RESTORE(8) System Manager's Manual RESTORE(8)
restore, rrestore - incremental file system restore
/usr/etc/restore -irRtx [ filename ... ]
restore restores files from backup tapes created with the dump(8) com-
mand. options is a string of at least one of the options listed below,
along with any modifiers and arguments you supply. Remaining arguments
to restore are the names of files (or directories whose files) are to
be restored to disk. Unless the h modifier is in effect, a directory
name refers to the files it contains, and (recursively) its subdirecto-
ries and the files they contain.
i Interactive. After reading in the directory information from the
tape, restore invokes an interactive interface that allows you to
browse through the dump tape's directory hierarchy, and select
individual files to be extracted. See Interactive Commands,
below, for a description of available commands.
r Restore the entire tape. Load the tape's full contents into the
current directory. This option should only be used to restore a
complete dump tape onto a clear filesystem, or to restore an
incremental dump tape after a full "level 0" restore. For exam-
example# /usr/etc/newfs /dev/rxy0g
example# /usr/etc/mount /dev/xy0g /mnt
example# cd /mnt
example# restore r
is a typical sequence to restore a "level 0" dump. Another
restore can be done to get an incremental dump in on top of this.
R Resume restoring. restore requests a particular tape of a multi-
volume set from which to resume a full restore (see the r option
above). This allows restore to start from a checkpoint when it is
interrupted in the middle of a full restore.
t Table of contents. List each filename that appears on the tape.
If no filename argument is given, the root directory is listed.
This results in a list of all files on the tape, unless the h mod-
ifier is in effect. (The t option replaces the function of the old
x Extract the named files from the tape. If a named file matches a
directory whose contents were written onto the tape, and the h
modifier is not in effect, the directory is recursively extracted.
The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if possible).
If no filename argument is given, the root directory is extracted.
This results in the entire tape being extracted unless the h modi-
fier is in effect.
Some of the following modifiers take arguments that are given as sepa-
rate words on the command line. When more than one such modifier
appears within options, the arguments must appear in the same order as
the modifiers that they apply to.
The dump table of contents is taken from the specified archive-
file instead of from a dump tape. If a requested file is
present in the table of contents, restore will prompt for the
tape volume to be mounted. If only contents information is
needed, for example when the t option is specified, or the i
option is specified without a corresponding extract request, no
dump tape will have to be mounted.
c Convert the contents of the dump tape to the new filesystem for-
d Debug. Turn on debugging output.
h Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it refer-
ences. This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete sub-
trees from the tape.
m Extract by inode numbers rather than by filename to avoid regener-
ating complete pathnames. This is useful if only a few files are
v Verbose. restore displays the name of each file it restores, pre-
ceded by its file type.
y Do not ask whether to abort the restore in the event of tape
errors. restore tries to skip over the bad tape block(s) and con-
tinue as best it can.
Blocking factor. Specify the blocking factor for tape reads. By
default, restore will attempt to figure out the block size of the
tape. Note: a tape block is 512 bytes.
Use dump-file instead of /dev/rmt? as the file to restore from.
If dump-file is specified as `-', restore reads from the standard
input. This allows, dump(8) and restore to be used in a pipeline
to dump and restore a file system:
example# dump 0f - /dev/rxy0g | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)
If the name of the file is of the form machine:device the restore
is done from the specified machine over the network using rmt(8C).
Since restore is normally run by root, the name of the local
machine must appear in the .rhosts file of the remote machine. If
the file is specified as user@machine:device, restore will attempt
to execute as the specified user on the remote machine. The spec-
ified user must have a .rhosts file on the remote machine that
allows root from the local machine.
s n Skip to the n'th file when there are multiple dump files on the
same tape. For example, the command:
example# restore xfs /dev/nrar0 5
would position you at the fifth file on the tape.
restore enters interactive mode when invoked with the i option. Inter-
active commands are reminiscent of the shell. For those commands that
accept an argument, the default is the current directory.
ls [ directory ]
List files in directory or the current directory, represented by
a `.' (period). Directories are appended with a `/' (slash).
Entries marked for extraction are prefixed with a `*' (aster-
isk). If the verbose option is in effect, inode numbers are
Change to directory directory (within the dump-tape).
pwd Print the full pathname of the current working directory.
add [ filename ]
Add the current directory, or the named file or directory direc-
tory to the list of files to extract. If a directory is speci-
fied, add that directory and its files (recursively) to the
extraction list (unless the h modifier is in effect).
delete [ filename ]
Delete the current directory, or the named file or directory
from the list of files to extract. If a directory is specified,
delete that directory and all its descendents from the extrac-
tion list (unless the h modifier is in effect). The most expe-
dient way to extract a majority of files from a directory is to
add that directory to the extraction list, and then delete spe-
cific files to omit.
Extract all files on the extraction list from the dump tape.
restore asks which volume the user wishes to mount. The fastest
way to extract a small number of files is to start with the last
tape volume and work toward the first.
Toggle the status of the v modifier. While v is in effect, the
ls command lists the inode numbers of all entries, and restore
displays information about each file as it is extracted.
help Display a summary of the available commands.
quit restore exits immediately, even if the extraction list is not
/dev/rmt8 the default tape drive
dumphost:/dev/rmt8 the default tape drive if called as rrestore
/tmp/rstdir* file containing directories on the tape
/tmp/rstmode* owner, mode, and timestamps for directories
./restoresymtable information passed between incremental restores
dump(8), mkfs(8), mount(8), newfs(8), rmt(8C)
restore complains about bad option characters.
Read errors result in complaints. If y has been specified, or the user
responds y, restore will attempt to continue.
If the dump extends over more than one tape, restore asks the user to
change tapes. If the x or i option has been specified, restore also
asks which volume the user wishes to mount.
There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore.
Most checks are self-explanatory or can "never happen". Common errors
are given below.
Converting to new file system format.
A dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded.
It is automatically converted to the new file system format.
filename: not found on tape
The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but
was not found on the tape. This is caused by tape read errors
while looking for the file, and from using a dump tape created
on an active file system.
expected next file inumber, got inumber
A file that was not listed in the directory showed up. This can
occur when using a dump tape created on an active file system.
Incremental tape too low
When doing an incremental restore, a tape that was written
before the previous incremental tape, or that has too low an
incremental level has been loaded.
Incremental tape too high
When doing incremental restore, a tape that does not begin its
coverage where the previous incremental tape left off, or one
that has too high an incremental level has been loaded.
Tape read error while restoring filename
Tape read error while skipping over inode inumber
Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
A tape read error has occurred.
If a file name is specified, then its contents are probably par-
tially wrong. If an inode is being skipped or the tape is try-
ing to resynchronize, then no extracted files have been cor-
rupted, though files may not be found on the tape.
resync restore, skipped num blocks
After a tape read error, restore may have to resynchronize
itself. This message lists the number of blocks that were
restore can get confused when doing incremental restores from dump
tapes that were made on active file systems.
A "level 0" dump must be done after a full restore. Because restore
runs in user mode, it has no control over inode allocation; this means
that restore repositions the files, although it does not change their
contents. Thus, a full dump must be done to get a new set of directo-
ries reflecting the new file positions, so that later incremental dumps
will be correct.
7 September 1988 RESTORE(8)