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SETKEY(8)                 BSD System Manager's Manual                SETKEY(8)

NAME
     setkey -- manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

SYNOPSIS
     setkey [-v] file ...
     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

DESCRIPTION
     setkey adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database
     (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the
     kernel.

     setkey takes a series of operations from the standard input (if invoked
     with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f filename).

     (no flag)
             Dump the SAD entries or SPD entries contained in the specified
             file.

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D.  If
             with -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.  A dead
             SAD entry means that it has been expired but remains in the sys-
             tem because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h      Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
             socket, including messages sent from other processes to the ker-
             nel.

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
             socket.  -xx makes each timestamps unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configu-
     ration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs ('#') are treated as com-
     ment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
             Add an SAD entry.  add can fail with multiple reasons, including
             when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
             Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
             Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
             Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
             Add an SPD entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
             Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
             Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same
             functionality.

     spddump ;
             Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same
             functionality.

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     src
     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
             IPv4/v6 address.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into numeric
             addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey
             will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying
             all possible combinations.  -4, -6 and -n restricts the address
             resolution of FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results
             into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids FQDN reso-
             lution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

     protocol
             protocol is one of following:
             esp         ESP based on rfc2406
             esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
             ah          AH based on rfc2402
             ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
             ipcomp      IPComp

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
             be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with ``0x'' prefix.
             SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
             and they cannot be used.

     extensions
             take some of the following:
             -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                         one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The
                         default value is any.
             -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                         size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
                         is zero or not specified, replay check don't take
                         place.
             -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
                         See policy.
             -f pad_option
                         defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                         is one of following:
                         zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
                         random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
                         seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                     started from 1 are set.
             -f nocyclic-seq
                         Don't allow cyclic sequence number.
             -lh time
             -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.

     algorithm
             -E ealgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
             -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                         payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
             -A aalgo key
                         Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
             -C calgo [-R]
                         Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
                         specified, spi field value will be used as the IPComp
                         CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as is.  If
                         -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
                         CPI on wire, and spi field will be used only as an
                         index for kernel internal usage.

             key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hexa-
             decimal digits preceded by ``0x''.

             Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in sepa-
             rate section.

     src_range
     dst_range
             These are selections of the secure communication specified as
             IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
             TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:

             address
             address/prefixlen
             address[port]
             address/prefixlen[port]

             prefixlen and port must be decimal number.  The square bracket
             around port is really necessary.  They are not manpage metachar-
             acters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst
             apply here as well.

     upperspec
             Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of words in
             /etc/protocols as upperspec.  Or icmp6, ip4, and any can be spec-
             ified.  any stands for ``any protocol''.  Also you can use the
             protocol number.

             NOTE: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this
             moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node (not
             implemented at this moment).  We have many protocols in
             /etc/protocols, but protocols except of TCP, UDP and ICMP may not
             be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider and be care-
             ful to use them.

     policy  policy is the one of the following three formats:

           -P direction discard
           -P direction none
           -P direction ipsec
                   protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

             You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.
             Either out or in are used.  discard means the packet matching
             indexes will be discarded.  none means that IPsec operation will
             not take place onto the packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation
             will take place onto the packet.  The part of
             protocol/mode/src-dst/level specifies the rule how to process the
             packet.  Either ah, esp or ipcomp is to be set as protocol.  mode
             is either transport or tunnel.  If mode is tunnel, you must spec-
             ify the end-points addresses of the SA as src and dst with '-'
             between these addresses which is used to specify the SA to use.
             If mode is transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  level is
             to be one of the following: default, use, require or unique.  If
             the SA is not available in every level, the kernel will request
             getting SA to the key exchange daemon.  default means the kernel
             consults to the system wide default against protocol you speci-
             fied, e.g.  esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel
             processes the packet.  use means that the kernel use a SA if it's
             available, otherwise the kernel keeps normal operation.  require
             means SA is required whenever the kernel sends a packet matched
             with the policy.  unique is the same to require, in addition, it
             allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound SA.  You just
             specify the policy level unique, racoon(8) will configure the SA
             for the policy.  If you configure the SA by manual keying for
             that policy, you can put the decimal number as the policy identi-
             fier after unique separated by colon ':' like the following;
             unique:number.  in order to bind this policy to the SA.  number
             must be between 1 and 32767.  It corresponds to extensions -u of
             the manual SA configuration.  When you want to use SA bundle, you
             can define multiple rules.  For example, if an IP header was fol-
             lowed by AH header followed by ESP header followed by an upper
             layer protocol header, the rule would be:
                   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
             The rule order is very important.

             Note that ``discard'' and ``none'' are not in the syntax
             described in ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are little differences
             in the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

   Algorithms
     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  Followings are the list of authentica-
     tion algorithms that can be used as aalgo in -A aalgo of protocol parame-
     ter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                           128             ah-old: rfc2085
           hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           128             ah-old: rfc1828
           keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           null            0 to 2048       for debugging
           hmac-sha2-256   256             ah: 96bit ICV
                                           (draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-sha-256-00)
                           256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-384   384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-512   512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                           ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                           128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)

     Followings are the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     ealgo in -E ealgo of protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
           3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
           null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
           blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
           cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
           des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
           3des-deriv      192             no document
           rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-cbc-01
           aes-ctr         160/224/288     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES
     key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     Followings are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     calgo in -C calgo of protocol parameter:

           algorithm
           deflate         rfc2394

EXIT STATUS
     The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.

EXAMPLES
     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 myhost.example.com yourhost.example.com ah 123456
             -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add 10.0.11.41 10.0.11.33 esp 0x10001
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
             -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd 10.0.11.41/32[21] 10.0.11.33/32[any] any
             -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/192.168.0.1-192.168.1.2/require ;


SEE ALSO
     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999,
     http://www.kame.net/newsletter/19991007/.

HISTORY
     The setkey command first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The command was completely re-designed in June 1998.

BUGS
     setkey should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets
     (cannot inspect upper-layer headers).

BSD                            October 21, 2003                            BSD