unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (HP-UX-11.11)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field



 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




 NAME
      glossary - a description of common HP-UX terms

 DESCRIPTION
      HP-UX and other UNIX-like systems use a specialized vocabulary in
      which certain words and terms have very specific meanings.  This
      glossary is intended as an aid in promoting exactness in use of these
      specialized terms whose meanings sometimes differ from those that
      might be encountered in other environments.

 GLOSSARY ENTRIES
      . (dot)	     A special file name that refers to the current
		     directory.	 It can be used alone or at the beginning of
		     a directory path name.  See also path name resolution.
		     The dot also functions as a special command in the
		     Bourne and Korn shells, and has special meaning in text
		     editors and formatters, in parsing regular expressions
		     and in designating file names.

      .. (dot-dot)   A special file name that refers to the parent
		     directory.	 If it begins a path name, dot-dot refers to
		     the parent of the current directory.  If it occurs in a
		     path name, dot-dot refers to the parent directory of
		     the directory preceding dot-dot in the path name
		     string.  As a special case, dot-dot refers to the
		     current directory in any directory that has no parent
		     (most often, the root directory).	See also path name
		     resolution.

      .o (dot-oh)    The suffix customarily given to a relocatable object
		     file.  The term dot-oh file is sometimes used to refer
		     to a relocatable object file.  The format of such files
		     is sometimes called dot-oh format.	 See a.out(4).

      a.out	     The name customarily given to an executable object code
		     file on HP-UX.  The format is machine-dependent, and is
		     described in a.out(4) for each implementation.  Object
		     code that is not yet linked has the same format, but is
		     referred to as a .o (dot-oh) file.	 a.out is also the
		     default output file name used by the linker, ld(1).

      absolute path name
		     A path name beginning with a slash (/).  It indicates
		     that the file's location is given relative to the root
		     directory (/), and that the search begins there.

      access	     The process of obtaining data from or placing data in
		     storage, or the right to use system resources.
		     Accessibility is governed by three process
		     characteristics: the effective user ID, the effective
		     group ID, and the group access list.  The access(2)



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     system call determines accessibility of a file
		     according to the bit pattern contained in its amode
		     parameter, which is constructed to read, write, execute
		     or check the existence of a file.	The access(2) system
		     call uses the real user ID instead of the effective
		     user ID and the real group ID instead of the effective
		     group ID.

      access groups  The group access list is a set of supplementary group
		     IDs used in determining resource accessibility.  Access
		     checks are performed as described below in file access
		     permissions.

      access mode    An access mode is a form of access permitted to a file.
		     Each implementation provides separate read, write, and
		     execute/search access modes.

      address	     A number used in information storage or retrieval to
		     specify and identify memory location.  An address is
		     used to mark, direct, indicate destination, instruct or
		     otherwise communicate with computer elements.

		     In mail, address is a data structure whose format can
		     be recognized by all elements involved in transmitting
		     information.  On a local system, this might be as
		     simple as the user's login name, while in a networked
		     system, address specifies the location of the resource
		     to the network software.

		     In a text editor (such as vi, ex, ed, or sed), an
		     address locates the line in a file on which a given
		     instruction is intended.

		     For adb, the address specifies at what assembly-
		     language instruction to execute a given command.

		     In disk utilities such as fsdb, address might refer to
		     a raw or block special file, the inode number, volume
		     header, or other file attribute.

		     In the context of peripheral devices, address refers to
		     a set of values that specify the location of an I/O
		     device to the computer.  The exact details of the
		     formation of an address differ between systems.  On
		     Series 700 systems, the address consists of up to two
		     elements: the select code, and the function number.

      address space  The range of memory locations to which a process can
		     refer.





 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 2 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      affiliation    See terminal affiliation.

      appropriate privileges
		     Each implementation provides a means of associating
		     privileges with a process for function calls and
		     function call options requiring special privileges.  In
		     the HP-UX system, appropriate privileges refers either
		     to superuser status or to a privilege associated with
		     privilege groups (see setprivgrp(1M)).

      archive	     A file comprised of the contents of other files, such
		     as a group of object files (that is, .o) used by the
		     linker, ld(1)).  An archive file is created and
		     maintained by ar(1) or similar programs, such as tar(1)
		     or cpio(1).  An archive is often called a library.

      ASCII	     An acronym for American Standard Code for Information
		     Interchange.  ASCII is the traditional System V coded
		     character set and defines 128 characters, including
		     both control characters and graphic characters, each of
		     which is represented by 7-bit binary values ranging
		     from 0 through 127 decimal.

      background process group
		     Any process group that is a member of a session which
		     has established a connection with a controlling
		     terminal that is not in the foreground process group.

      backup	     The process of making a copy of all or part of the file
		     system in order to preserve it, in case a system crash
		     occurs (usually due to a power failure, hardware error,
		     etc.).  This is a highly recommended practice.

      block	     (1) The fundamental unit of information HP-UX uses for
		     access and storage allocation on a mass storage medium.
		     The size of a block varies between implementations and
		     between file systems.  In order to present a more
		     uniform interface to the user, most system calls and
		     utilities use block to mean 512 bytes, independent of
		     the actual block size of the medium.  This is the
		     meaning of block unless otherwise specified in the
		     manual entry.

		     (2) On media such as 9-track tape that write variable
		     length strings of data, the size of those strings.
		     Block is often used to distinguish from record; a block
		     contains several records, whereas the number of records
		     denotes the blocking factor.

      block special file
		     A special file associated with a mass storage device



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 3 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     (such as a hard disk or tape cartridge drive) that
		     transfers data in multiple-byte blocks, rather than by
		     series of individual bytes (see character special
		     file).  Block special files can be mounted.  A block
		     special file provides access to the device where
		     hardware characteristics of the device are not visible.

      boot, boot-up  The process of loading, initializing, and running an
		     operating system.

      boot area	     A portion of a mass storage medium on which the volume
		     header and a ``bootstrap'' program used in booting the
		     operating system reside.  The boot area is reserved
		     exclusively for use by HP-UX.

      boot ROM	     A program residing in ROM (Read-Only Memory) that
		     executes each time the computer is powered up and is
		     designed to bring the computer to a desired state by
		     means of its own action.  The first few instructions of
		     a bootstrap program are sufficient to bring the
		     remainder of the program into the computer from an
		     input device and initiate functions necessary for
		     computation.  The function of the boot ROM is to run
		     tests on the computer's hardware, find all devices
		     accessible through the computer, and then load either a
		     specified operating system or the first operating
		     system found according to a specific search algorithm.

      bus address    A number which makes up part of the address HP-UX uses
		     to locate a particular device.  The bus address is
		     determined by a switch setting on a peripheral device
		     which allows the computer to distinguish between two
		     devices connected to the same interface.  A bus address
		     is sometimes called a ``device address''.

      character	     An element used for the organization, control, or
		     representation of text.  Characters include graphic
		     characters and control characters.

      character set  A set of characters used to communicate in a native or
		     computer language.

      character special file
		     A special file associated with I/O devices that
		     transfer data byte-by-byte.  Other byte-mode I/O
		     devices include printers, nine-track magnetic tape
		     drives, and disk drives when accessed in ``raw'' mode
		     (see raw disk).  A character special file has no
		     predefined structure.





 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 4 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      child process  A new process created by a pre-existing process via the
		     fork(2) system call.  The new process is thereafter
		     known to the pre-existing process as its child process.
		     The pre-existing process is the parent process of the
		     new process.  See parent process and fork.

      clock tick     A rate used within the system for scheduling and
		     accounting.  It consists of the number of intervals per
		     second as defined by CLK_TCK that is used to express
		     the value in type clock_t.	 CLK_TCK was previously
		     known as the defined constant HZ.

      coded character set
		     A set of unambiguous rules that establishes a character
		     set and the one-to-one relationship between each
		     character of the set and its corresponding bit
		     representation.  ASCII is a coded character set.

      collating element
		     The smallest entity used in collation to determine the
		     logical ordering of strings (that is, the collation
		     sequence).	 To accommodate native languages, a
		     collating element consists of either a single
		     character, or two or more characters collating as a
		     single entity.  The current value of the LANG
		     environment variable determines the current set of
		     collating elements.

      collation	     The logical ordering of strings in a predefined
		     sequence according to rules established by precedence.
		     These rules identify a collation sequence among the
		     collating elements and also govern the ordering of
		     strings consisting of multiple collating elements, to
		     accommodate native languages.

      collation sequence
		     The ordering sequence applied to collating elements
		     when they are sorted.  To accommodate native languages,
		     collation sequence can be thought of as the relative
		     order of collating elements as set by the current value
		     of the LANG environment variable.	Characters can be
		     omitted from the collation sequence, or two or more
		     collating elements can be given the same relative order
		     (see string(3C)).

      command	     A directive to perform a particular task.	HP-UX
		     commands are executed through a command interpreter
		     called a shell.  HP-UX supports several shells,
		     including the Bourne shell (sh-bourne(1)), the POSIX
		     shell (sh-posix(1)), the C shell (csh(1)), and the Korn
		     shell (ksh(1)).  See sh(1) for more information about



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 5 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     supported shells.	Most commands are carried out by an
		     executable file, called a utility, which might take the
		     form of a stand-alone unit of executable object code (a
		     program) or a file containing a list of other programs
		     to execute in a given order (a shell script).  Scripts
		     can contain references to other scripts, as well as to
		     object-code programs.  A typical command consists of
		     the utility name followed by arguments that are passed
		     to the utility.  For example, in the command, ``ls
		     mydirectory'', ``ls'' is the utility name and
		     ``mydirectory'' is an argument passed to the ``ls''
		     utility.

      command interpreter
		     A program which reads lines of text from standard input
		     (typed at the keyboard or read from a file), and
		     interprets them as requests to execute other programs.
		     A command interpreter for HP-UX is called a shell.	 See
		     sh(1) and related manual entries.

