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SCSIDEV(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 SCSIDEV(8)



# # $Id: scsidev.8,v 1.11.2.8 2004/02/18 10:08:59 garloff Exp $ #

NAME
       scsidev  -  populate  /dev/scsi  with  device names that are persistent
       against SCSI configuration changes.

SYNOPSIS
       scsidev [ -f ] [ -n ] [ -d ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -m mode ] [ -c mxms ] [ -A
       aliasfile ] [ -r ] [ -M ] [ -e ] [ -o ] [ -s ] [ -v ] [ -q ] [ -h ]

DESCRIPTION
       scsidev  is  a  utility  that is used to guarantee that the same device
       node can be used for the same scsi device, no matter  what  other  scsi
       devices  are  added  or removed from the scsi chain.  The need for this
       tool arose because device numbers are assigned dynamicly at boot  time,
       and if a new disk were added to the system (or if some disk didn't spin
       up), then fixed device nodes would cause the wrong  filesystems  to  be
       mounted, checked, etc.  This can also result in security holes, as some
       device nodes may have permissions that allow general  users  access  to
       the raw device, and if the mappings were to change, users would be able
       to access different devices.

       scsidev is designed to be used once each time  the  system  boots.   It
       will  scan  all  of the detected devices on the system, and determine a
       immutable name that will represent the device.  It first checks to  see
       if  a  node  by this name already exists - if this is the case, then it
       checks to see if the major/minor numbers are correct.  If a  change  in
       the  minor  number  is  required, then a new device is created with the
       correct major/minor numbers, and in addition, any ownership and permis-
       sions for the old device are applied to the new device.

       Once  this  process  is  complete,  then  scsidev  will scan all of the
       entries in the /dev/scsi directory, and see if  any  of  them  are  for
       devices  nodes  which  were added for devices that are not active.  The
       permissions of inactive devices are stored in a .shadow. file  and  the
       device node is removed as a security precaution, since these might have
       permissions that would allow people to access devices that they  should
       not be able to access.  This is the default behaviour and is considered
       ideal for most cases, as it preserves the ownership and permissions  of
       the files and is secure.

       The so called sanitizing can be influenced by the options -f -d -n.

       When you rescan the bus by using the rescan-scsi-bus.sh script or manu-
       ally by using commands like
       echo "scsi add-single-device C B T U" >/proc/scsi/scsi
       (C = Controller (host) no., B = Bus (Channel), T = Target (SCSI ID),  U
       =  Unit  (SCSI  LUN)) after the system is booted, then you will have to
       rerun scsidev so that the device nodes for the newly  detected  devices
       are properly updated.

       The   device   nodes   that   scsidev   creates   look  something  like
       "sdh4-334c0i0l0p1".  In this case, the various components of  the  name
       represent  physical  attributes about the device or the host adapter to
       which it is connected.  To begin with, the "h4" indicates  that  it  is
       connected  to  an  Adaptec  1542.  The "-334" is a means of identifying
       which 1542 the device is attached to (since linux  supports  more  than
       one 1542 in the system at the same time) and (in this case) corresponds
       to the IO Port number (hex) of the controller (this is the host adapter
       id  number).   The  "c0" represents the channel number (since some host
       adapters can drive multiple scsi busses).  The  "i0l0"  indicates  that
       this  device is scsi ID 0, with lun 0.  Finally the "p1" indicated par-
       tition number 1.

OPTIONS
       -f     Flush everything from /dev/scsi prior to scanning  the  detected
              devices.   This means that new device nodes will be created even
              if the old ones were OK.

       -d     Sanitize by deletion. The .shadow. backup files will not be cre-
              ated,  so  you  loose all non-default ownership/permissions that
              may have been set.

       -n     Don't touch device nodes for non-existing  SCSI  devices.   This
              might  have  security  implications  and is therefore not recom-
              mended.

       -l     Symbolic link mode.  Instead of creating nodes,  symbolic  links
              are  created  which point to the older /dev/sda1 types of device
              nodes. When using this option, the permissions of  the  /dev/XXX
              device  nodes  will  be  changed  to  match  the  ones stored in
              /dev/scsi/YYY file, if present.

       -L     Use  symbolic  names  for  the  aliases  assigned  through   the
              /etc/scsi.alias settings (see below).

       -m mode
              Specifies the mode (permissions) for new entries that need to be
              created.

       -c maxmiss
              Normally, if scsidev fails to open a  generic  scsi  device,  it
              finishes  its  scan  for  devices.  With this option, it goes on
              until maxmiss missing devices were found.  This is only used, if
              you don't have the /proc/scsi/scsi extensions for large disks.

       -A aliasfile
              Use  an  alternative file instead of the default /etc/scsi.alias
              (see below).

       -r     scsidev does first probe the generic and then -- if  appropriate
              --  the  other  highlevel  devices  (st,  sd, sr). For removable
              devices (sd,  sr,  osst),  this  will  fail,  if  no  medium  is
              inserted,  so  scsidev  can not ensure, that the device actually
              corresponds to the one reported by the sg interface.  After  the
              first  device  scan,  the situation is clear and scsidev will do
              the right guesses. So using -r in bootup scripts is safe.  After
              you  removed  devices  from  your SCSI config, it isn't safe any
              longer.   This  is  only  needed,  if   you   don't   have   the
              /proc/scsi/scsi extensions for large disks.

