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SENDMAIL(8)                 System Manager's Manual                SENDMAIL(8)



NAME
       sendmail - send mail over the internet

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/lib/sendmail [ -ba ] [ -bd ] [ -bi ] [ -bm ] [ -bp ] [ -bs ]
            [ -bt ] [ -bv ] [ -bz ] [ -Cfile ] [ -dX ]
            [ -Ffullname ] [ -fname ] [ -hN ] [ -n ] [ -ox value ]
            [ -q[ time ] ] [ -rname ] [ -Rstring ] [ -t ] [ -v ] [ address ...
       ]

DESCRIPTION
       sendmail sends a message to one or more  people,  routing  the  message
       over  whatever networks are necessary.  sendmail does internetwork for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       sendmail is not intended as a user interface  routine;  other  programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to  an  EOF,  or  a
       line  with  a  single dot and sends a copy of the letter found there to
       all of the addresses listed.  It determines the network to use based on
       the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in the local aliases(5) file, or by using
       the Network Information Service (NIS), and aliased  appropriately.   In
       addition, if there is a .forward file in a recipient's  home directory,
       sendmail forwards a copy of each message to the list of recipients that
       file contains.  Aliasing can be prevented by preceding the address with
       a backslash.  Normally the sender is not included in alias  expansions,
       for example, if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in
       the expansion, then the letter will not be delivered to `john'.

       sendmail will also route mail directly to other known hosts in a  local
       network.   The  list  of  hosts to which mail is directly sent is main-
       tained in the file /usr/lib/mailhosts.

OPTIONS
       -ba            Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end  with  a
                      LINEFEED,  and all messages will be generated with a CR-
                      LF at the end.   Also,  the  ``From:''  and  ``Sender:''
                      fields are examined for the name of the sender.

       -bd            Run as a daemon, waiting for incoming SMTP connections.

       -bi            Initialize the alias database.

       -bm            Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp            Print a summary of the mail queue.

       -bs            Use  the  SMTP  protocol  as described in RFC 821.  This
                      flag implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are
                      compatible with SMTP.

       -bt            Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses and
                      shows the steps in parsing; it  is  used  for  debugging
                      configuration tables.

       -bv            Verify  names only -- do not try to collect or deliver a
                      message.  Verify mode is normally  used  for  validating
                      users or mailing lists.

       -bz            Create the configuration freeze file.

       -Cfile         Use alternate configuration file.

       -dX            Set debugging value to X.

       -Ffullname     Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname         Sets  the  name  of  the  ``from''  person (that is, the
                      sender of the mail).  -f can only be used by ``trusted''
                      users (who are listed in the config file).

       -hN            Set  the  hop  count to N.  The hop count is incremented
                      every time the mail is processed.   When  it  reaches  a
                      limit,  the  mail is returned with an error message, the
                      victim of an aliasing loop.

       -Mid           Attempt to deliver the queued  message  with  message-id
                      id.

       -n             Do not do aliasing.

       -oxvalue       Set  option  x  to  the  specified  value.   Options are
                      described below.

       -q[time]       Processed saved messages in the queue  at  given  inter-
                      vals.  If time is omitted, process the queue once.  time
                      is given as a tagged number, with  s  being  seconds,  m
                      being  minutes, h being hours, d being days, and w being
                      weeks.  For example, -q1h30m or -q90m would both set the
                      timeout to one hour thirty minutes.

       -rname         An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -Rstring       Go  through  the  queue  of  pending mail and attempt to
                      deliver any message  with  a  recipient  containing  the
                      specified  string.  This is useful for clearing out mail
                      directed to a machine which has been down for awhile.

       -t             Read message  for  recipients.   ``To:'',  ``Cc:'',  and
                      ``Bcc:''  lines  will  be scanned for people to send to.
                      The ``Bcc:'' line will be deleted  before  transmission.
                      Any addresses in the argument list will be suppressed.

       -v             Go   into   verbose  mode.   Alias  expansions  will  be
                      announced, etc.

PROCESSING OPTIONS
       There are also a number of processing options that may  be  set.   Nor-
       mally  these  will only be used by a system administrator.  Options may
       be set either on the command line using the -o flag or in the  configu-
       ration  file.   These  are  described in detail in the Installation and
       Operation Guide.  The options are:

       Afile  Use alternate alias file.

       c      On mailers that are considered ``expensive'' to connect  to,  do
              not initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       dx     Set  the  delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are i for interac-
              tive (synchronous) delivery,  b  for  background  (asynchronous)
              delivery,  and  q  for queue only -- that is, actual delivery is
              done the next time the queue is run.

