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RESTORE(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 RESTORE(8)



NAME
       restore, rrestore - incremental file system restore

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/etc/restore -irRtx [ filename ...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       restore  restores files from backup tapes created with the dump(8) com-
       mand.  options is a string of at least one of the options listed below,
       along with any modifiers and arguments you supply.  Remaining arguments
       to restore are the names of files (or directories whose files)  are  to
       be  restored  to disk.  Unless the h modifier is in effect, a directory
       name refers to the files it contains, and (recursively) its subdirecto-
       ries and the files they contain.

OPTIONS
       i    Interactive.   After reading in the directory information from the
            tape, restore invokes an interactive interface that allows you  to
            browse  through  the  dump  tape's directory hierarchy, and select
            individual files  to  be  extracted.   See  Interactive  Commands,
            below, for a description of available commands.

       r    Restore  the  entire tape.  Load the tape's full contents into the
            current directory.  This option should only be used to  restore  a
            complete  dump  tape  onto  a  clear  filesystem, or to restore an
            incremental dump tape after a full "level 0" restore.   For  exam-
            ple:
                   example# /usr/etc/newfs /dev/rxy0g
                   example# /usr/etc/mount /dev/xy0g /mnt
                   example# cd /mnt
                   example# restore r

            is  a  typical  sequence  to  restore  a  "level 0" dump.  Another
            restore can be done to get an incremental dump in on top of this.

       R    Resume restoring.  restore requests a particular tape of a  multi-
            volume  set  from which to resume a full restore (see the r option
            above).  This allows restore to start from a checkpoint when it is
            interrupted in the middle of a full restore.

       t    Table  of  contents.  List each filename that appears on the tape.
            If no filename argument is given, the root  directory  is  listed.
            This results in a list of all files on the tape, unless the h mod-
            ifier is in effect. (The t option replaces the function of the old
            dumpdir program).

       x    Extract  the named files from the tape.  If a named file matches a
            directory whose contents were written onto the  tape,  and  the  h
            modifier is not in effect, the directory is recursively extracted.
            The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if possible).
            If no filename argument is given, the root directory is extracted.
            This results in the entire tape being extracted unless the h modi-
            fier is in effect.

   Modifiers
       Some  of the following modifiers take arguments that are given as sepa-
       rate words on the command line.   When  more  than  one  such  modifier
       appears  within options, the arguments must appear in the same order as
       the modifiers that they apply to.

       a archive-file
              The dump table of contents is taken from the specified  archive-
              file  instead  of  from  a  dump  tape.   If a requested file is
              present in the table of contents, restore will  prompt  for  the
              tape  volume  to  be  mounted.   If only contents information is
              needed, for example when the t option is  specified,  or  the  i
              option  is specified without a corresponding extract request, no
              dump tape will have to be mounted.

       c    Convert the contents of the dump tape to the new  filesystem  for-
            mat.

       d    Debug.  Turn on debugging output.

       h    Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it refer-
            ences.  This prevents hierarchical restoration  of  complete  sub-
            trees from the tape.

       m    Extract by inode numbers rather than by filename to avoid regener-
            ating complete pathnames.  This is useful if only a few files  are
            being extracted.

       v    Verbose.  restore displays the name of each file it restores, pre-
            ceded by its file type.

       y    Do not ask whether to abort the  restore  in  the  event  of  tape
            errors.  restore tries to skip over the bad tape block(s) and con-
            tinue as best it can.

       b factor
            Blocking factor.  Specify the blocking factor for tape reads.   By
            default,  restore will attempt to figure out the block size of the
            tape.  Note: a tape block is 512 bytes.

       f dump-file
            Use dump-file instead of /dev/rmt?  as the file to  restore  from.
            If  dump-file is specified as `-', restore reads from the standard
            input.  This allows, dump(8) and restore to be used in a  pipeline
            to dump and restore a file system:

            example# dump 0f - /dev/rxy0g |  (cd /mnt; restore xf -)

            If  the name of the file is of the form machine:device the restore
            is done from the specified machine over the network using rmt(8C).
            Since  restore  is  normally  run  by  root, the name of the local
            machine must appear in the .rhosts file of the remote machine.  If
            the file is specified as user@machine:device, restore will attempt
            to execute as the specified user on the remote machine.  The spec-
            ified  user  must  have  a .rhosts file on the remote machine that
            allows root from the local machine.

       s n  Skip to the n'th file when there are multiple dump  files  on  the
            same tape.  For example, the command:
                   example# restore xfs /dev/nrar0 5

            would position you at the fifth file on the tape.

