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sa(8)									sa(8)



NAME

  sa - Summarizes accounting records

SYNOPSIS

  /usr/sbin/sa [-abcdDfijkKlmnorstu] [-v number] [-S savefile] [-U userfile]
  [filename]

OPTIONS

  -a  Outputs all command names	(including those containing unprintable	char-
      acters and commands used only once) in the last column. In the default
      format, such commands are	summed and the total is	written	as the entry
      ***other.

  -b  Sorts cpu	output column 3	according to the sum of	user and system	CPU
      time divided by the amount of CPU	time required to execute the command
      entered in the last column (6) as	many times as is entered in the	first
      column (1).

  -c  Adds three percentage columns to the default format to list percentages
      as follows:

       1.  Lists the percentage	of the number of times each command was	exe-
	   cuted with respect to the total number of times all commands	were
	   executed (see 1a below).

       2.  Lists the percentage	of the amount of real time required to exe-
	   cute	each command the number	of times entered in the	first column
	   with	respect	to the total real time required	to execute the total
	   of all commands entered in the last column (see 2a below).

       3.  Lists the percentage	of the amount of command CPU time required to
	   execute each	command	the number of times entered in the first
	   column with respect to the total CPU	time required to execute the
	   total of all	commands entered in the	last column (see 3a below).

  -d  Sorts avio output	column (4) in descending order according to the	aver-
      age number of disk I/O operations.

  -D  Substitutes tio column (4a) for the avio (4) column and sorts tio	out-
      put column 4a in descending order	according to the total number of disk
      I/O operations.

  -f  Used with	the -v option to inhibit interactive threshold comparison of
      commands.

  -i  Reads raw	database file /var/adm/pacct only. Does	not include records
      from summary database file /var/adm/savacct.

  -j  Outputs the average number of seconds per	command	in default columns 2,
      3, and 4 instead of the total time in minutes for	the number of calls
      entered in column	1 for each command.

  -k  Sorts and	outputs	records	according to the value in the k	output column
      5	in descending order.

  -K  Substitutes k*sec	column (5a) for	the k (5) column and sorts the k*sec
      output column in descending order	according to the value of the memory
      time integral.

  -l  Separates	cpu column 3 into two columns. The new column entries are
      column 3a, which lists the s (system) part of the	CPU minutes, and
      column 3b, which lists the u (user) part of the CPU minutes.

  -m  Outputs a	5-column file, which provides the information in the follow-
      ing table.  Listed below in left-to-right	order are the column identif-
      ication suffixes,	or none	when no	suffix is used,	and the	purpose	of
      the column.  Some	columns	are identical to the default output format
      described	in the table in	the DESCRIPTION	section; these are marked
      with an asterisk (*).

  none
      Username or user ID as written in	the /etc/passwd	file.

  none
      The total	number of processes executed by	the user during	the account-
      ing period.

  cpu *
      Same as column 3 in the default output file.

  tio *
      Same as column 4a	in the default output file.

  k*sec	*
      Same as column 5a	in the default output file.

  -n  Outputs the default format sorted	in descending order according to the
      number of	times each command was called.

  -o  Substitutes, in the default output format, the ratio of user CPU time
      (u) to system CPU	time (s) as u/s	in column 3 in place of	the total
      user and system CPU time (cpu) for the number of calls entered in	the
      first column.

  -r  The default format, described under Description, is resorted in ascend-
      ing order	according to the values	entered	in column 3, cpu time. This
      sort is the reverse of the default sort.

  -s  Merges information in accounting database	file /var/adm/pacct with sum-
      mary files you specify with the -U and -S	options, or merges the data-
      base file	information with information in	default	files
      /var/adm/usracct or /var/adm/savacct. After the merge, database file
      /var/adm/pacct is	truncated. The use of this option also implies the
      use of the -a option.

  -Ssavefile
      Uses savefile as the command summary file	in place of file
      /var/adm/savacct.

  -t  Adds the re/cp column (3d) to the	default	format.	Entries	in this
      column express the ratio of real time to total (cpu) time, which is the
      sum of user and system time for each command entered in the last
      column.

  -u  Suspends all other options and prints the	user numeric ID, the CPU
      time, memory usage, number of I/O	operations, and	the command name for
      each command.

  -Uuserfile
      Uses userfile as the user	summary	file in	place of file
      /var/adm/usracct to record per-user statistics output with the -m
      option.

  -vnumber
      Prints, as a query, the name of each command used	number times or	fewer
      to the standard output as	follows:


	   command--

      where command-- is the name of the command written to the	standard out-
      put by sa.

      When you respond by typing y to the standard input, the command record
      is omitted from a	default-formatted list at the end of the interactive
      command queries written to the standard output. The columnar values of
      the omitted record are totaled in	an added record	whose command name is
      **junk** in the last column of that list.	When you type any other	char-
      acter, the record	for the	queried	command	name remains in	the default
      output list at the end of	the interactive	commands written to the	stan-
      dard input.

OPERANDS

  filename
      Process accounting file name. If this optional operand is	absent,	the
      sa command uses /var/adm/pacct as	the default process accounting file.