      Command Set 1980
		     See CS/80.

      composite graphic symbol
		     A graphic symbol consisting of a combination of two or
		     more other graphic symbols in a single character
		     position, such as a diacritical mark and a basic
		     letter.

      control character
		     A character other than a graphic character that affects
		     the recording, processing, transmission, or
		     interpretation of text.  In the ASCII character set,
		     control characters are those in the range 0 through 31,
		     and 127.  Control characters can be generated by
		     holding down the control key (which may be labeled
		     CTRL, CONTROL, or CNTL depending on your terminal), and
		     pressing a character key (as you would use SHIFT).
		     These two-key sequences are often written as, for
		     example, Control-D, Ctrl-D, or ^D, where ^ stands for
		     the control key.

      controlling process
		     The session leader that establishes the connection to
		     the controlling terminal.	Should the terminal
		     subsequently cease to be a controlling terminal for
		     this session, the session leader ceases to be the
		     controlling process.

      controlling terminal
		     A terminal that is associated with a session.  Each



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 6 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     session can have at most one controlling terminal
		     associated with it and a controlling terminal is
		     associated with exactly one session.  Certain input
		     sequences from the controlling terminal cause signals
		     to be sent to all processes in the foreground process
		     group associated with the controlling terminal.

      Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
		     See Epoch.

      CS/80, CS-80   A family of mass storage devices that communicate with
		     the controlling computer by means of a series of
		     commands and data transfer protocol referred to as the
		     CS/80 (Command Set 1980) command set.  This command set
		     was implemented in order to provide better
		     forward/backward compatibility between models and
		     generations of mass storage devices as technological
		     advances develop.	Some mass storage devices support
		     only a subset of the full CS/80 command set, and are
		     usually referred to as SS/80 (Subset 1980) devices.

      crash	     The unexpected shutdown of a program or system.  If the
		     operating system crashes, this is a ``system crash'',
		     and requires the system to be re-booted.

      current directory
		     See working directory.

      current working directory
		     See working directory.

      daemon	     A process which runs in the background, and which is
		     usually immune to termination instructions from a
		     terminal.	Its purpose is to perform various
		     scheduling, clean-up, and maintenance jobs.
		     lpsched(1M) is an example of a daemon.  It exists to
		     perform these functions for line printer jobs queued by
		     lp(1).  An example of a permanent daemon (that is, one
		     that should never die) is cron(1M).

      data encryption
		     A method for encoding information in order to protect
		     sensitive or proprietary data.  For example, HP-UX
		     automatically encrypts all users' passwords.  The
		     encryption method used by HP-UX converts ASCII text
		     into a base-64 representation using the alphabet ., /,
		     0-9, A-Z, a-z.  See passwd(4) for the numerical
		     equivalents associated with this alphabet.

      default search path
		     The sequence of directory prefixes that sh(1), time(1),



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 7 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     and other HP-UX commands apply in searching for a file
		     known by an relative path name (that is, a path name
		     not beginning with a slash (/)).  It is defined by the
		     environment variable PATH (see environ(5)).  login(1)
		     sets PATH equal to :/usr/bin, which means that your
		     working directory is the first directory searched,
		     followed by /usr/bin.  The search path can be redefined
		     by modifying the value of PATH.  This is usually done
		     in /etc/profile, and/or in the .profile file found in
		     the home directory.

      delta	     A term used in the Source Code Control System (SCCS) to
		     describe a unit of one or more textual changes to an
		     SCCS file.	 Each time an SCCS file is edited, changes
		     made to the file are stored separately as a delta.	 The
		     get(1) command is then used to specify which deltas are
		     to be applied to or excluded from the SCCS file, thus
		     yielding a particular version of the file.	 Contrast
		     this with the vi or ed editor, which incorporates
		     changes into the file immediately, eliminating any
		     possibility of obtaining a previous version of that
		     file.  A similar capability is provided by RCS files
		     (see rcsintro(5)).

      demon	     Improper spelling of the UNIX word daemon.

      device	     A computer peripheral or an object that appears to an
		     application as such.

      device address See bus address.

      device file    See special file.

      directory	     A file that provides the mapping between the names of
		     files and their contents, and is manipulated by the
		     operating system alone.  For every file name contained
		     in a directory, that directory contains a pointer to
		     the file's inode; The pointer is called a link.  A file
		     can have several links appearing anywhere on the same
		     file system.  Each user is free to create as many
		     directories as needed (using mkdir(1)), provided that
		     the parent directory of the new directory gives the
		     permission to do so.  Once a directory has been
		     created, it is ready to contain ordinary files and
		     other directories.	 An HP-UX directory is named and
		     behaves exactly like an ordinary file, with one
		     exception: no user (including the superuser) is allowed
		     to write data on the directory itself; this privilege
		     is reserved for the HP-UX operating system.





 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 8 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     By convention, a directory contains at least two links,
		     . and .., referred to as dot and dot-dot respectively.
		     Dot refers to the directory itself and dot-dot refers
		     to its parent directory.  A directory containing only .
		     and .. is considered empty.

      dot	     See .  (dot).

      dot-dot	     See ..  (dot-dot).

      dot-oh	     See .o (dot-oh).

      dot-oh file    See .o (dot-oh).

      dot-oh format  See .o (dot-oh).

      downshifting   The conversion of an uppercase character to its
		     lowercase representation.

      dynamic loader A routine invoked at process startup time that loads
		     shared libraries into a process' address space.  The
		     dynamic loader also resolves symbolic references
		     between a program and the shared libraries, and
		     initializes the shared libraries' linkage tables.	See
		     dld.sl(5) for details.

      effective group ID
		     Every process has an effective group ID that is used to
		     determine file access permissions.	 A process's
		     effective group ID is determined by the file (command)
		     that process is executing.	 If that file's set-group-ID
		     bit is set (located in the mode of the file, see mode),
		     the process's effective group ID is set equal to the
		     file's group ID.  This makes the process appear to
		     belong to the file's group, perhaps enabling the
		     process to access files that must be accessed in order
		     for the program to execute successfully.  If the file's
		     set-group-ID bit is not set, the process's effective
		     group ID is inherited from the process's parent.  The
		     setting of the process's effective group ID lasts only
		     as long as the program is being executed, after which
		     the process's effective group ID is set equal to its
		     real group ID.  See group, real group ID, and set-
		     group-ID bit.

      effective user ID
		     A process has an effective user ID that is used to
		     determine file access permissions (and other
		     permissions with respect to system calls, if the
		     effective user ID is 0, which means superuser).  A
		     process's effective user ID is determined by the file



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 9 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     (command) that process is executing.  If that file's
		     set-user-ID bit is set (located in the mode of the
		     file, see mode), the process's effective user ID is set
		     equal to the file's user ID.  This makes the process
		     appear to be the file's owner, enabling the process to
		     access files which must be accessed in order for the
		     program to execute successfully.  (Many HP-UX commands
		     which are owned by root, such as mkdir and mail, have
		     their set-user-ID bit set so other users can execute
		     these commands.) If the file's set-user-ID bit is not
		     set, the process's effective user ID is inherited from
		     that process's parent.  See real user ID and set-user-
		     ID bit.

      end-of-file (EOF)
		     (1) The data returned when attempting to read past the
		     logical end of a file via stdio(3S) routines.  In this
		     case, end-of-file is not properly a character.

		     (2) The ASCII character Ctrl-D.

		     (3) A character defined by stty(1) or ioctl(2) (see
		     termio(7)) to act as end-of-file on your terminal.
		     Usually this is Ctrl-D.

		     (4) The return value from read(2) that indicates end of
		     data.

      environment    The set of defined shell variables (such as EXINIT,
		     HOME, PATH, SHELL, TERM, and others) that define the
		     conditions under which user commands run.	These
		     conditions can include user terminal characteristics,
		     home directory, and default search path.  Each shell
		     variable setting in the current process is passed on to
		     all child processes that are created, provided that
		     each shell variable setting has been exported via the
		     export command (see sh(1)).  Unexported shell variable
		     settings are meaningful only to the current process,
		     and any child processes created get the default
		     settings of certain shell variables by executing
		     /etc/profile, $HOME/.profile, or $HOME/.login.

      EOF	     See end-of-file.

      Epoch	     The time period beginning at 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0
		     seconds, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on January 1,
		     1970.  Increments quantify the amount of time elapsed
		     from the Epoch to the referenced time.

		     Leap seconds, which occur at irregular intervals, are
		     not reflected in the count of seconds between the Epoch



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 10 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     and the referenced time.  (Fourteen leap seconds
		     occurred in the years 1970 through 1988.)

