runacct - Runs daily accounting
/usr/sbin/acct/runacct [mmdd] [state...]
Specifies the month and day for which you want to rerun the accounting
Used to restart the runacct shell procedure from any of its thirteen
The thirteen restartable states, in order, are: SETUP, WTMPFIX, CON-
NECT1, CONNECT2, PROCESS, MERGE, FEES, DISK, QUEUEACCT, MERGETACCT,
CMS, USEREXIT, and CLEANUP. These states are described under The
runacct Shell Procedure Restartable States heading in the DESCRIPTION
Recovery from a run failure and the runacct shell procedure restart is
described under the Restarting the runacct Shell Process heading in the
The runacct command is the daily accounting shell procedure. This shell
procedure is normally invoked from the cron daemon to process connection,
fee, disk usage, queuing (printer), and process accounting database files
for the current day. The runacct shell procedure produces a
/var/adm/acct/nite/dayacct binary daily accounting file and also produces
summary files, which the prdaily shell procedure uses to generate ASCII
daily file /var/adm/acct/sum/rprtmmdd or to generate files used for billing
for the use of various system resources. The /var/adm/acct/nite/dayacct
binary daily accounting file is used by the acctmerg command.
The acctmerg command adds records from the dayacct file to the
/var/adm/acct/sumtacct file. The /var/adm/acct/sumtacct file is a cumula-
tive summary of system resources used during the accounting period. The
sumtacct file is used by the monacct command to produce the monthly
accounting summary file, /var/adm/acct/fiscal.
The runacct command has two operands that you may enter from the keyboard
whenever you must restart the runacct shell procedure. The date operand,
mmdd, is used to specify the day and month for which you want to rerun the
accounting shell procedure. The state operand is used to restart the
runacct shell procedure from any of its thirteen states. Recovery from a
run failure and the runacct shell procedure restart is described under the
Restarting Runacct heading on the next page.
The runacct command protects active accounting and summary files whenever a
run-time error occurs. During execution, the state-to-state progress of the
runacct shell process is recorded by writing descriptive messages to the
/var/adm/acct/nite/active file. Whenever the runacct shell process detects
a run-time error, a mail message is sent to the superuser (root) and to the
user named adm when environment variable MAILCOM is set to mail root adm.
After writing the mail message the runacct shell procedure aborts.
The runacct shell procedure also creates the temporary file named lock in
subdirectory /var/adm/acct/nite. This file is used to prevent simultaneous
calls to the runacct shell procedure. The runacct shell procedure also uses
the lastdate file, in the same subdirectory, to prevent more than one invo-
cation of the runacct command per day.
The runacct Shell Procedure Restartable States
The runacct shell procedure is processed in thirteen separate restartable
states. When the runacct process completes each state, the name of the next
state to undergo execution is written to the /var/adm/acct/nite/statefile
file. The runacct procedure processes the various states named in the
leftmost column below, in the order given.
Moves the active accounting files to working files and restarts the
Verifies the integrity of the /var/adm/wtmp file and corrects date
changes when necessary.
Calls the acctcon1 command to write connect session records.
Converts connect session records from the /var/adm/wtmp file to total
accounting records in total format defined by tacct structure members
in the private tacct.h header file.
Converts process accounting records from the /var/adm/pacct* file(s)
into total accounting records (see CONNECT2 above).
Merges the connect and process total accounting records.
Converts the output obtained with the chargefee command into total
accounting records (see CONNECT2 above) and merges them with other
total accounting records.
Merges disk accounting records with connect, process, and fee total
Sorts queue (printer) accounting records, converts them into total
accounting records (see CONNECT2 above), and merges them with other
total accounting records.
Merges the daily total accounting records in the
/var/adm/acct/nite/dayacct file with summary total accounting records
in the /var/adm/acct/sum/tacct file.
CMS Produces command summaries in the file /var/adm/acct/sum/cms.
When the shell procedure /var/adm/siteacct exists, and the runacct
shell procedure enters this state, the /var/adm/siteacct is called to
perform site-dependent account record processing.
Deletes all temporary files and exits.
Restarting the runacct Shell Process
To restart the runacct shell process after it fails, do the following:
1. Check the /var/adm/acct/nite/active file for diagnostic messages.
2. Repair records in any damaged database files, such as /var/adm/pacct
3. Remove the /var/adm/acct/nite/lock and /var/adm/acct/nite/lastdate
4. Before restarting the runacct shell procedure, you must specify the
mmdd operand of the runacct command. This operand specifies the month
and day for which the runacct command is to rerun the accounting shell
process. The runacct shell procedure determines the entry point for
processing by reading the /var/adm/acct/nite/statefile file. To over-
ride this default action, specify a state listed above on the runacct
It is not a good idea to restart the runacct command in the SETUP
state. Instead, perform set-up actions manually and restart accounting
in the WTMPFIX state by entering the following command:
runacct mmdd WTMPFIX
Should the runacct process fail during its PROCESS state, remove the last
/var/adm/acct/nite/ptacct*.mmdd file before restarting the runacct shell
process because the file does not complete until the next state is entered.
1. To start daily accounting procedures for the use of various system
resources, add the following command line to a crontabs file so that
the runacct shell procedure is automatically called by the cron dae-
0 4 * * 1-6 /usr/sbin/acct/runacct 2 >> /var/adm/acct/nite/accterr
This example shows the instructions that the cron daemon reads and
then executes. The runacct shell procedure runs at 4:00 a.m. (0 4)
every Monday through Saturday (1-6) and redirects errors from the
standard error output (2 >>) to the /var/adm/acct/nite/accterr file.
This command typifies accounting instructions normally passed to the
cron daemon from the runacct shell procedure. (See the System
2. To start daily accounting procedures for system resources from the
command line (start the runacct command), enter:
nohup /usr/sbin/acct/runacct 2>> /var/adm/acct/nite/accterr&&
Although it is preferable to have the cron daemon start the runacct
procedure automatically (see the first example), you may enter the
command from the keyboard. The runacct command will run in the back-
ground, ignoring all INTERRUPT and QUIT signals (nohup), and write all
standard error output (2>>) to the /var/adm/acct/nite/accterr file.
3. To restart the system accounting procedures for a specific date, enter
a command similar to the following:
nohup /usr/sbin/acct/runacct 0601 2>>>> /var/adm/acct/nite/accterr&&
In this example, the runacct command is executed on the first day of
June (0601). The runacct process reads the
/var/adm/acct/nite/statefile file to find the state from which to
start. The runacct process runs in the background and ignores all
INTERRUPT and QUIT signals (nohup). The standard error output (2) is
appended (>>>>) to the end of the file named /var/adm/acct/nite/accterr.
Specifies the command path
The active login/logout database file.
The active process accounting database file.
The active disk-usage accounting database file.
The active queue (printer) accounting file.
The file containing records of fees charged to users.
The command and total accounting summary files.
The concatenated version of the pacct files.
The runacct error message file.
Prevents more than one invocation of the runacct shell procedure.
Contains the last date the runacct shell procedure was run.
Contains the next state to process.
A shell procedure containing site-dependent accounting commands.
Accounting header file that defines formats for writing accounting
Commands: acct(8), acctcms(8), acctcom(8), acctcon(8), acctmerg(8),
acctprc(8), fwtmp(8), wtmpconvert(8).