TFTPD(8) System Manager's Manual TFTPD(8)
tftpd -- DARPA Internet Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
tftpd [-cdln] [-g group] [-p pathsep] [-s directory] [-u user]
tftpd is a server which supports the DARPA Trivial File Transfer
Protocol. The TFTP server operates at the port indicated in the `tftp'
service description; see services(5). The server is normally started by
The use of tftp(1) does not require an account or password on the remote
system. Due to the lack of authentication information, tftpd will allow
only publicly readable files to be accessed. Filenames beginning in
``../'' or containing ``/../'' are not allowed. Unless -c is used, files
may be written to only if they already exist and are publicly writable.
Note that this extends the concept of "public" to include all users on
all hosts that can be reached through the network; this may not be
appropriate on all systems, and its implications should be considered
before enabling tftp service. The server should have the user ID with
the lowest possible privilege.
Access to files may be restricted by invoking tftpd with a list of
directories by including up to 20 pathnames as server program arguments
in /etc/inetd.conf. In this case access is restricted to files whose
names are prefixed by the one of the given directories. The given
directories are also treated as a search path for relative filename
The options are:
-c Allow unrestricted creation of new files. Without this
flag, only existing publicly writable files can be
-d Enable verbose debugging messages to syslogd(8).
-g group Change gid to that of group on startup. If this isn't
specified, the gid is set to that of the user specified
-l Logs all requests using syslog(3).
-n Suppresses negative acknowledgement of requests for
nonexistent relative filenames.
-p pathsep All occurances of the single character pathsep (path
separator) in the requested filename are replaced with
-s directory tftpd will chroot(2) to directory on startup. This is
recommended for security reasons (so that files other than
those in the /tftpboot directory aren't accessible). If
the remote host passes the directory name as part of the
file name to transfer, you may have to create a symbolic
link from `tftpboot' to `.' under /tftpboot.
-u user Change uid to that of user on startup. If -u isn't given,
user defaults to ``nobody''. If -g isn't also given,
change the gid to that of user as well.
The TFTP Protocol (Revision 2), RFC, 1350, July 1992.
TFTP Option Extension, RFC, 2347, May 1998.
TFTP Blocksize Option, RFC, 2348, May 1998.
TFTP Timeout Interval and Transfer Size Options, RFC, 2349, May 1998.
The tftpd command appeared in 4.2BSD.
The -s flag appeared in NetBSD 1.0.
The -g and -u flags appeared in NetBSD 1.4.
IPv6 support was implemented by WIDE/KAME project in 1999.
TFTP options were implemented by Wasabi Systems, Inc., in 2003, and first
appeared in NetBSD 2.0.
Files larger than 33,553,919 octets (65535 blocks, last one less than 512
octets) cannot be correctly transferred without client and server
supporting blocksize negotiation (RFCs 2347 and 2348). As a kludge,
tftpd accepts a sequence of block numbers which wrap to zero after 65535.
Many tftp clients will not transfer files over 16,776,703 octets (32767
blocks), as they incorrectly count the block number using a signed rather
than unsigned 16-bit integer.
You are strongly advised to set up tftpd using the -s flag in conjunction
with the name of the directory that contains the files that tftpd will
serve to remote hosts (e.g., /tftpboot). This ensures that only the
files that should be served to remote hosts can be accessed by them.
Because there is no user-login or validation within the TFTP protocol,
the remote site will probably have some sort of file-access restrictions
in place. The exact methods are specific to each site and therefore
difficult to document here.
If unrestricted file upload is enabled via the -c option, care should be
taken that this can be used to fill up disk space in an uncontrolled
manner if this is used in an insecure environment.
NetBSD 6.1.5 April 22, 2010 NetBSD 6.1.5