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SENDMAIL(8)                 System Manager's Manual                SENDMAIL(8)

       sendmail - send mail over the internet

       /usr/lib/sendmail [ flags ] [ address ...  ]



       Sendmail  sends  a  message  to one or more people, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not  intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to a control-D or a
       line with a single dot and sends a copy of the letter  found  there  to
       all of the addresses listed.  It determines the network to use based on
       the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in  a  file  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Normally the sender is not included in any alias expansions,  e.g.,  if
       `john'  sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the expansion,
       then the letter will not be delivered to `john'.

       Flags are:

       -ba         Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end with a  CR-
                   LF,  and all messages will be generated with a CR-LF at the
                   end.  Also, the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are  exam-
                   ined for the name of the sender.

       -bd         Run as a daemon.  This requires Berkeley IPC.

       -bi         Initialize the alias database.

       -bm         Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp         Print a listing of the queue.

       -bs         Use  the  SMTP  protocol as described in RFC821.  This flag
                   implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are compat-
                   ible with SMTP.

       -bt         Run  in  address  test mode.  This mode reads addresses and
                   shows the steps in parsing; it is used for  debugging  con-
                   figuration tables.

       -bv         Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a mes-
                   sage.  Verify mode is normally used for validating users or
                   mailing lists.

       -bz         Create the configuration freeze file.

       -Cfile      Use alternate configuration file.

       -dX         Set debugging value to X.

       -Ffullname  Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname      Sets  the  name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the sender of
                   the mail).  -f can only be used by the special users  root,
                   daemon,  and  network,  or  if the person you are trying to
                   become is the same as the person you are.

       -hN         Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every
                   time  the  mail is processed.  When it reaches a limit, the
                   mail is returned with an error message, the  victim  of  an
                   aliasing loop.

       -n          Don't do aliasing.

       -oxvalue    Set option x to the specified value.  Options are described

       -q[time]    Processed saved messages in the queue at  given  intervals.
                   If  is  omitted,  process  the  queue  once.  is given as a
                   tagged number, with `s' being seconds, `m'  being  minutes,
                   `h'  being hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.  For
                   example, ``-q1h30m'' or ``-q90m'' would both set the  time-
                   out to one hour thirty minutes.

       -rname      An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t          Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will
                   be scanned for people to send to.  The Bcc:  line  will  be
                   deleted before transmission.  Any addresses in the argument
                   list will be suppressed.

       -v          Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be  announced,

       There  are  also  a number of processing options that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will only be used by a system administrator.   Options  may
       be  set either on the command line using the -o flag or in the configu-
       ration file.  These are described in detail  in  the  Installation  and
       Operation Guide.  The options are:

       Afile       Use alternate alias file.

       c           On mailers that are considered ``expensive'' to connect to,
                   don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires  queue-

       dx          Set  the  delivery  mode  to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for
                   interactive  (synchronous)  delivery,  `b'  for  background
                   (asynchronous)  delivery,  and  `q'  for queue only - i.e.,
                   actual delivery is done the next time the queue is run.

       D           Try to automatically rebuild the alias database  if  neces-

       ex          Set  error  processing  to  mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to
                   mail back the error message,  `w'  to  ``write''  back  the
                   error  message (or mail it back if the sender is not logged
                   in), `p' to print the errors on the terminal (default), `q'
                   to   throw   away  error  messages  (only  exit  status  is
                   returned),  and  `e'  to  do  special  processing  for  the
                   BerkNet.   If the text of the message is not mailed back by
                   modes `m' or `w'  and  if  the  sender  is  local  to  this
                   machine,  a  copy  of  the  message is appended to the file
                   ``dead.letter'' in the sender's home directory.

       Fmode       The mode to use when creating temporary files.

       f           Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

       gN          The default group id to use when calling mailers.

       Hfile       The SMTP help file.

       i           Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message  ter-

       Ln          The log level.

       m           Send to ``me'' (the sender) also if I am in an alias expan-

       o           If set, this message may have old style  headers.   If  not
                   set,  this  message is guaranteed to have new style headers
                   (i.e., commas instead of  spaces  between  addresses).   If
                   set,  an  adaptive  algorithm  is  used that will correctly
                   determine the header format in most cases.

       Qqueuedir   Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       rtimeout    The timeout on reads; if none is set,  sendmail  will  wait
                   forever for a mailer.

       Sfile       Save statistics in the named file.

       s           Always instantiate the queue file, even under circumstances
                   where it is not strictly necessary.

       Ttime       Set the timeout on messages in the queue to  the  specified
                   time.   After sitting in the queue for this amount of time,
                   they will be returned to the sender.  The default is  three

       tstz,dtz    Set the name of the time zone.

       uN          Set the default user id for mailers.

       If  the first character of the user name is a vertical bar, the rest of
       the user name is used as the name of a program to pipe the mail to.  It
       may  be  necessary  to quote the name of the user to keep sendmail from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.

       Sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes  are
       defined in <sysexits.h>
          EX_OK            Successful completion on all addresses.
          EX_NOUSER        User name not recognized.
          EX_UNAVAILABLE   Catchall   meaning  necessary  resources  were  not
          EX_SYNTAX        Syntax error in address.
          EX_SOFTWARE      Internal software error, including bad arguments.
          EX_OSERR         Temporary operating system error, such  as  "cannot
          EX_NOHOST        Host name not recognized.
          EX_TEMPFAIL      Message  could  not  be  sent  immediately, but was

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked as mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue.

       Except  for  /usr/lib/sendmail.cf, these pathnames are all specified in
       /usr/lib/sendmail.cf.  Thus, these values are only approximations.

       /usr/lib/aliases              raw data for alias names
       /usr/lib/aliases.dir          data base of alias names
       /usr/lib/sendmail.cf          configuration file
       /usr/lib/sendmail.fc          frozen configuration
       /usr/lib/sendmail.hf          help file
       /usr/lib/sendmail.st          collected statistics
       /usr/bin/uux                  to deliver uucp mail
       /usr/net/bin/v6mail           to deliver local mail
       /usr/net/bin/sendberkmail     to deliver Berknet mail
       /usr/lib/mailers/arpa         to deliver ARPANET mail
       /usr/spool/mqueue/*           temp files

       biff(1), binmail(1),  mail(1),  aliases(5),  sendmail.cf(5),  rmail(1),
       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822;
       Sendmail - An Internetwork Mail Router;
       Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide.

       Sendmail  converts  blanks  in  addresses  to  dots.  This is incorrect
       according to the old ARPANET mail protocol RFC733 (NIC 41952),  but  is
       consistent with the new protocols (RFC822).

4th Berkeley Distribution                                          SENDMAIL(8)