xfs_repair(8) System Manager's Manual xfs_repair(8)
xfs_repair - repair an XFS filesystem
xfs_repair [ -nLvVd ] [ -o subopt[=value] ]
[-l logdev] [-r rtdev] xfs_special
xfs_repair -f [ -nLvVd ] [ -o subopt[=value] ]
[-l logfile] [-r rtfile] file
xfs_repair repairs corrupt or damaged XFS filesystems (see xfs(5)).
The filesystem is specified using the xfs_special argument which should
be the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the
filesystem. If given the name of a block device, xfs_repair will
attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block
device and will use the raw device instead.
Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise,
the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.
The options to xfs_repair are:
-f Specifies that the special device is actually a file (see the
mkfs.xfs -d file option). This might happen if an image copy of
a filesystem has been copied or written into an ordinary file.
This option implies that any external log or realtime section is
also in an ordinary file.
-L Force Log Zeroing. Forces xfs_repair to zero the log even if it
is dirty (contains metadata changes). When using this option
the filesystem will likely appear to be corrupt, and can cause
the loss of user files and/or data.
-l Specifies the device special file where the filesystem's exter-
nal log resides. Only for those filesystems which use an exter-
nal log. See the mkfs.xfs -l option, and refer to xfs(5) for a
detailed description of the XFS log.
-r Specifies the device special file where the filesystem's real-
time section resides. Only for those filesystems which use a
realtime section. See the mkfs.xfs -r option, and refer to
xfs(5) for a detailed description of the XFS realtime section.
-n No modify mode. Specifies that xfs_repair should not modify the
filesystem but should only scan the filesystem and indicate what
repairs would have been made.
-o Override what the program might conclude about the filesystem if
left to its own devices.
The assume_xfs suboption specifies that the filesystem is an XFS
filesystem. Normally, if xfs_repair cannot find an XFS
superblock, it checks to see if the filesystem is an EFS
filesystem before it tries to regenerate the XFS superblock. If
the assume_xfs option is in effect, xfs_repair will assume that
the filesystem is an XFS filesystem and will ignore an EFS
superblock if one is found.
-v Verbose output.
-d Repair dangerously. Allow xfs_repair to repair an XFS filesystem
mounted read only. This is typically done on a root fileystem
from single user mode, immediately followed by a reboot.
Inconsistencies corrected include the following:
1. Inode and inode blockmap (addressing) checks: bad magic number
in inode, bad magic numbers in inode blockmap blocks, extents
out of order, incorrect number of records in inode blockmap
blocks, blocks claimed that are not in a legal data area of the
filesystem, blocks that are claimed by more than one inode.
2. Inode allocation map checks: bad magic number in inode map
blocks, inode state as indicated by map (free or in-use) incon-
sistent with state indicated by the inode, inodes referenced by
the filesystem that do not appear in the inode allocation map,
inode allocation map referencing blocks that do not appear to
3. Size checks: number of blocks claimed by inode inconsistent with
inode size, directory size not block aligned, inode size not
consistent with inode format.
4. Directory checks: bad magic numbers in directory blocks, incor-
rect number of entries in a directory block, bad freespace
information in a directory leaf block, entry pointing to an
unallocated (free) or out of range inode, overlapping entries,
missing or incorrect dot and dotdot entries, entries out of
hashvalue order, incorrect internal directory pointers, direc-
tory type not consistent with inode format and size.
5. Pathname checks: files or directories not referenced by a path-
name starting from the filesystem root, illegal pathname compo-
6. Link count checks: link counts that do not agree with the number
of directory references to the inode.
7. Freemap checks: blocks claimed free by the freemap but also
claimed by an inode, blocks unclaimed by any inode but not
appearing in the freemap.
8. Super Block checks: total free block and/or free i-node count
incorrect, filesystem geometry inconsistent, secondary and pri-
mary superblocks contradictory.
Orphaned files and directories (allocated, in-use but unreferenced) are
reconnected by placing them in the lost+found directory. The name
assigned is the inode number.
xfs_repair aborts on most disk I/O errors. Therefore, if you are try-
ing to repair a filesystem that was damaged due to a disk drive fail-
ure, steps should be taken to ensure that all blocks in the filesystem
are readable and writeable before attempting to use xfs_repair to
repair the filesystem. A possible method is using dd(8) to copy the
data onto a good disk.
The directory lost+found does not have to already exist in the filesys-
tem being repaired. If the directory does not exist, it is automati-
cally created. If the lost+found directory already exists, the
lost+found directory is deleted and recreated every time xfs_repair
runs. This ensures that there are no name conflicts in lost+found.
However, if you rename a file in lost+found and leave it there, if
xfs_repair is run again, that file is renamed back to its inode number.
XFS has both primary and secondary superblocks. xfs_repair uses infor-
mation in the primary superblock to automatically find and validate the
primary superblock against the secondary superblocks before proceeding.
Should the primary be too corrupted to be useful in locating the sec-
ondary superblocks, the program scans the filesystem until it finds and
validates some secondary superblocks. At that point, it generates a
If quotas are in use, it is possible that xfs_repair will clear some or
all of the filesystem quota information. If so, the program issues a
warning just before it terminates. If all quota information is lost,
quotas are disabled and the program issues a warning to that effect.