      FIFO special file
		     A type of file.  Data written to a FIFO is read on a
		     first-in-first-out basis.	Other characteristics are
		     described in open(2), read(2), write(2) and lseek(2).

      file	     A stream of bytes that can be written to and/or read
		     from.  A file has certain attributes, including
		     permissions and type.  File types include regular file,
		     character special file, block special file, FIFO
		     special file, network special file, directory, and
		     symbolic link.  Every file must have a file name that
		     enables the user (and many of the HP-UX commands) to
		     refer to the contents of the file.	 The system imposes
		     no particular structure on the contents of a file,
		     although some programs do.	 Files can be accessed
		     serially or randomly (indexed by byte offset).  The
		     interpretation of file contents and structure is up to
		     the programs that access the file.

      file access mode
		     A characteristic of an open file description that
		     determines whether the described file is open for
		     reading, writing, or both.	 (See open(2).)

      file access permissions
		     Every file in the file hierarchy has a set of access
		     permissions.  These permissions are used in determining
		     whether a process can perform a requested operation on
		     the file (such as opening a file for writing).  Access
		     permissions are established when a file is created via
		     the open(2) or creat(2) system calls, and can be
		     changed subsequently through the chmod(2) call.  These
		     permissions are read by stat(2) or fstat(2).

		     File access controls whether a file can be read,
		     written, or executed.  Directory files use the execute
		     permission to control whether or not the directory can
		     be searched.

		     File access permissions are interpreted by the system
		     as they apply to three different classes of users: the
		     owner of the file, the users in the file's group, and
		     anyone else (``other'').  Every file has an independent
		     set of access permissions for each of these classes.
		     When an access check is made, the system decides if
		     permission should be granted by checking the access
		     information applicable to the caller.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 11 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     Read, write, and execute/search permissions on a file
		     are granted to a process if any of the following
		     conditions are met:

			  +  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			  +  The process's effective user ID matches the
			     user ID of the owner of the file and the
			     appropriate access bit of the owner portion
			     (0700) of the file mode is set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     the user ID of the owner of the file, and
			     either the process's effective group ID matches
			     the group ID of the file, or the group ID of
			     the file is in the process's group access list,
			     and the appropriate access bit of the group
			     portion (070) of the file mode is set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     the user ID of the owner of the file, and the
			     process's effective group ID does not match the
			     group ID of the file, and the group ID of the
			     file is not in the process's group access list,
			     and the appropriate access bit of the ``other''
			     portion (07) of the file mode is set.

		     Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

      file descriptor
		     A small unique, per-process, nonnegative integer
		     identifier that is used to refer to a file opened for
		     reading and/or writing.  Each file descriptor refers to
		     exactly one open file description.

		     A file descriptor is obtained through system calls such
		     as creat(2), fcntl(2), open(2), pipe(2), or dup(2).
		     The file descriptor is used as an argument by calls
		     such as read(2), write(2), ioctl(2), and close(2).

		     The value of a file descriptor has a range from 0 to
		     one less than the system-defined maximum.	The system-
		     defined maximum is the value NOFILE in <&lt&lt&lt;sys/param.h>&gt&gt&gt;.

      file group class
		     A process is in the file group class of a file if the
		     process is not the file owner class and if the
		     effective group ID or one of the supplementary group
		     IDs of the process matches the group ID associated with
		     the file.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 12 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      file hierarchy The collection of one or more file systems available on
		     a system.	All files in these file systems are
		     organized in a single hierarchical structure in which
		     all of the nonterminal nodes are directories.  Because
		     multiple links can refer to the same file, the
		     directory is properly described as a directed graph.

      file name	     A string of up to 14 bytes (or 255 bytes on file
		     systems that support long file names) used to refer to
		     an ordinary file, special file, or directory.  The byte
		     values NUL (null) and slash (/) cannot be used as
		     characters in a file name.	 Note that it is generally
		     unwise to use *, ?, ,, [, or ] as part of file names
		     because the shell attaches special meaning to these
		     characters (see sh(1), csh(1), or ksh(1)).	 Avoid
		     beginning a file name with -, +, or =, because to some
		     programs, these characters signify that a command
		     argument follows.	A file name is sometimes called a
		     path name component.  Although permitted, it is
		     inadvisable to use characters that do not have a
		     printable graphic on the hardware you commonly use, or
		     that are likely to confuse your terminal.

      file name portability
		     File names should be constructed from the portable file
		     name character set because the use of other characters
		     can be confusing or ambiguous in certain contexts.

      file offset    The file offset specifies the position in the file
		     where the next I/O operation begins.  Each open file
		     description associated with either a regular file or
		     special file has a file offset.  There is no file
		     offset specified for a pipe or FIFO.

      file other class
		     A process is in the file other class if the process is
		     not in the file owner class or file group class.

      file owner class
		     A process is in the file owner class if the effective
		     user ID of the process matches the user ID of the file.

      file permission bits
		     See permission bits.

      file pointer   A data element obtained through any of the fopen(3S)
		     standard I/O library routines that ``points to''
		     (refers to) a file opened for reading and/or writing,
		     and which keeps track of where the next I/O operation
		     will take place in the file (in the form of a byte
		     offset relative to the beginning of the file).  After



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 13 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     obtaining the file pointer, it must thereafter be used
		     to refer to the open file when using any of the
		     standard I/O library routines.  (See stdio(3S) for a
		     list of these routines.)

      file serial number
		     A file-system-unique identifier for a given file, also
		     known as the file's inode number.	Each file serial
		     number identifies exactly one inode.  File serial
		     numbers are not necessarily unique across file systems
		     in the file hierarchy.

      file status flags
		     Part of an open file description.	These flags can be
		     used to modify the behavior of system calls that access
		     the file described by the open file description.

      file system    A collection of files and supporting data structures
		     residing on a mass storage volume.	 A file system
		     provides a name space for file serial numbers referring
		     to those files.  Refer to the System Administrator
		     manuals supplied with your system for details
		     concerning file system implementation and maintenance.

      file times update
		     Each file has three associated time values that are
		     updated when file data is accessed or modified, or when
		     the file status is changed.  These values are returned
		     in the file characteristics structure, as described in
		     <&lt&lt&lt;sys/stat.h>&gt&gt&gt;.  For each function in HP-UX that reads or
		     writes file data or changes the file status, the
		     appropriate time-related files are noted as ``marked-
		     for-update''.  When an update point occurs, any marked
		     fields are set to the current time and the update marks
		     are cleared.  One such update point occurs when the
		     file is no longer open for any process.  Updates are
		     not performed for files on read-only file systems.

      filter	     A command that reads data from the standard input,
		     performs a transformation on the data, and writes it to
		     the standard output.

      foreground process group
		     Each session that has established a connection with a
		     controlling terminal has exactly one process group of
		     the session as a foreground process group of that
		     controlling terminal.  The foreground process group has
		     certain privileges when accessing its controlling
		     terminal that are denied to background process groups.
		     See read(2) and write(2).




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 14 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      foreground process group ID
		     The process group ID of the foreground process group.

      fork	     An HP-UX system call (see fork(2)), which, when invoked
		     by an existing process, causes a new process to be
		     created.  The new process is called the child process;
		     the existing process is called the parent process.	 The
		     child process is created by making an exact copy of the
		     parent process.  The parent and child processes are
		     able to identify themselves by the value returned by
		     their corresponding fork call (see fork(2) for
		     details).

      function number
		     On Series 700 systems, when two or more interfaces
		     reside on a single interface card, each interface is
		     treated as a separate function and is assigned a
		     corresponding unique function number.

      graphic character
		     A character other than a control character that has a
		     visual representation when hand-written, printed, or
		     displayed.

      group	     See group ID.

      group ID	     Associates zero or more users who must all be permitted
		     to access the same set of files.  The members of a
		     group are defined in the files /etc/passwd and
		     /etc/logingroup (if it exists) via a numerical group ID
		     that must be between zero and UID_MAX, inclusive.
		     Users with identical group IDs are members of the same
		     group.  An ASCII group name is associated with each
		     group ID in the file /etc/group.  A group ID is also
		     associated with every file in the file hierarchy, and
		     the mode of each file contains a set of permission bits
		     that apply only to this group.  Thus, if you belong to
		     a group that is associated with a file, and if the
		     appropriate permissions are granted to your group in
		     the file's mode, you can access the file.	When the
		     identity of a group is associated with a process, a
		     group ID value is referred to as a real group ID, an
		     effective group ID, a supplementary group ID, or a
		     saved group ID.  See also privileged group and set-
		     group-ID bit.

      group access list
		     A set of supplementary group IDs used in determining
		     resource accessibility.  Access checks are performed as
		     described in file access permissions.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 15 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      hierarchical directory
		     A directory (or file system) structure in which each
		     directory can contain other directories as well as
		     files.

      home directory The directory name given by the value of the
		     environment variable HOME.	 When you first log in,
		     login(1) automatically sets HOME to your login
		     directory.	 You can change its value at any time.	This
		     is usually done in the .profile file contained in your
		     login directory.  Setting HOME does not affect your
		     login directory; it simply gives you a convenient way
		     of referring to what is probably your most commonly
		     used directory.

      host name	     An ASCII string of at most 8 characters (of which only
		     6 are supported by all the various manufacturers'
		     UNIX-like operating systems) which uniquely identifies
		     an HP-UX system on a uucp(1) network.  The host name
		     for your system can be viewed and/or set with the
		     hostname(1) command.  Systems without a defined host
		     name are described as ``unknown'' on the uucp(1)
		     network.  Do not confuse a host name with a node name,
		     which is a string that uniquely identifies an HP-UX
		     system on a Local Area Network (LAN).  Although your
		     host and node names may be identical, they are set and
		     used by totally different software.  See node name.

      image	     The current state of your computer (or your portion of
		     the computer, on a multiuser system) during the
		     execution of a command.  Often thought of as a
		     ``snapshot'' of the state of the machine at any
		     particular moment during execution.

      init	     A system process that performs initialization, is the
		     ancestor of every other process in the system, and is
		     used to start login processes.  init usually has a
		     process ID of 1.  See init(1M).

      interleave factor
		     A number that determines the order in which sectors on
		     a mass storage medium are accessed.  It can be
		     optimized to make data acquisition more efficient.

      inode	     An inode is a structure that describes a file and is
		     identified in the system by a file serial number.
		     Every file or directory has associated with it an
		     inode.  Permissions that specify who can access the
		     file and how are kept in a 9-bit field that is part of
		     the inode.	 The inode also contains the file size, the
		     user and group ID of the file, the number of links, and



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 16 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     pointers to the disk blocks where the file's contents
		     can be found.  Each connection between an inode and its
		     entry in one or more directories is called a link.

      inode number   See file serial number.

