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restore(8)							   restore(8)


  restore, rrestore - Restores files from tapes	written	with the dump or
  rdump	command, respectively


  /usr/sbin/restore -[function_option] [modifier_flag...] [argument...]

  /usr/sbin/rrestore -f	dump_file -[function_option] [modifier_flag...]

  The restore and rrestore commands are	used to	read files and any associated
  extended attributes from a local or remote tape, respectively, to local
  file systems.


  Function Options

  -i  This option permits interactive restoration of files read	from the
      tape.  After reading directory information from the tape device, the
      restore or rrestore commands provide a shell-like	interface that allows
      you to select the	files you want to read.	 Some of the interactive com-
      mands require as an arg parameter	a subdirectory or filename.  When the
      arg parameter is unspecified, the	default	directory is the current one.
      The interactive commands are explained in	the following list:

      ls [arg]
	      Lists files in the current directory or the directory specified
	      with the arg parameter.  Directory entries are appended with a
	      /	(slash)	character.  Entries that have been marked for reading
	      are prepended with a * (asterisk)	character.  When the -v
	      modifier flag is used, the inode number of each entry is also

      cd [arg]
	      Changes the current directory to the directory specified with
	      the arg parameter.

      pwd     Prints the pathname of the current directory to the standard
	      output device.

      add [arg]
	      Adds the files in	the current directory or the files specified
	      by arg to	the list of files to be	read from the tape (except
	      when the -h option is used).  Files on the list of files to be
	      read are prepended with the * (asterisk) character when they
	      are listed with the ls interactive command.

      delete [arg]
	      Deletes all the files in the current directory or	the files
	      specified	by the arg parameter from the list of files to be
	      read from	the tape.  Except when the -h option is	specified,
	      all files	and all	files in subdirectories	of a directory speci-
	      fied with	the arg	parameter are deleted.

	      An expedient way to select wanted	files from any directory
	      whose files are stored on	the tape is to add the directory to
	      the list of files	to be read and then delete the ones that are
	      not wanted.

      extract Reads all	files on the list of files to be read from the tape.
	      The restore or rrestore command asks which volume	you want to
	      mount and	whether	the access modes of . (dot)  are  affected.

	      A	fast way to read a few files from the tape device is to	start
	      with the last volume and work toward the first volume.

	      Sets owner, access modes,	and file creation times	for all
	      directories that have been added to the files-to-read list;
	      nothing is read from the tape.  This interactive command is
	      useful for cleaning up files after a restore or rrestore com-
	      mand has been prematurely	aborted.

      verbose Toggles the -v modifier (see the -v flag below).	When set, the
	      verbose option causes the	ls command to list the inode numbers
	      of all files in the list of files	to read.  This interactive
	      command also causes the restore or rrestore command to output
	      information about	each file to the output	device when the	file
	      is read.


      ?	      Lists a summary of the available interactive commands.

      what    Outputs the tape header information to the standard output dev-

      quit    Exits immediately, even when the all the files on	list of	files
	      to read have not been read.

      debug   Toggles the debugging mode.

      xit     Same as quit command.

  -r  The tape is read and all files are loaded	into the current working
      directory.  The -r function option should	only be	used to	restore	a
      complete dump into an empty file system, or to restore a previous
      incremental dump or rdump	to the file system after a full	level 0
      (zero) restoration of files.  For	example:
	   /sbin/newfs	/dev/rdisk/dsk0g  eagle
	   /sbin/mount	/dev/disk/dsk0g	 /mnt
	   cd  mnt
	   restore  -r

      These four line entries are a typical sequence of	commands to restore a
      complete set of files from tape to the raw disk whose device name	is
      /dev/rdisk/dsk0g and whose parameters are	described in the /etc/disktab
      file under the name eagle.  The file system name is /dev/disk/dsk0g and
      the directory where the file system is mounted and to which the files
      are written from the default tape	device is called /mnt.

      Other restore or rrestore	operations may be called to restore addi-
      tional files from	a previous incremental dump or rdump to	the tape dev-
      ice.  Note that the restore or rrestore process writes a file named
      restoresymtab to the current directory.  The restoresymtab file is used
      by these processes to provide information	for incremental	file restora-
      tions only; this scratch file has	no other use and so should be removed
      when files from the last incremental storage medium has been restored.
      The restoresymtab	filename is appended with the node identifier of the
      cluster member (member id), which	is always zero (0) for standalone

  -R  The restore or rrestore command requests a particular tape of a mul-
      tivolume set on which to restart a full restore (see the -r option).
      This allows restore or rrestore to be interrupted	and then restarted.