Note that xfs_repair does not check the validity of quota limits. It
is recommended that you check the quota limit information manually
after xfs_repair. Also, space usage information is automatically
regenerated the next time the filesystem is mounted with quotas turned
on, so the next quota mount of the filesystem may take some time.
xfs_repair issues informative messages as it proceeds indicating what
it has found that is abnormal or any corrective action that it has
taken. Most of the messages are completely understandable only to
those who are knowledgeable about the structure of the filesystem.
Some of the more common messages are explained here. Note that the
language of the messages is slightly different if xfs_repair is run in
no-modify mode because the program is not changing anything on disk.
No-modify mode indicates what it would do to repair the filesystem if
run without the no-modify flag.
disconnected inode xxxx, moving to lost+found
An inode numbered xxxx was not connected to the filesystem
directory tree and was reconnected to the lost+found directory.
The inode is assigned the name of its inode number (i-number).
If a lost+found directory does not exist, it is automatically
disconnected dir inode xxxx, moving to lost+found
As above only the inode is a directory inode. If a directory
inode is attached to lost+found, all of its children (if any)
stay attached to the directory and therefore get automatically
reconnected when the directory is reconnected.
imap claims in-use inode xxxx is free, correcting imap
The inode allocation map thinks that inode xxxx is free whereas
examination of the inode indicates that the inode may be in use
(although it may be disconnected). The program updates the
inode allocation map.
imap claims free inode xxxx is in use, correcting imap
The inode allocation map thinks that inode xxxx is in use
whereas examination of the inode indicates that the inode is not
in use and therefore is free. The program updates the inode
resetting inode xxxx nlinks from x to y
The program detected a mismatch between the number of valid
directory entries referencing inode xxxx and the number of ref-
erences recorded in the inode and corrected the the number in
fork-type fork in ino xxxx claims used block yyyy
Inode xxxx claims a block yyyy that is used (claimed) by either
another inode or the filesystem itself for metadata storage.
The fork-type is either data or attr indicating whether the
problem lies in the portion of the inode that tracks regular
data or the portion of the inode that stores XFS attributes. If
the inode is a real-time (rt) inode, the message says so. Any
inode that claims blocks used by the filesystem is deleted. If
two or more inodes claim the same block, they are both deleted.
fork-type fork in ino xxxx claims dup extent ...
Inode xxxx claims a block in an extent known to be claimed more
than once. The offset in the inode, start and length of the
extent is given. The message is slightly different if the inode
is a real-time (rt) inode and the extent is therefore a real-
time (rt) extent.
inode xxxx - bad extent ...
An extent record in the blockmap of inode xxxx claims blocks
that are out of the legal range of the filesystem. The message
supplies the start, end, and file offset of the extent. The
message is slightly different if the extent is a real-time (rt)
bad fork-type fork in inode xxxx
There was something structurally wrong or inconsistent with the
data structures that map offsets to filesystem blocks.
cleared inode xxxx
There was something wrong with the inode that was uncorrectable
so the program freed the inode. This usually happens because
the inode claims blocks that are used by something else or the
inode itself is badly corrupted. Typically, this message is
preceded by one or more messages indicating why the inode needed
to be cleared.
bad attribute fork in inode xxxx, clearing attr fork
There was something wrong with the portion of the inode that
stores XFS attributes (the attribute fork) so the program reset
the attribute fork. As a result of this, all attributes on that
inode are lost.
correcting nextents for inode xxxx, was x - counted y
The program found that the number of extents used to store the
data in the inode is wrong and corrected the number. The mes-
sage refers to nextents if the count is wrong on the number of
extents used to store attribute information.
entry "name" in dir xxxx not consistent with .. value (yyyy) in dir
ino xxxx, junking entry "name" in directory inode xxxx
The entry "name" in directory inode xxxx references a directory
inode yyyy. However, the .. entry in directory yyyy does not
point back to directory xxxx, so the program deletes the entry
"name" in directory inode xxxx. If the directory inode yyyy
winds up becoming a disconnected inode as a result of this, it
is moved to lost+found later.
entry "name" in dir xxxx references already connected dir ino yyyy,
junking entry "name" in directory inode xxxx
The entry "name" in directory inode xxxx points to a directory
inode yyyy that is known to be a child of another directory.
Therefore, the entry is invalid and is deleted. This message
refers to an entry in a small directory. If this were a large
directory, the last phrase would read "will clear entry".
entry references free inode xxxx in directory yyyy, will clear entry
An entry in directory inode yyyy references an inode xxxx that
is known to be free. The entry is therefore invalid and is
deleted. This message refers to a large directory. If the
directory were small, the message would read "junking entry
xfs_repair -n (no modify node) will return a status of 1 if filesystem
corruption was detected and 0 if no filesystem corruption was detected.
xfs_repair run without the -n option will always return a status code
The filesystem to be checked and repaired must have been unmounted
cleanly using normal system administration procedures (the umount(8)
command or system shutdown), not as a result of a crash or system
reset. If the filesystem has not been unmounted cleanly, mount it and
unmount it cleanly before running xfs_repair.
xfs_repair does not do a thorough job on XFS extended attributes. The
structure of the attribute fork will be consistent, but only the con-
tents of attribute forks that will fit into an inode are checked. This
limitation will be fixed in the future.
The no-modify mode (-n option) is not completely accurate. It does not
catch inconsistencies in the freespace and inode maps, particularly
lost blocks or subtly corrupted maps (trees).
The no-modify mode can generate repeated warnings about the same prob-
lems because it cannot fix the problems as they are encountered.
dd(1), mkfs.xfs(8), umount(8), xfs_check(8), xfs(5).