      Internal Terminal Emulator (ITE)
		     The ``device driver'' code contained in the HP-UX
		     kernel that is associated with the computer's built-in
		     keyboard and display or with a particular keyboard and
		     display connected to the computer, depending on the
		     Series and Model of system processor.  See system
		     console and the System Administrator manuals supplied
		     with your system for details.

      internationalization
		     The concept of providing software with the ability to
		     support the native language, local customs, and coded
		     character set of the user.

      interrupt signal
		     The signal sent by SIGINT (see signal(2)).	 This signal
		     generally terminates whatever program you are running.
		     The key which sends this signal can be redefined with
		     ioctl(2) or stty(1) (see termio(7)).  It is often the
		     ASCII DEL (rubout) character (the DEL key) or the BREAK
		     key.  Ctrl-C is often used instead.

      intrinsic	     See system call.

      I/O redirection
		     A mechanism provided by the HP-UX shell for changing
		     the source of data for standard input and/or the
		     destination of data for standard output and standard
		     error.  See sh(1).

      ITE	     See Internal Terminal Emulator.

      job control    Job control allows users to selectively stop (suspend)
		     execution of processes and continue (resume) their
		     execution at a later time.

		     The user employs this facility via the interactive
		     interface jointly supplied by the system terminal
		     driver and certain shells (see sh(1)).  The terminal
		     driver recognizes a user-defined ``suspend character'',
		     which causes the current foreground process group to
		     stop and the user's job control shell to resume.  The
		     job control shell provides commands that continue
		     stopped process groups in either the foreground or
		     background.  The terminal driver also stops a



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 17 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     background process group when any member of the
		     background process group attempts to read from or write
		     to the user's terminal.  This allows the user to finish
		     or suspend the foreground process group without
		     interruption and continue the stopped background
		     process group at a more convenient time.

		     See stty(1), sh(1), and related shell entries for usage
		     and installation details, and the shell entries plus
		     signal(2) and termio(7) for implementation details.

      kernel	     The HP-UX operating system.  The kernel is the
		     executable code responsible for managing the computer's
		     resources, such as allocating memory, creating
		     processes, and scheduling programs for execution.	The
		     kernel resides in RAM (random access memory) whenever
		     HP-UX is running.

      LANG	     An environment variable used to inform a computer
		     process of the user's requirements for native language,
		     local customs, and coded character set.

      library	     A file containing a set of subroutines and variables
		     that can be accessed by user programs.  Libraries can
		     be either archives or shared libraries.  For example,
		     /usr/lib/libc.a and /usr/lib/libc.sl are libraries
		     containings all functions of Section 2 and all
		     functions of Section 3 that are marked (3C) and (3S) in
		     the HP-UX Reference Manual.  Similarly, /usr/lib/libm.a
		     and /usr/lib/libm.sl are libraries containing all
		     functions in Section 3 that are marked (3M) in the HP-
		     UX Reference Manual.  See intro(2) and intro(3).

      LIF	     See Logical Interchange Format.

      line	     A sequence of text characters consisting of zero or
		     more nonnewline characters plus a terminating newline
		     character.

      link	     Link is a synonym for directory entry.  It is an object
		     that associates a file name with any type of file.	 The
		     information constituting a link includes the name of
		     the file and where the contents of that file can be
		     found on a mass storage medium.  One physical file can
		     have several links to it.	Several directory entries
		     can associate names with a given file.  If the links
		     appear in different directories, the file may or may
		     not have the same name in each.  However, if the links
		     appear in one directory, each link must have a unique
		     name in that directory.  Multiple links to directories
		     are not allowed (except as created by a user with



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 18 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     appropriate privileges).  See ln(1), link(2),
		     unlink(2), and symbolic link.

		     Also, to prepare a program for execution; see linker.

      link count     The number of directory entries that refer to a
		     particular file.

      linker	     A program that combines one or more object programs
		     into one program, searches libraries to resolve user
		     program references, and builds an executable file in
		     a.out format.  This executable file is ready to be
		     executed through the program loader, exec(2).  The
		     linker is invoked with the ld(1) command.	The linker
		     is often called a link editor.

      local customs  The conventions of a geographical area or territory for
		     such things as date, time and currency formats.

      localization   The process of adapting existing software to meet the
		     local language, customs, and character set requirements
		     of a particular geographical area.

      Logical Interchange Format (LIF)
		     A standard format for mass storage implemented on many
		     Hewlett-Packard computers to aid in media
		     transportability.	The lif*(1) commands are used to
		     perform various LIF functions.

      login	     The process of gaining access to HP-UX.  This consists
		     of successful execution of the login sequence defined
		     by login(1), which varies depending on the system
		     configuration.  It requests a login name and possibly
		     one or more passwords.

      login directory
		     The directory in which you are placed immediately after
		     you log in.  This directory is defined for each user in
		     the file /etc/passwd.  The shell variable HOME is set
		     automatically to your login directory by login(1)
		     immediately after you log in.  See home directory.

      magic number   The first word of an a.out-format or archive file.
		     This word contains the system ID, which states what
		     machine (hardware) the file will run on, and the file
		     type (executable, sharable executable, archive, etc.).

      major number   A number used exclusively to create special files that
		     enable I/O to or from specific devices.  This number
		     indicates which device driver to use for the device.
		     Refer to mknod(2) and the System Administrator manual



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 19 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     supplied with your system for details.

      message catalog
		     Program strings, such as program messages and prompts,
		     are stored in a message catalog corresponding to a
		     particular geographical area.  Retrieval of a string
		     from a message catalog is based on the value of the
		     user's LANG environment variable (see LANG).

      message queue identifier (msqid)
		     A unique positive integer created by a msgget(2) system
		     call.  Each msqid has a message queue and a data
		     structure associated with it.  The data structure is
		     referred to as msqid_ds and contains the following
		     members:

			  struct
			   ipc_perm msg_perm; /* operation permission */
			  ulong	  msg_qnum;   /* number of msgs on q */
			  ulong	  msg_qbytes; /* max number of bytes on q */
			  ulong	  msg_cbytes; /* current number of bytes on q */
			  ushort  msg_lspid;  /* pid of last msgsnd operation */
			  ushort  msg_lrpid;  /* pid of last msgrcv operation */
			  time_t  msg_stime;  /* last msgsnd time */
			  time_t  msg_rtime;  /* last msgrcv time */
			  time_t  msg_ctime;  /* last change time */
					      /* Times measured in secs since */
					      /* 00:00:00 GMT, Jan. 1, 1970 */

		     Message queue identifiers can be created using
		     ftok(3C).

		     msg_perm is a ipc_perm structure that specifies the
		     message operation permission (see below).	This
		     structure includes the following members:

			  ushort   cuid;     /* creator user id */
			  ushort   cgid;     /* creator group id */
			  ushort   uid;	     /* user id */
			  ushort   gid;	     /* group id */
			  ushort   mode;     /* r/w permission */

		     msg_qnum is the number of messages currently on the
		     queue.  msg_qbytes is the maximum number of bytes
		     allowed on the queue.  msg_lspid is the process id of
		     the last process that performed a msgsnd operation.
		     msg_lrpid is the process id of the last process that
		     performed a msgrcv operation.  msg_stime is the time of
		     the last msgsnd operation, msg_rtime is the time of the
		     last msgrcv operation, and msg_ctime is the time of the
		     last msgctl(2) operation that changed a member of the



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 20 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     above structure.

      message operation permissions
		     In the msgop(2) and msgctl(2) system call descriptions,
		     the permission required for an operation is indicated
		     for each operation.  Whether a particular process has
		     these permissions for an object is determined by the
		     object's permission mode bits as follows:

			  00400	    Read by user
			  00200	    Write by user
			  00060	    Read, Write by group
			  00006	    Read, Write by others

		     Read and Write permissions on a msqid are granted to a
		     process if one or more of the following are true:

			  +  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			  +  The process's effective user ID matches
			     msg_perm.[c]uid in the data structure
			     associated with msqid and the appropriate bit
			     of the ``user'' portion (0600) of msg_perm.mode
			     is set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     msg_perm.[c]uid and either the process's
			     effective group ID matches msg_perm.[c]gid or
			     one of msg_perm.[c]gid is in the process's
			     group access list and the appropriate bit of
			     the ``group'' portion (00060) of msg_perm.mode
			     is set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     msg_perm.[c]uid and the process's effective
			     group ID does not match msg_perm.[c]gid and
			     neither of msg_perm.[c]gid is in the process's
			     group access list and the appropriate bit of
			     the ``other'' portion (06) of msg_perm.mode is
			     set.