  -t name ...
      The files	specified by the name parameter	are listed when	they are
      stored on	the tape.  When	a name parameter is not	specified, all files
      in the root directory stored on the tape are listed, except when the -h
      option is	specified.

  -x name ...
      The files	specified by the name parameter	are read from the tape dev-
      ice.  When the name parameter matches a directory	whose contents are
      stored on	the tape, and the -h option is not specified, the directory
      is recursively searched until all	files have been	read.  The file
      owner, time of modification, and access mode are restored	when possi-
      ble.  When no file is specified with the name parameter, the root
      directory	is read	from the tape device.  Reading of the root directory
      results in storage of the	entire file content from the tape, except
      when the -h option has been specified.

  Modifier Flags

  -b block_size
      The argument that	follows	this modifier option is	used as	the block
      size of the tape (in kilobytes).	When this modifier flag	is not speci-
      fied, restore or rrestore	determines tape	block size dynamically as
      long as the maximum number of tape blocks	to be read (blocking factor)
      is less than 128k.  Otherwise, include this option with the appropriate
      blocking factor.

  -c  Reads an old style dump tape (pre-4.2BSD file system).

  -d  Debug mode.  restore or rrestore performs	many internal checks about
      the consistency of internal structures and prints	debugging information
      to the standard output.

  -f dump_file
      When an argument follows the -f modifier flag, it	is used	as the name
      of the archive device, replacing the default tape	device
      /dev/tape/tape0_d0.  When	the argument is	the character -	(dash),
      restore or rrestore reads	from standard input.  Thus, dump and restore
      or rdump and rrestore may	be used	in a pipeline expression to copy file
      systems with the following typical command:
	   dump	 -0f  -	 /usr  |  (cd /mnt;  restore  -xf  -)

  -F command_file
      The argument that	follows	the -F modifier	flag is	used as	the name of
      the file from which interactive input is read.  As described in the
      foregoing	list of	Function Flags for the -i function option, normally
      standard input is	read.  The -F modifier flag allows the interactive
      mode of the restore or rrestore command to be obtained from a previ-
      ously written command file (similar to a shell script).

      In the application described here, the following are affected:

       1.  The interactive interface

       2.  A prompt for	the next volume	number

       3.  A prompt to set the access mode for . (dot)

      Error recovery interaction and the verification of operator readiness
      are not affected.	 For example, if the file named	inputfile contains
      the following interactive	command	lines (the commands are	taken from
      the Function Flags  list):

	   delete foo
	   add foo/bar

      issuing the command:
	   restore  -iF	 inputfile

      uses the interactive mode	to automatically mark everything for reading
      (add), to	unmark the subdirectory	(delete	foo), to mark the file
      foo/bar (add foo/bar), to	read the marked	files (extract), to specify
      volume 1 (1) of the default tape,	to set the access mode for dot,	.
      (yes),  and then quit (quit).

  -h  Use this modifier	to restore files to a specific directory level.	The
      specific directory level is the file name	defined	by the -x switch or
      the -t switch (when using	command	mode) or a file	name in	the argument
      list of the add or the delete command (when using	interactive mode).
      Files in the named directory that	are directories	are not	restored.
      Thus, you	can use	this modifier to prevent hierarchical restoration of
      complete subtrees.

  -m  When this	modifier is specified, restore or rrestore reads according to
      inode numbers rather than	filename.  This	read operation is useful when
      only a few files are restored and	you want to avoid rewriting the	com-
      plete pathname to	each file.

  -N  Tells restore not	to write to disk.  This	option does not	permit the
      process to act on	files in the current directory.

  -s  The argument that	follows	this modifier flag is used as the number (1
      is the origin) of	the file to restore.  This option is used to write
      more than	one dump file from the tape.

  -v  Normally the restore or rrestore commands	do not notify you about	their
      progress in reading from the storage device.  When this modifier option
      is used, the name	of each	file read from the tape	is written to the
      standard output device.

  -y  When this	modifier is specified, restore or rrestore does	not query
      whether a	tape error should cause	the read operation to abort, but
      instead the process attempts to skip over	the bad	block(s) and continue
      the read operation.

  -Y  Overwrites the existing files and	links without any query.

  -Z  When this	flag is	used, the restore or rrestore does not overwrite
      existing files.


  The restore and rrestore commands are	used to	read files and associated
  extended attributes (including ACLs, see the acl(4) and proplist(4) refer-
  ence pages), from a local or remote file system backup (respectively). The
  file system backup must have been written by the dump	or rdump command.
  The restore and rrestore commands only read files to local file systems.


