and bursts, rssadapt should adapt
     the fragmentation threshold as well as the data rate.

     For improved throughput, rssadapt should indicate to drivers when they
     should use the 802.11b short-preamble.

     The constants in ieee80211_rssadapt_updatestats() should be configurable.

BSD                            February 16, 2015                           BSD