		     Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

      metacharacter  A character that has special meaning to the HP-UX
		     shell, as well as to commands such as ed, find, and
		     grep (see ed(1), find(1), and grep(1)).  The set of
		     metacharacters includes: !, ", &&amp&amp&amp;, ', *, ;, <&lt&lt&lt;, >&gt&gt&gt;, ?, [,
		     ], `, and |.  Refer to sh(1) and the related shell
		     manual entries for the meaning associated with each.
		     See also regular expression.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 21 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      minor number   A number that is an attribute of special files,
		     specified during their creation and used whenever they
		     are accessed, to enable I/O to or from specific
		     devices.  This number is passed to the device driver
		     and is used to select which device in a family of
		     devices is to be used, and possibly some operational
		     modes.  The exact format and meaning of the minor
		     number is both system and driver dependent.  Refer to
		     the System Administrator manuals supplied with your
		     system for details.

		     On Series 700 systems, a minor number indicates the
		     device address, function number, and driver-dependent
		     bits.  On Series 800 systems, a minor number is an
		     index into a table in the kernel.

      mode	     A 16-bit word associated with every file in the file
		     system, stored in the inode.  The least-significant 12
		     bits of the mode determine the read, write, and execute
		     permissions for the file owner, file group, and all
		     others, and contain the set-user-ID, set-group-ID, and
		     ``sticky'' (save text image after execution) bits.	 The
		     least-significant 12 bits can be set by the chmod(1)
		     command if you are the file's owner or the superuser.
		     The sticky bit on a regular file can only be set by the
		     superuser.	 These 12 bits are sometimes referred to as
		     permission bits.  The most-significant 4 bits specify
		     the file type for the associated file and are set as
		     the result of open(2) or mknod(2) system calls.

      mountable file system
		     A removable blocked file system contained on some mass
		     storage medium with its own root directory and an
		     independent hierarchy of directories and files.  See
		     block special file and mount(1M).

      msqid	     See message queue identifier.

      multiuser state
		     The condition of the HP-UX operating system in which
		     terminals (in addition to the system console) allow
		     communication between the system and its users.  By
		     convention, multiuser run level is set at state 2,
		     which is usually defined to contain all the terminal
		     processes and daemons needed in a multiuser
		     environment.  Run levels are table driven, and are
		     specified by init(1M), which sets the run level by
		     looking at the file /etc/inittab.	Do not confuse the
		     multiuser system with the multiuser state.	 A multiuser
		     system is a system which can have more than one user
		     actively communicating with the system when it is in



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 22 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     the multiuser state.  The multiuser state removes the
		     single-user restriction imposed by the single-user
		     state (see single-user state, inittab(4)).

      native language
		     A computer user's spoken or written language, such as
		     Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek,
		     Italian, Katakana, Korean, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish,
		     etc.

      Native Language Support (NLS)
		     A feature of HP-UX that provides the user with
		     internationalized software and the application
		     programmer with tools to develop this software.

      newline character
		     The character with an ASCII value of 10 (line feed)
		     used to separate lines of characters.  It is
		     represented by \n in the C language and in various
		     utilities.	 The terminal driver normally interprets a
		     carriage-return/line-feed sequence sent by a terminal
		     as a single newline character (but see tty(7) for full
		     details)

      NLS	     See Native Language Support.

      NLSPATH	     An environment variable used to indicate the search
		     path for message catalogs (see message catalog).

      node name	     A string of up to 31 characters, not including control
		     characters or spaces, that uniquely identifies a node
		     on a Local Area Network (LAN).  The node name for each
		     system is set by the npowerup command, which is one of
		     the commands supplied with optional LAN/9000 products.
		     Do not confuse a node name with a host name, which is a
		     string that uniquely identifies an HP-UX system on a
		     UUCP network.  Your node and host names can be
		     identical, but they are used and set by totally
		     different software.  See host name, LAN/9000 User's
		     Guide, and LAN/9000 Node Manager's Guide.

      nonspacing characters
		     Characters, such as a diacritical mark or accents, that
		     are used in combination with other characters to form
		     composite graphic symbols commonly found in non-English
		     languages.

      open file	     A file that is currently associated with a file
		     descriptor.





 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 23 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      open file description
		     A record of how a process or a group of processes is
		     accessing a file.	Each file descriptor refers to
		     exactly one open file description, but an open file
		     description can be referred to by more than one file
		     descriptor.  The file offset, file status flags, and
		     file access modes are attributes of an open file
		     description.

      ordinary file  A type of HP-UX file containing ASCII text (e.g.,
		     program source), binary data (e.g., executable code),
		     etc.  Ordinary files can be created by the user through
		     I/O redirection, editors, or HP-UX commands.

      orphan process A child process that is left behind when a parent
		     process terminates for any reason.	 The init process
		     (see init(1M)) inherits (that is, becomes the effective
		     parent of) all orphan processes.

      orphaned process group
		     A process group in which the parent of every member is
		     either itself a member of the group or is not a member
		     of the group's session.

      owner	     The owner of a file is usually the creator of that
		     file.  However, the ownership of a file can be changed
		     by the superuser or the current owner with the chown(1)
		     command or the chown(2) system call.  The file owner is
		     able to do whatever he wants with his files, including
		     remove them, copy them, move them, change their
		     contents, etc.  The owner can also change the files'
		     modes.

      parent directory
		     The directory one level above a directory in the file
		     hierarchy.	 All directories except the root directory
		     (/) have one (and only one) parent directory.  The root
		     directory has no parent.  See also dot and dot-dot.

      parent process Whenever a new process is created by a currently-
		     existing process (via fork(2)), the currently existing
		     process is said to be the parent process of the newly
		     created process.  Every process has exactly one parent
		     process (except the init process, see init), but each
		     process can create several new processes with the
		     fork(2) system call.  The parent process ID of any
		     process is the process ID of its creator.

      parent process ID
		     A new process is created by a currently active process.
		     The parent process ID of a process is the process ID of



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 24 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     its creator for the lifetime of the creator.  After the
		     creator's lifetime has ended, the parent process ID is
		     the process ID of init.

      password	     A string of ASCII characters used to verify the
		     identity of a user.  Passwords can be associated with
		     users and groups.	If a user has a password, it is
		     automatically encrypted and entered in the second field
		     of that user's line in the /etc/passwd file.  A user
		     can create or change his or her own password by using
		     the passwd(1) command.

      path name	     A sequence of directory names separated by slashes, and
		     ending with any file name.	 All file names except the
		     last in the sequence must be directories.	If a path
		     name begins with a slash (/), it is an absolute path
		     name; otherwise, it is a relative path name.  A path
		     name defines the path to be followed through the
		     hierarchical file system in order to find a particular
		     file.

		     More precisely, a path name is a null-terminated
		     character string constructed as follows:

			  <path-name>::=<file-name>|<path-prefix><file-name>|/
			  <path-prefix>::=<rtprefix>|/<rtprefix>
			  <rtprefix>::=<dirname>/|<rtprefix><dirname>/

		     where <file-name> is a string of one or more characters
		     other than the ASCII slash and null, and <dirname> is a
		     string of one or more characters (other than the ASCII
		     slash and null) that names a directory.  File and
		     directory names can consist of up to 14 characters on
		     systems supporting short file names and up to 255
		     characters on systems supporting long file names.

		     A slash (/) by itself names the root directory.  Two or
		     more slashes in succession (////...) are treated as a
		     single slash.

		     Unless specifically stated otherwise, the null or
		     zero-length path name is treated as though it named a
		     nonexistent file.

      path name resolution
		     The process that resolves a path name to a particular
		     file in a file hierarchy.	Multiple path names can
		     resolve to the same file, depending on whether
		     resolution is sought in absolute or relative terms (see
		     below).  Each file name in the path name is located in
		     the directory specified by its predecessor (for



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 25 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     example, in the path name fragment a/b, file b is
		     located in directory a).  Path name resolution fails if
		     this cannot be accomplished.

		     If the path name begins with a slash, the predecessor
		     of the first file name in the path name is understood
		     to be the root directory of the process, and the path
		     name is referred to as an absolute path name.  If the
		     path name does not begin with a slash, the predecessor
		     of the first file name of the path name is understood
		     to be the current working directory of the process, and
		     the path name is referred to as a relative path name.
		     A path name consisting of a single slash resolves to
		     the root directory of the process.

      path prefix    A path name with an optional ending slash that refers
		     to a directory.

      permission bits
		     The nine least-significant bits of a file's mode are
		     referred to as file permission bits.  These bits
		     determine read, write, and execute permissions for the
		     file's owner, the file's group, and all others.  The
		     bits are divided into three parts: owner, group and
		     other.  Each part is used with the corresponding file
		     class of processes.  The bits are contained in the file
		     mode, as described in stat(5).  The detailed usage of
		     the file permission bits in access decisions is
		     described in file access permissions.