  The options bcdfhimrstvxyFNRYZ consist of function options and modifier
  flags, which may be used in any logical combination, but with	a preceding -
  (dash) character.  Each group	of options contains at most one	function
  option and possibly one or more modifier flags. Function options are irtx
  and R; all other options are modifier	options.  Other	arguments specified
  with these commands are the file or subdirectory name	that specifies files
  to be	restored.  The function	options	and modifier flags are described
  under	OPTIONS.

  Unless the -h	modifier flag is specified (see	the -h flag), inclusion	of a
  directory name refers	to all files and recursively, all files	in all sub-
  directories of that directory.


  The rrestore command reads files from	a remote magnetic tape or other
  specified storage device.  The files were previously saved to	tape with a
  dump or rdump	command.  The rrestore command is identical in operation to
  restore, except the -f function option must be specified, and	the dump_file
  parameter must have the form:


  If you want to specify an IPv6 address for machine, you must prefix the
  address with the \[ (backslash, left bracket)	characters and terminate the
  address with the \] (backslash, right	bracket) characters.  Because the
  bracket characters are shell metacharacters, your must precede them with
  the backslash	character.

  The rrestore command starts remote server /usr/sbin/rmt on the client
  machine to access the	storage	medium.


  Do not use the restore or rrestore commands to extract an archive on an
  AdvFS	filesystem.

  The restore or rrestore process may become confused when doing incremental
  reads	from tapes that	were previously	written	from an	active file system.

  A level 0 (zero) tape	dump or	rdump must be done after a full	restore.
  Because restore or rrestore runs without kernel privileges, it has no	con-
  trol over inode allocation; thus, a full restore must	be done	to get a new
  set of directories that reflect new inode numbering, even when the content
  of files are unchanged.

  When the -Y flag is specified, all files, including hard and symbolic
  links, are overwritten.  When	the -Y flag is not specified, hard and sym-
  bolic	links are not overwritten, as in previous releases.

  Attempting to	do a restore/rrestore to a base	directory that has a default
  ACL or a default access ACL may cause	unintended ACLs	to be created on the
  restored files and directories. If ACLs are enabled on the system, check
  all ACLs after the restore/rrestore.


  Detects bad option characters.

  Detects read errors.	When the -y modifier flag has been specified, or you
  respond with y, the process attempts to continue the restore operation.

  When a previous dump or rdump	writes over more than one storage device,
  restore or rrestore asks you to change a filled volume.

  When the -x or -i function option has	been specified,	restore	or rrestore
  also asks what volume	you wish to mount. Note, the restore -x	command	is
  silent if a pipe or a	regular	file is	involved.

  A fast way to	read a few files is to first mount the last volume, and	then
  mount	other previous volumes working toward the first	volume.

  There	are numerous consistency checks	that can be listed by restore.	Most
  checks are self-explanatory.

  Common Errors

  Common errors	are listed as follows:

  Converting to	new filesystem format.
      A	tape previously	written	from an	old file system	has been loaded.  On
      reading, the old file system was automatically converted to a new
      filesystem format.

  filename: not	found on tape
      One or more filenames specified by the filename parameter	was listed in
      the tape directory, but was not found on the tape.  This is caused by
      storage device read errors when searching	for a named file, or when a
      previously written tape was created on an	active file system.

  expected next	file inumber, got inumber
      A	file that was not listed in the	directory was detected.	 This can
      occur when using a tape previously created on an active file system.

  Incremental tape too low
      When doing incremental restore, a	tape that was written before the pre-
      vious incremental	tape, or one that has too low an incremental level
      has been loaded.

  Incremental tape too high
      When doing incremental restore or	rrestore, a storage process does not
      begin its	coverage where the previous incremental	tape left off, or one
      that has too high	an incremental level has been loaded.

  Tape read error while	restoring <&lt; filename >.

  Tape read error while	skipping over inode <&lt; inumber >

  Tape read error while	trying to resynchronize
      A	tape read error	has occurred.  When a filename is specified, its con-
      tents are	probably partially wrong.  When	an inode is being skipped, or
      the tape is trying to resynchronize, no files read from tape have	been
      corrupted	although some files may	not be found on	the tape.

  resync restore, skipped <&lt; num	> blocks
      After a tape read	error, restore or rrestore may have to resynchronize
      itself.  This message lists the number of	blocks that were skipped.


      Specifies	the command path

      Specifies	the command path

      The default storage device.

      A	file that lists	directories stored on the default tape.

      Owner, permission	mode, and timestamps for stored	directories.

      Holds information	required during	incremental restore or rrestore
      operations.  The file is created in the current working directory	and
      is appended with the node	identifier of the cluster member, such as


  Commands: dump(8), rdump(8), mount(8), umount(8), newfs(8)

  Files: acl(4), proplist(4)