USAGE
   Interactive Commands
       restore enters interactive mode when invoked with the i option.  Inter-
       active commands are reminiscent of the shell.  For those commands  that
       accept an argument, the default is the current directory.

       ls [ directory ]
              List files in directory or the current directory, represented by
              a `.'  (period).  Directories are appended with a  `/'  (slash).
              Entries  marked  for  extraction are prefixed with a `*' (aster-
              isk).  If the verbose option is in  effect,  inode  numbers  are
              also listed.

       cd directory
              Change to directory directory (within the dump-tape).

       pwd    Print the full pathname of the current working directory.

       add [ filename ]
              Add the current directory, or the named file or directory direc-
              tory to the list of files to extract.  If a directory is  speci-
              fied,  add  that  directory  and  its files (recursively) to the
              extraction list (unless the h modifier is in effect).

       delete [ filename ]
              Delete the current directory, or the  named  file  or  directory
              from the list of files to extract.  If a directory is specified,
              delete that directory and all its descendents from  the  extrac-
              tion  list (unless the h modifier is in effect).  The most expe-
              dient way to extract a majority of files from a directory is  to
              add  that directory to the extraction list, and then delete spe-
              cific files to omit.

       extract
              Extract all files on the extraction list  from  the  dump  tape.
              restore asks which volume the user wishes to mount.  The fastest
              way to extract a small number of files is to start with the last
              tape volume and work toward the first.

       verbose
              Toggle  the status of the v modifier.  While v is in effect, the
              ls command lists the inode numbers of all entries,  and  restore
              displays information about each file as it is extracted.

       help   Display a summary of the available commands.

       quit   restore  exits  immediately,  even if the extraction list is not
              empty.

FILES
       /dev/rmt8           the default tape drive
       dumphost:/dev/rmt8  the default tape drive if called as rrestore
       /tmp/rstdir*        file containing directories on the tape
       /tmp/rstmode*       owner, mode, and timestamps for directories
       ./restoresymtable   information passed between incremental restores

SEE ALSO
       dump(8), mkfs(8), mount(8), newfs(8), rmt(8C)

DIAGNOSTICS
       restore complains about bad option characters.

       Read errors result in complaints.  If y has been specified, or the user
       responds y, restore will attempt to continue.

       If  the  dump extends over more than one tape, restore asks the user to
       change tapes.  If the x or i option has been  specified,  restore  also
       asks which volume the user wishes to mount.

       There  are  numerous  consistency checks that can be listed by restore.
       Most checks are self-explanatory or can "never happen".  Common  errors
       are given below.

       Converting to new file system format.
              A  dump  tape  created from the old file system has been loaded.
              It is automatically converted to the new file system format.

       filename: not found on tape
              The specified file name was listed in the  tape  directory,  but
              was  not  found on the tape.  This is caused by tape read errors
              while looking for the file, and from using a dump  tape  created
              on an active file system.

       expected next file inumber, got inumber
              A file that was not listed in the directory showed up.  This can
              occur when using a dump tape created on an active file system.

       Incremental tape too low
              When doing an incremental  restore,  a  tape  that  was  written
              before  the  previous  incremental  tape, or that has too low an
              incremental level has been loaded.

       Incremental tape too high
              When doing incremental restore, a tape that does not  begin  its
              coverage  where  the  previous incremental tape left off, or one
              that has too high an incremental level has been loaded.

       Tape read error while restoring filename
       Tape read error while skipping over inode  inumber
       Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
       A tape read error has occurred.
              If a file name is specified, then its contents are probably par-
              tially  wrong.  If an inode is being skipped or the tape is try-
              ing to resynchronize, then no extracted  files  have  been  cor-
              rupted, though files may not be found on the tape.
       resync restore, skipped num blocks
              After  a  tape  read  error,  restore  may have to resynchronize
              itself.  This message lists  the  number  of  blocks  that  were
              skipped over.

BUGS
       restore  can  get  confused  when  doing incremental restores from dump
       tapes that were made on active file systems.

       A "level 0" dump must be done after a full  restore.   Because  restore
       runs  in user mode, it has no control over inode allocation; this means
       that restore repositions the files, although it does not  change  their
       contents.   Thus, a full dump must be done to get a new set of directo-
       ries reflecting the new file positions, so that later incremental dumps
       will be correct.



                               7 September 1988                     RESTORE(8)