      PIC	     See position-independent code.

      pipe	     An interprocess I/O channel used to pass data between
		     two processes.  It is commonly used by the shell to
		     transfer data from the standard output of one process
		     to the standard input of another.	On a command line, a
		     pipe is signaled by a vertical bar (|).  Output from
		     the command to the left of the vertical bar is
		     channeled directly into the standard input of the
		     command on the right.

      portable file name character set
		     The following set of graphical characters are portable
		     across conforming implementations of IEEE Standard
		     P1003.1:

			  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
			  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
			  01234567890._-





 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 26 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     The last three characters are the dot, underscore and
		     hyphen characters, respectively.  The hyphen should not
		     be used as the first character of a portable file name.

      position-independent code (PIC)
		     Object code that can run unmodified at any virtual
		     address.  Position-independent code can use PC-relative
		     addressing modes and/or linkage tables.  It is most
		     often used in shared libraries, in which case the
		     linkage tables are initialized by the dynamic loader.
		     Position-independent code is generated when the +z or
		     +Z compiler option is specified.

      privileged groups
		     A privileged group is a group that has had a setprivgrp
		     (see getprivgrp(2)) operation performed on it, giving
		     it access to some system calls otherwise reserved for
		     the superuser.  See appropriate privileges.

      process	     An invocation of a program, or the execution of an
		     image (see image).	 Although all commands and utilities
		     are executed within processes, not all commands or
		     utilities have a one-to-one correspondence with
		     processes.	 Some commands (such as cd) execute within a
		     process, but do not create any new processes.  Others
		     (such as in the case of ls | wc -l) create multiple
		     processes.	 Several processes can be running the same
		     program, but each can be different data and be in
		     different stages of execution.  A process can also be
		     thought of as an address space and single thread of
		     control that executes within that address space and its
		     required system resources.	 A process is created by
		     another process issuing the fork(2) function.  The
		     process that issues fork(2) is known as the parent
		     process and the new process created by the fork(2) as
		     the child process.

      process 1	     See init.

      process group  Each process in the system is a member of a process
		     group.  This grouping permits the signaling of related
		     processes.	 A newly created process joins the process
		     group of its creator.

      process group ID
		     Each process group in the system is uniquely identified
		     during its lifetime by a process group ID, a positive
		     integer less than or equal to PIC_MAX.  A process group
		     ID cannot be reused by the system until the process
		     group lifetime ends.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 27 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      process group leader
		     A process group leader is a process whose process ID is
		     the same as its process group ID.

      process group lifetime
		     A period of time that begins when a process group is
		     created and ends when the last remaining process in the
		     group leaves the group, either due to process
		     termination or by calling the setsid(2) or setpgid(2)
		     functions.

      process ID     Each active process in the system is uniquely
		     identified during its lifetime by a positive integer
		     less than or equal to PID_MAX called a process ID.	 A
		     process ID cannot be reused by the system until after
		     the process lifetime ends.	 In addition, if there
		     exists a process group whose process group ID is equal
		     to that process ID, the process ID cannot be reused by
		     the system until the process group lifetime ends.	A
		     process that is not a system process shall not have a
		     process ID of 1.

      process lifetime
		     After a process is created with a fork(2) function, it
		     is considered active.  Its thread of control and
		     address space exist until it terminates.  It then
		     enters an inactive state where certain resources may be
		     returned to the system, although some resources, such
		     as the process ID are still in use.  When another
		     process executes a wait(), wait3(), or waitpid()
		     function (see wait(2)) for an inactive process, the
		     remaining resources are returned to the system.  The
		     last resource to be returned to the system is the
		     process ID.  At this time, the lifetime of the process
		     ends.

      program	     A sequence of instructions to the computer in the form
		     of binary code (resulting from the compilation and
		     assembly of program source).

      prompt	     The characters displayed by the shell on the terminal
		     indicating that the system is ready for a command.	 The
		     prompt is usually a dollar sign ($) for ordinary users
		     (% in the C shell) and a pound sign (#) for the
		     superuser, but you can redefine it to be any string by
		     setting the appropriate shell variable (see sh(1) and
		     related entries).	See also secondary prompt.

      quit signal    The SIGQUIT signal (see signal(2).	 The quit signal is
		     generated by typing the character defined by the
		     teletype handler as your quit signal.  (See stty(1),



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 28 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     ioctl(2), and termio(7).) The default is the ASCII FS
		     character (ASCII value 28) generated by typing Ctrl-\.
		     This signal usually causes a running program to
		     terminate and generates a file containing the ``core
		     image'' of the terminated process.	 The core image is
		     useful for debugging purposes.  (Some systems do not
		     support core images, and on those systems no such file
		     is generated.)

      radix character
		     The character that separates the integer part of a
		     number from the fractional part.  For example, in
		     American usage, the radix character is a decimal point,
		     while in Europe, a comma is used.

      raw disk	     The name given to a disk for which there exists a
		     character special file that allows direct transmission
		     between the disk and the user's read or write buffer.
		     A single read or write call results in exactly one I/O
		     call.

      read-only file system
		     A characteristic of a file system that prevents file
		     system modifications.

      real group ID  A positive integer which is assigned to every user on
		     the system.  The association of a user and his or her
		     real group ID is done in the file /etc/passwd.  The
		     modifier ``real'' is used because a user can also have
		     an effective group ID.  The real group ID can then be
		     mapped to a group name in the file /etc/group, although
		     it need not be.  Thus, every user is a member of some
		     group (which can be nameless), even if that group has
		     only one member.

		     Every time a process creates a child process (via
		     fork(2)), that process has a real group ID equal to the
		     parent process's real group ID.  This is useful for
		     determining file access privileges within the process.

      real user ID   A positive integer which is assigned to every user on
		     the system.  A real user ID is assigned to every valid
		     login name in the file /etc/passwd.  The modifier
		     ``real'' is used because a user can also have an
		     effective user ID (see effective user ID).

		     Every time a process creates a child process (via
		     fork(2)), that process has a real user ID equal to the
		     parent process's real user ID.  This is useful for
		     determining file access privileges within the process.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 29 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      regular expression
		     A string of zero or more characters that selects text.
		     All the characters contained in the string might be
		     literal, meaning that the regular expression matches
		     itself only; or one or more of the characters might be
		     a metacharacter, meaning that a single regular
		     expression could match several literal strings.
		     Regular expressions are most often encountered in text
		     editors (such as ed(1), ex(1), or vi(1)), where
		     searches are performed for a specific piece of text, or
		     in commands that were created to search for a
		     particular string in a file (most notably grep(1)).
		     Regular expressions are also encountered in the shell,
		     especially when referring to file names on command
		     lines.

      regular file   A type of file that is a randomly accessible sequence
		     of bytes, with no further structure imposed by the
		     system.  Its size can be extended.	 A regular file is
		     also called an ordinary file.

      relative path name
		     A path name that does not begin with a slash (/).	It
		     indicates that a file's location is given relative to
		     your current working directory, and that the search
		     begins there (instead of at the root directory).  For
		     example, dir1/file2 searches for the directory dir1 in
		     your current working directory; then dir1 is searched
		     for the file file2.

      root directory (1) The highest level directory of the hierarchical
		     file system, from which all other files branch.  In
		     HP-UX, the slash (/) character refers to the root
		     directory.	 The root directory is the only directory in
		     the file system that is its own parent directory.

		     (2) Each process has associated with it a concept of a
		     root directory for the purpose of resolving path name
		     searches for those paths beginning with slash (/).	 A
		     process's root directory need not be the root directory
		     of the root file system, and can be changed by the
		     chroot(1M) command or chroot(2) system call.  Such a
		     directory appears to the process involved to be its own
		     parent directory.

      root volume    The mass storage volume which contains the boot area
		     (which contains the HP-UX kernel) and the root
		     directory of the HP-UX file system.

      saved group ID Every process has a saved group ID that retains the
		     process's effective group ID from the last successful



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 30 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     exec(2) or setresgid() (see setresuid(2)), or from the
		     last superuser call to setgid() (see setuid(2)) or
		     setresuid(2).  setgid() permits a process to set its
		     effective group ID to this remembered value.
		     Consequently, a process that executes a program with
		     the set-group-ID bit set and with a group ID of 5 (for
		     example) can set its effective group ID to 5 at any
		     time until the program terminates.	 See exec(2),
		     setuid(2), saved user ID, effective group ID, and set-
		     group-ID bit.  The saved group ID is also known as the
		     saved set-group-ID.

      saved process group ID
		     Every process has a saved process group ID that retains
		     the process's group ID from the last successful
		     exec(2).  See setpgrp(2), termio(7), and process group
		     ID.

      saved user ID  Every process has a saved user ID that retains the
		     process's effective user ID from the last successful
		     exec(2) or setresuid(2), or from the last superuser
		     call to setuid(2).	 setuid(2) permits a process to set
		     its effective user ID to this remembered value.
		     Consequently, a process which executes a program with
		     the set-user-ID bit set and with an owner ID of 5 (for
		     example) can set its effective user ID to 5 at any time
		     until the program terminates.  See exec(2), setuid(2),
		     saved group ID, effective user ID, and set-user-ID bit.
		     The saved user ID is also known as the saved set-user-
		     ID.

      saved set-group-ID
		     See saved group ID.

      saved set-user-ID
		     See saved user ID.

      SCCS	     See Source Code Control System.

      Source Code Control System (SCCS)
		     A set of HP-UX commands that enables you to store
		     changes to an SCCS file as separate ``units'' (called
		     deltas).  These units, each of which contains one or
		     more textual changes to the file, can then be applied
		     to or excluded from the SCCS file to obtain different
		     versions of the file.  The commands that make up SCCS
		     are admin(1), cdc(1), delta(1), get(1), prs(1),
		     rmdel(1), sact(1), sccsdiff(1), unget(1), val(1), and
		     what(1).