       -M     Multipath  support.  scsidev normally does complain if a line in
              scsi.alias matches more than one device and does not  create  an
              alias  then.  With  multipatch  support  on, it just creates the
              alias for the first device found matching the description in the
              scsi.alias description.

       -e     Instructs  scsidev  to use devfs like names, i.e. using the cbtu
              (controller, bus,  target  unit)  chraracters  instead  of  hcil
              (host, channel, scsi Id, scsi Lun) to build the device name.

       -o     Instructs  scsidev to use scd instead of sr for the old names of
              CD-ROM devices (relevant for symlink mode).

       -s     Tells scsidev
               to print out the device serial numbers of all detected  devices
              on  the  system.  This string can be useful for forming aliases.
              If supported, also the WWID is printed.

       -v     Verbosity.  Mainly used for debugging  purposes.   Use  multiple
              times for more verbosity.

       -q     Be Quiet.  Only produce output, if there are errors.

       -h     Output short usage summary and copyright info and exit.

ALIASES
       It  was  intended  that  scsidev be useful without any configuration at
       all.  There are times when it is much more convenient to have  symbolic
       names  for  various devices.  These symbolic names should track devices
       as they get moved from controller to another, or even if  the  SCSI  id
       number is changed.

       The  general idea is that there is a configuration file /etc/scsi.alias
       which lists the aliases that scsidev will attempt to create.  Each line
       represents  a separate alias, and consists of a series of tokens.  Here
       are a couple of example entries:
       serial_number="DX908FK", devtype=disk, alias=fourgig
       manufacturer=WANGTEK, devtype=tape, alias=qictape
       id=2, devtype=generic, alias=cdwriter
       The minimum requirements are that each line have a alias and a  devtype
       field.   The alias will be used to build the pathnames, and the devtype
       must be one of disk, tape, osst, cdrom or generic.

       The additional qualifiers are optional, and you must specify  a  suffi-
       cient  number  of  them such that the alias will match only one device.
       The allowable qualifiers are:

       manufacturer=
              Specifies the name of the manufacturer.  This is the same string
              that  is  printed  at  boot  time, and is also available through
              /proc/scsi.

       model= Specifies the model number of the  device.   This  is  the  same
              string  that  is  printed  at  boot  time, and is also available
              through /proc/scsi.

       rev=   Specifies the revision string of the device. This  is  the  same
              string  that  is  printed  at  boot  time, and is also available
              through /proc/scsi.

       serial_number=
              Specifies the serial number of  the  device.   Not  all  devices
              implement  this,  but for those that do it provides a convenient
              mechanism to uniquely identify a device no matter  where  it  is
              found  on  the scsi chain. The serial number is the one reported
              in INQUIRY page 0x80 with EVPD=1. It is displayed by scsidev  -s
              .

       wwid=  Specifies  the  WWID  number  of a device. This is a 64bit world
              wide unique number, which is supported  by  SCSI-3  devices  and
              reported  via  INQUIRY page 0x83 with EVPD=1. If supported, it's
              displayed by scsidev -s .

       id=    Specifies the scsi id number for the device.

       lun=   Specifies the lun for the device.  Most devices have a lun of 0,
              and  it  is only special devices such as cd changers that imple-
              ment multiple lun devices.

       chan=  Specifies which channel (i.e. which bus) for host adapters  that
              drive multiple channels.

       partition=
              Specifies the partition number for disk drives.  If unspecified,
              the alias will match all partitions on the disk.

       hostid=
              Specifies  the  host  adapter   id   number   (0x334   part   of
              sdh4-334c0i0l0p1 for example).

       hostnum=
              Specifies  the  unique  number  that  each  host  adpater driver
              returns.  Generally this number is always  0  except  for  cases
              where  the  driver supports more than one device of a given type
              on the system.

       hostname=
              Specifies the host adapter driver name. (Only  the  given  chars
              need to match, so you may omit the version number.)

       Note  that  the specifiers which take string arguments can be quoted if
       the string contains whitespace.

       For disks, aliases for all partitions will be  created  (unless  parti-
       tion=  is specified). The names get a -pN suffix (N indicating the num-
       ber of the partition. For tapes (st and osst type),  the  non-rewinding
       variant with an n prepended will be created automatically.

AUTHOR
       scsidev
        ... was written by Eric Youngdale <ericATaib.com>
        ... was enhanced by Kurt Garloff <garloffATsuse.de>

BUGS
       Probably there are ...

       The  BIOS  and LILO do not have the knowledge about the SCSI devices at
       boot time, so you still have to ensure, your kernel can be loaded  when
       you insert a new disk.

COPYRIGHT
       This  program  is  free software. You can use it under the terms of the
       GNU GPL (General Public License) Version 2 (or any  later  version,  at
       your  option).   Note,  that the GNU GPL implies, that there is NO WAR-
       RANTY at all.  Full text of the GPL can be found in  /usr/share/common-
       licenses/GPL file.

AVAILABILITY
       scsidev is available from
       http://www.suse.de/~garloff/linux/scsidev/
       and
       http://www.garloff.de/kurt/linux/scsidev/
       and will also be put on standard anonymous ftp servers.
       The old version is available from
       ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/BETA/scsi/



Version 2.29                       June 2003                        SCSIDEV(8)