       D      Run newaliases(8) to automatically rebuild the  alias  database,
              if necessary.

       ex     Set  error processing to mode x.  Valid modes are m to mail back
              the error message, w to ``write'' back  the  error  message  (or
              mail  it  back  if  the sender is not logged in), p to print the
              errors on the terminal (default), `q' to throw away  error  mes-
              sages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to do special pro-
              cessing for the BerkNet.  If the text  of  the  message  is  not
              mailed  back  by modes m or w and if the sender is local to this
              machine, a copy of the message is appended to the file dead.let-
              ter in the sender's home directory.

       Fmode  The mode to use when creating temporary files.

       f      Save UNIX-system-style ``From'' lines at the front of messages.

       gN     The default group ID to use when calling mailers.

       Hfile  The SMTP help file.

       i      Do  not  take dots on a line by themselves as a message termina-
              tor.

       Ln     The log level.

       m      Send to ``me'' (the sender) also if I am in an alias expansion.

       o      If set, this message may have old style headers.   If  not  set,
              this  message  is guaranteed to have new style headers (that is,
              commas instead of spaces between addresses).  If set,  an  adap-
              tive  algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header
              format in most cases.

       Qqueuedir
              Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       rtimeout
              The timeout on reads; if none is set, sendmail will wait forever
              for a mailer.

       Sfile  Save statistics in the named file.

       s      Always  instantiate  the  queue  file,  even under circumstances
              where it is not strictly necessary.

       Ttime  Set the timeout on messages in the queue to the specified  time.
              After sitting in the queue for this amount of time, they will be
              returned to the sender.  The default is three days.

       tstz,dtz
              Set the name of the time zone.

       uN     Set the default user id for mailers.

       If the first character of the user name is a vertical bar, the rest  of
       the user name is used as the name of a program to pipe the mail to.  It
       may be necessary to quote the name of the user to  keep  sendmail  from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.

       sendmail  returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are
       defined in sysexits.h
          EX_OK            Successful completion on all addresses.
          EX_NOUSER        User name not recognized.
          EX_UNAVAILABLE   Catchall  meaning  necessary  resources  were   not
                           available.
          EX_SYNTAX        Syntax error in address.
          EX_SOFTWARE      Internal software error, including bad arguments.
          EX_OSERR         Temporary  operating  system error, such as "cannot
                           fork".
          EX_NOHOST        Host name not recognized.
          EX_TEMPFAIL      Message could not  be  sent  immediately,  but  was
                           queued.

       If  invoked  as  newaliases,  sendmail rebuilds the alias database.  If
       invoked as mailq, sendmail prints the contents of the mail queue.

FILES
       Except for /etc/sendmail.cf,  these  pathnames  are  all  specified  in
       /etc/sendmail.cf.  Thus, these pathnames are only approximations.
       /etc/aliases        raw data for alias names
       /etc/aliases.dir
       /etc/aliases.pag    data base of alias names
       /etc/sendmail.cf    configuration file
       /etc/sendmail.fc    frozen configuration
       /etc/sendmail.st    collected statistics
       /usr/bin/mail       to deliver local mail
       /usr/bin/uux        to deliver uucp mail
       /usr/lib/mailhosts  list of hosts to which mail can be sent directly
       /usr/lib/sendmail.hf
                           help file
       /var/spool/mqueue/* temp files and queued mail
       ~/.forward          list of recipients for forwarding messages

SEE ALSO
       biff(1), bin-mail(1), mail(1), aliases(5) newaliases(8),

       Su, Zaw-Sing, and Jon Postel, The Domain Naming Convention for Internet
       User Applications, RFC 819, Network Information  Center,  SRI  Interna-
       tional, Menlo Park, Calif., August 1982.

       Postel,  Jon,  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, RFC 821, Network Informa-
       tion Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., August 1982.

       Crocker, Dave, Standard for the Format of ARPA-Internet Text  Messages,
       RFC  822,  Network  Information  Center, SRI International, Menlo Park,
       Calif., August 1982.

NOTES
       The Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun  Yellow
       Pages  (YP).   The  functionality of the two remains the same; only the
       name has changed.



                                5 October 1990                     SENDMAIL(8)