 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 31 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      SCCS file	     An ordinary text file that has been modified so the
		     Source Code Control System (SCCS) can be used with it.
		     This modification is done automatically by the admin(1)
		     command.  See also delta.

      secondary prompt
		     One or more characters that the shell prints on the
		     display, indicating that more input is needed.  This
		     prompt is not encountered nearly as frequently as the
		     shell's primary prompt (see prompt).  When it occurs,
		     it is usually caused by an omitted right quote on a
		     string (which confuses the shell), or when you enter a
		     shell programming language control-flow construct (such
		     as a for construct) from the command line.	 By default,
		     the shell's secondary prompt is the greater-than sign
		     (>&gt&gt&gt;), but you can re-define it by setting the shell
		     variable PS2 appropriately in your .profile file.	(The
		     C shell has no secondary prompt.)

      select code    On Series 700 systems, part of an address used for
		     devices.  Multiple peripherals connected to the same
		     interface card share the same select code.	 On Series
		     700 systems, select code consists of the bus and slot
		     numbers for a device, both of which are determined by
		     the particular I/O slot in which the I/O card resides.
		     All functions on a multifunction card share the same
		     select code.

      semaphore identifier (semid)
		     A unique positive integer created by a semget(2) system
		     call.  Each semid has a set of semaphores and a data
		     structure associated with it.  The data structure is
		     referred to as semid_ds and contains the following
		     members:

		     struct ipc_perm sem_perm; /* operation permission */
		     ushort sem_nsems;	       /* number of sems in set */
		     time_t sem_otime;	       /* last operation time */
		     time_t sem_ctime;	       /* last change time */
					       /* Times measured in secs since */
					       /* 00:00:00 GMT, Jan. 1, 1970 */

		     Semaphore identifiers can be created using ftok(3C).

		     sem_perm is a ipc_perm structure that specifies the
		     semaphore operation permission (see below).  This
		     structure includes the following members:

		     ushort  cuid;   /* creator user id */
		     ushort  cgid;   /* creator group id */
		     ushort  uid;    /* user id */



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 32 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     ushort  gid;    /* group id */
		     ushort  mode;   /* r/a permission */

		     The value of sem_nsems is equal to the number of
		     semaphores in the set.  Each semaphore in the set is
		     referenced by a positive integer referred to as a
		     sem_num.  sem_num values run sequentially from 0 to the
		     value of sem_nsems minus 1.  sem_otime is the time of
		     the last semop(2) operation, and sem_ctime is the time
		     of the last semctl(2) operation that changed a member
		     of the above structure.

		     A semaphore is a data structure that contains the
		     following members:

		     ushort semval;	 /* semaphore value */
		     short  sempid;	 /* pid of last operation  */
		     ushort semncnt;	 /* # awaiting semval >&gt&gt&gt; cval */
		     ushort semzcnt;	 /* # awaiting semval = 0 */

		     semval is a nonnegative integer.  sempid is equal to
		     the process ID of the last process that performed a
		     semaphore operation on this semaphore.  semncnt is a
		     count of the number of processes that are currently
		     suspended awaiting this semaphore's semval to become
		     greater than its current value.  semzcnt is a count of
		     the number of processes that are currently suspended
		     awaiting this semaphore's semval to become zero.

      semaphore operation permissions
		     In the semop(2) and semctl(2) system call descriptions,
		     the permission required for an operation is indicated
		     for each operation.  Whether a particular process has
		     these permissions for an object is determined by the
		     object's permission mode bits as follows:

			  00400	    Read by user
			  00200	    Alter by user
			  00060	    Read, Alter by group
			  00006	    Read, Alter by others

		     Read and Alter permissions on a semid are granted to a
		     process if one or more of the following are true:

			  +  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			  +  The process's effective user ID matches
			     sem_perm.[c]uid in the data structure
			     associated with semid and the appropriate bit
			     of the ``user'' portion (0600) of sem_perm.mode
			     is set.



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 33 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     sem_perm.[c]uid and the appropriate bit of the
			     ``group'' portion (060) of sem_perm.mode is
			     set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     sem_perm.[c]uid and the process's effective
			     group ID does not match sem_perm.[c]gid and
			     neither of sem_perm.[c]gid is in the process's
			     group access list and the appropriate bit of
			     the ``other'' portion (06) of sem_perm.mode is
			     set.

		     Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

      semid	     See semaphore identifier.

      session	     Each process group is a member of a session.  A process
		     is considered to be a member of the session of which
		     its process group is a member.  A newly created process
		     joins the session of its creator.	A process can alter
		     its session membership (see setsid(2)).  A session can
		     have multiple process groups (see setpgid(2)).

      session leader A process that has created a session (see setsid(2)).

      session lifetime
		     The period between when a session is created and the
		     end of the lifetime of all process groups that remain
		     as members of the session.

      set-group-ID bit
		     A single bit in the mode of every file in the file
		     system.  If a file is executed whose set-group-ID bit
		     is set, the effective group ID of the process which
		     executed the file is set equal to the real group ID of
		     the owner of the file.  See also group.

      set-user-ID bit
		     A single bit in the mode of every file in the file
		     system.  If a file is executed whose set-user-ID bit is
		     set, the effective user ID of the process that executed
		     the file is set equal to the real user ID of the owner
		     of the file.

      shared library An executable file that can be shared between several
		     different programs.  Code from a shared library is not
		     linked into the program by ld(1), but is instead mapped
		     into the process' address space at run time by the
		     dynamic loader.  Shared libraries must contain
		     position-independent code, and are created by ld(1).



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 34 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     They typically have the file name suffix .sl.

      shared memory identifier (shmid)
		     A unique positive integer created by a shmget(2) system
		     call.  Each shmid has a segment of memory (referred to
		     as a shared memory segment) and a data structure
		     associated with it.  The data structure is referred to
		     as shmid_ds and contains the following members:

		     struct
		      ipc_perm shm_perm;    /* operation permission struct */
		     int       shm_segsz;   /* size of segment */
		     ushort    shm_cpid;    /* creator pid */
		     ushort    shm_lpid;    /* pid of last operation */
		     uint      shm_nattch;  /* number of current attaches */
		     time_t    shm_atime;   /* last attach time */
		     time_t    shm_dtime;   /* last detach time */
		     time_t    shm_ctime;   /* last change time */
					    /* Times measured in secs since */
					    /* 00:00:00 GMT, Jan. 1, 1970 */

		     Shared memory identifiers can be created using
		     ftok(3C).

		     shm_perm is a ipc_perm structure that specifies the
		     permission for a shmop(2) or shmctl(2) operation (see
		     below).  This structure includes the following members:

		     ushort cuid;     /* creator user id */
		     ushort cgid;     /* creator group id */
		     ushort uid;      /* user id */
		     ushort gid;      /* group id */
		     ushort mode;     /* r/w permission */

		     shm_segsz specifies the size of the shared memory
		     segment.  shm_cpid is the process id of the process
		     that created the shared memory identifier.	 shm_lpid is
		     the process id of the last process that performed a
		     shmop(2) operation.  shm_nattch is the number of
		     processes that currently have this segment attached.
		     shm_atime is the time of the last shmat operation,
		     shm_dtime is the time of the last shmdt operation, and
		     shm_ctime is the time of the last shmctl(2) operation
		     that changed one of the members of the above structure.

      shared memory operation permissions
		     In the shmop(2) and shmctl(2) system call descriptions,
		     the permission required for an operation is indicated
		     for each operation.  Whether a particular process has
		     the permission to perform a shmop(2) or shmctl(2)
		     operation on an object is determined by the object's



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 35 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     permission mode bits as follows:

			  00400	    Read by user
			  00200	    Write by user
			  00060	    Read, Write by group
			  00006	    Read, Write by others

		     Read and Write permissions for a shmop(2) or shmctl(2)
		     operation on a shared memory identifier (shmid) are
		     granted to a process if one or more of the following
		     are true:

			  +  The process's effective user ID is superuser.

			  +  The process's effective user ID matches
			     shm_perm.[c]uid in the data structure
			     associated with the shmid and the appropriate
			     bit of the ``user'' portion (0600) of
			     shm_perm.mode is set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     shm_perm.[c]uid and either the process's
			     effective group ID matches shm_perm.[c]gid or
			     one of shm_perm.[c]gid is in the process's
			     group access list and the appropriate bit of
			     the ``group'' portion (060) of shm_perm.mode is
			     set.

			  +  The process's effective user ID does not match
			     shm_perm.[c]uid and the process's effective
			     group ID does not match shm_perm.[c]gid and
			     neither of shm_perm.[c]gid is in the process's
			     group access list and the appropriate bit of
			     the ``other'' portion (06) of shm_perm.mode is
			     set.

		     Otherwise, the corresponding permissions are denied.

      shell	     A user interface to the HP-UX operating system.  A
		     shell often functions as both a command interpreter and
		     an interpretive programming language.  A shell is
		     automatically invoked for every user who logs in.	See
		     sh(1) and its related manual entries plus the tutorials
		     supplied with your system for details.

      shell program  See shell script.

      shell script   A sequence of shell commands and shell programming
		     language constructs stored in a file and invoked as a
		     user command (program).  No compilation is needed prior
		     to execution because the shell recognizes the commands



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 36 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     and constructs that make up the shell programming
		     language.	A shell script is often called a shell
		     program or a command file.	 See the Shells User Guide.

      shmid	     See shared memory identifier.

      signal	     A software interrupt sent to a process, informing it of
		     special situations or events.  Also, the event itself.
		     See signal(2).

      single-user state
		     A condition of the HP-UX operating system in which the
		     system console provides the only communication
		     mechanism between the system and its user.	 By
		     convention, single-user state is usually specified by
		     init(1M) as run-level S or s.  Do not confuse single-
		     user state, in which the software is limiting a
		     multiuser system to a single-user communication, with a
		     single-user system, which can never communicate with
		     more than one fixed terminal.  See also multiuser
		     state.

      slash	     The literal character /.  A path name consisting of a
		     single slash resolves to the root directory of the
		     process.  See also path name resolution.

      solidus	     See slash.

      source code    The fundamental high-level information (program)
		     written in the syntax of a specified computer language.
		     Object (machine-language) code is derived from source
		     code.  When dealing with an HP-UX shell command
		     language, source code is input to the command language
		     interpreter.  The term shell script is synonymous with
		     this meaning.  When dealing with the C Language, source
		     code is input to the cc(1) command.  Source code can
		     also refer to a collection of sources meeting any of
		     the above conditions.

      special file   A file associated with an I/O device.  Often called a
		     device file.  Special files are read and written the
		     same as ordinary files, but requests to read or write
		     result in activation of the associated device.  Due to
		     convention and consistency, these files should always
		     reside in the /dev directory.  See also file.

      special processes
		     Processes with certain (small) process IDs are special.
		     On a typical system, the IDs of 0, 1, and 2 are
		     assigned as follows: Process 0 is the scheduler.
		     Process 1 is the initialization process init, and is



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 37 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     the ancestor of every other process in the system.	 It
		     is used to control the process structure.	On paging
		     systems with virtual memory, process 2 is the paging
		     daemon.