DESCRIPTION

  The sa command helps you manage the large volume of accounting information
  that is generated each day when system accounting has	been enabled by	the
  system administrator or by the superuser.

  When you use the -s option with the sa command, the information in
  /var/adm/pacct is condensed into summary file	/var/adm/savacct, which	con-
  tains	a count	of the number of times each command was	called and the amount
  of time system resources were	used.

  Condensed information	for each user is stored	in /var/adm/usracct.  This
  condensed-information	file conserves storage space because on	a large	sys-
  tem the /var/adm/pacct daily process file can	grow by	as many	as 100 blocks
  per day.  Summary files are normally read before accounting files are, so
  that files produced by sa include all	available information.

  When a file name is given as the last	argument, the named file is treated
  as the process accounting file. The /var/adm/pacct file is the default pro-
  cess accounting file.

  When the sa command is invoked with no options, the default output summary
  is an	unheaded 6-column file consisting of, in some cases, information hav-
  ing an identification	suffix in the column. The identification suffix	may
  be changed from the default (no options specified) output format by using
  various options.

  The following	table lists the	columns	with left-to-right reference column
  numbers (not included	in output) for the default format on the left, the
  identification suffix	for the	entry when one is used (or none	when one is
  not in the middle), and the purpose of the information in that column	on
  the right.


  Columns having more than one identification suffix description (2 and	2a,
  for example) use the alternate suffix	designation in the same	sa output
  printout column for each of the listed alternate entries for the column.
  For example, the second column has two possible suffix designations: re and
  %. The re reference in the middle column describes the information in	the
  second column	of the output printed by the sa	command	when this suffix is
  used.	Correspondingly, the % reference describes the information in the sa
  output when the % suffix is used.

  1    none

		The number of times the	command	entered	in the last
		column (6) was called.
  1a   %

		When the -c option is used, sa adds this column
		after column 1 to list the number of times the com-
		mand was called	(entered in column 1) as a percen-
		tage of	the total number of times all commands
		entered	in the last column were	called.
  2    re

		The number of real-time	(elapsed) minutes required
		to execute the command entered in the last column
		(6) as many times as is	entered	in the first column
		(1).
  2a   %

		When the -c option is used, sa also adds this
		column after column 2 to list the amount of real
		time (entered in column	2) required to process the
		command	entered	in the last column (6) as many time
		as is entered in the first column (1), as a percen-
		tage of	the total amount of real time required to
		process	all of the commands listed in the last
		column.
  3    cpu

		The number of CPU (user	plus system) minutes used
		to execute the command entered in the last column
		(6) as many times as is	entered	in the first column
		(1).
  3a   u	The number of user CPU minutes used.
  3b   s	The number of system CPU minutes used.
  3c   u/s

		When the -o option is used, substitutes	u/s column
		(3c) for the cpu (3) column and	sorts the u/s out-
		put column in descending order according to the
		ratio of user CPU time to system CPU time.
  3d   %

		When the -c option is used, sa also adds this
		column after column 3 to list the amount of CPU
		time (entered in column	3) required to process the
		command, entered in the	last column, the number	of
		times, entered in the first column, as a percentage
		of the total CPU time required to process all of
		the commands listed in the last	column.
  3e   re/cpu

		When the -t option is used, adds the re/cpu column
		to the default output format.  Entries in this
		column express the ratio of real CPU process time
		to total CPU time (cpu), which includes	user and
		system time.  These entries appear after entries
		for the	cpu (3)	column.	The default output sort
		remains	unchanged.
  4    avio

		The average number of input/output operations for
		each listed command.
  4a   tio

		The total number of input/output operations for
		each listed command.
  5    k

		The average number of kiloblocks (blocks x 1024) of
		memory used for	each command process.
  5a   k*sec

		CPU storage-time integral in K-core seconds
		(seconds x 1024).
  6    none

		The command name. A trailing asterisk (*) indicates
		a forked program.

  Other	considerations for entries in the printed sa output are	as follows:

    +  All times are expressed to nearest one hundredth. The default format
       is sorted in descending order according to the values entered in
       column 3, cpu time.

    +  You should not share accounting files among nodes in a distributed
       environment.  Each node should have its own copy	of the various
       accounting files.

    +  When you	are also using /usr/sbin/acct/*	accounting commands, do	not
       delete accounting records in the	/var/adm/pacct process accounting
       source file because these records also provide information for summary
       data files when the -s option is	used.

EXAMPLES

   1.  Use the sa command with the -a option to	summarize accounting records
       for all commands	entered	in the /var/adm/pacct process database file:


	    % sa  -a

       Commands	 used only once	are summed with	the entry ***other in the
       last column of the default output format.

   2.  Use the sa command with the -k option to	summarize accounting records
       according to the	average	number of kiloblocks of	memory used for	each
       command:


	    % sa  -k



FILES

  /usr/sbin/sa
      Specifies	the command path

  /var/adm/pacct
      Default process accounting database file

  /var/adm/savacct
      Default system process accounting	summary	file

  /var/adm/usracct
      Default user process accounting summary file

SEE ALSO

  Commands: acct(8), acctcms(8), acctcom(8), acctcon(8), acctmerg(8),
  acctprc(8), fwtmp(8),	runacct(8)