      SS/80	     See CS/80.

      standard error The destination of error and special messages from a
		     program, intended to be used for diagnostic messages.
		     The standard error output is often called stderr, and
		     is automatically opened for writing on file descriptor
		     2 for every command invoked.  By default, the user's
		     terminal is the destination of all data written to
		     stderr, but it can be redirected elsewhere.  Unlike
		     standard input and standard output, which are never
		     used for data transfer in the ``wrong'' direction,
		     standard error is occasionally read.  This is not
		     recommended practice, since I/O redirection is likely
		     to break a program doing this.

      standard input The source of input data for a program.  The standard
		     input file is often called stdin, and is automatically
		     opened for reading on file descriptor 0 for every
		     command invoked.  By default, the user's terminal is
		     the source of all data read from stdin, but it can be
		     redirected from another source.

      standard output
		     The destination of output data from a program.  The
		     standard output file is often called stdout, and is
		     automatically opened for writing on file descriptor 1
		     for every command invoked.	 By default, the user's
		     terminal is the destination of all data written to
		     stdout, but it can be redirected elsewhere.

      stderr	     See standard error.

      stdin	     See standard input.

      stdout	     See standard output.

      stream	     A term most often used in conjunction with the standard
		     I/O library routines documented in Section 3 of this
		     manual.  A stream is simply a file pointer (declared as
		     FILE *stream) returned by the fopen(3S) library
		     routines.	It may or may not have buffering associated
		     with it (by default, buffering is assigned, but this
		     can be modified with setbuf(3S)).

      sticky bit     A single bit in the mode of every file in the file
		     system.  If set on a regular file, the contents of the



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 38 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     file stay permanently in memory instead of being
		     swapped back out to disk when the file has finished
		     executing.	 Only superuser can set the sticky bit on a
		     regular file.  The sticky bit is read each time the
		     file is executed (via exec(2)).

		     If set on a directory, the files in that directory can
		     be removed or renamed only by the owner of the file,
		     the owner of the directory containing the file, or
		     superuser.	 See also chmod(2), rename(2), rmdir(2), and
		     unlink(2).

      subdirectory   A directory that is one or more levels lower in the
		     file system hierarchy than a given directory.
		     Sometimes called a subordinate directory.

      subordinate directory
		     See subdirectory.

      Subset 1980    See CS/80.

      superblock     A block on each file system's mass storage medium which
		     describes the file system.	 The contents of the
		     superblock vary between implementations.  Refer to the
		     System Administrator manuals supplied with your system,
		     and the appropriate fs(4) entry for details.

      superuser	     The HP-UX system administrator.  This user has access
		     to all files, and can perform privileged operations.
		     superuser has a real user ID and effective user ID of
		     0, and, by convention, the user name of root.

      superior directory
		     See parent directory.

      supplementary group ID
		     A process has up to NGROUPS_MAX supplementary group IDs
		     used in determining file access permissions, in
		     addition to the effective group ID.  The supplementary
		     group IDs of a process are set to the supplementary
		     group IDs of the parent process when the process is
		     created.

      symbolic link  A type of file that indirectly refers to a path name.
		     See symlink(4).

      system	     The HP-UX operating system.  See also kernel.

      system asynchronous I/O
		     A method of performing I/O whereby a process informs a
		     driver or subsystem that it wants to know when data has



 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 39 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     arrived or when it is possible to perform a write
		     request.  The driver or subsystem maintains a set of
		     buffers through which the process performs I/O.  See
		     ioctl(2), read(2), select(2), and write(2) for more
		     information.

      system call    An HP-UX operating system kernel function available to
		     the user through a high-level language (such as
		     FORTRAN, Pascal, or C).  Also called an ``intrinsic''
		     or a ``system intrinsic.'' The available system calls
		     are documented in Section 2 of the HP-UX Reference
		     Manual.

      system console A keyboard and display (or terminal) given a unique
		     status by HP-UX and associated with the special file
		     /dev/console.  All boot ROM error messages, HP-UX
		     system error messages, and certain system status
		     messages are sent to the system console.  Under certain
		     conditions (such as the single-user state), the system
		     console provides the only mechanism for communicating
		     with HP-UX.  See the System Administrator manuals and
		     user guides provided with your system for details on
		     configuration and use of the system console.

      system process A system process is a process that runs on behalf of
		     the system.  It may have special implementation-defined
		     characteristics.

      terminal	     A character special file that obeys the specifications
		     of termio(7).

      terminal affiliation
		     The process by which a process group leader establishes
		     an association between itself and a particular
		     terminal.	A terminal becomes affiliated with a process
		     group leader (and subsequently all processes created by
		     the process group leader, see terminal group) whenever
		     the process group leader executes (either directly or
		     indirectly) an open(2) or creat(2) system call to open
		     a terminal.  Then, if the process which is executing
		     open(2) or creat(2) is a process group leader, and if
		     that process group leader is not yet affiliated with a
		     terminal, and if the terminal being opened is not yet
		     affiliated with a process group, the affiliation is
		     established (however, see open(2) description of
		     O_NOCTTY).

		     An affiliated terminal keeps track of its process group
		     affiliation by storing the process group's process
		     group ID in an internal structure.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 40 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




		     Two benefits are realized by terminal affiliation.
		     First, all signals sent from the terminal are sent to
		     all processes in the terminal group.  Second, all
		     processes in the terminal group can perform I/O to/from
		     the generic terminal driver /dev/tty, which
		     automatically selects the affiliated terminal.

		     Terminal affiliation is broken with a terminal group
		     when the process group leader terminates, after which
		     the hangup signal is sent to all processes remaining in
		     the process group.	 Also, if a process (which is not a
		     process group leader) in the terminal group becomes a
		     process group leader via the setpgrp(2) system call,
		     its terminal affiliation is broken.

		     See process group, process group leader, terminal
		     group, and setpgrp(2).

      terminal device
		     See terminal.

      text file	     A file that contains characters organized into one or
		     more lines.  The lines cannot contain NUL characters,
		     and none can exceed LINE_MAX bytes in length including
		     the terminating newline character.	 Although neither
		     the kernel nor the C language implementation
		     distinguishes between text files and binary files (see
		     ANSI C Standard X3-159-19xx), many utilities behave
		     predictably only when operating on text files.

      tty	     Originally, an abbreviation for teletypewriter; now,
		     generally, a terminal.

      upshifting     The conversion of a lowercase character to its
		     uppercase representation.

      user ID	     Each system user is identified by an integer known as a
		     user ID, which is in the range of zero to UID_MAX,
		     inclusive.	 Depending on how the user is identified
		     with a process, a user ID value is referred to as a
		     real user ID, an effective user ID, or a saved user ID.

      UTC	     See Epoch.

      utility	     An executable file, which might contain executable
		     object code (that is, a program), or a list of commands
		     to execute in a given order (that is, a shell script).
		     You can write your own utilities, either as executable
		     programs or shell scripts (which are written in the
		     shell programming language).




 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 41 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 glossary(9)							 glossary(9)




      volume number  Part of an address used for devices.  A number whose
		     meaning is software- and device-dependent, but which is
		     often used to specify a particular volume on a
		     multivolume disk drive.  See the System Administrator
		     manuals supplied with your system for details.

      whitespace     One or more characters which, when displayed, cause a
		     movement of the cursor or print head, but do not result
		     in the display of any visible graphic.  The whitespace
		     characters in the ASCII code set are space, tab,
		     newline, form feed, carriage return, and vertical tab.
		     A particular command or routine might interpret some,
		     but not necessarily all, whitespace characters as
		     delimiting fields, words, or command options.

      working directory
		     Each process has associated with it the concept of a
		     current working directory.	 For a shell, this appears
		     as the directory in which you currently ``reside''.
		     This is the directory in which relative path name
		     (i.e., a path name that does not begin with /) searches
		     begin.  It is sometimes referred to as the current
		     directory, or the current working directory.

      zombie process The name given to a process which terminates for any
		     reason, but whose parent process has not yet waited for
		     it to terminate (via wait(2)).  The process which
		     terminated continues to occupy a slot in the process
		     table until its parent process waits for it.  Because
		     it has terminated, however, there is no other space
		     allocated to it either in user or kernel space.  It is
		     therefore a relatively harmless occurrence which will
		     rectify itself the next time its parent process waits.
		     The ps(1) command lists zombie processes as defunct.




















 Hewlett-Packard Company	   - 42 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000