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route(8)							     route(8)
Patchkit 6							   Patchkit 6



NAME

  route	- Manipulates the routing tables manually

SYNOPSIS

  Adding a Route


  route	[-nqvC]	add [-net  | -host] [family] destination[/bitmask] gateway
  [-link] [modifiers[args]]

  Changing a Route


  route	[-nqv] change [-net  | -host] [family] destination gateway [-link]
  [modifiers[args]]

  Monitoring a Route


  route	[-n] monitor

  Deleting a Route


  route	[-nqvC]	delete [-net  |	-host] [family]	destination[/bitmask] [-link]
  gateway [modifiers[args]]

  Deleting All Routes


  route	[-nqvC]	flush [family]

OPTIONS

  -n  Prints host and network names in numeric format, instead of symbolic
      format, when reporting actions.

  -q  Suppresses all output.

  -v  Causes additional	details	to be printed.

  -C  Forces route to use the old ioctl	calls instead of the current route
      server request path.








OPERANDS

  -net
      Specifies	explicitly that	this route is a	network	route; destination is
      interpreted as a network address.

  -host
      Specifies	explicitly that	this route is a	host route; destination	is
      interpreted as a host address.

  destination
      Specifies	the destination	host or	network	(with or without the optional
      Classless	Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) mask (/bitmask)).

  family
      Specifies	the optional address family of the destination and gateway
      parameters.  Possible values are:	-inet (the default) and	-inet6.	 If
      the -link	parameter is not specified, this also specifies	the address
      family of	the gateway parameter.

  -link
      Specifies	that the gateway is a link layer address.  If the -link
      parameter	is not specified, the address family of	the gateway parameter
      is the same as the destination.

  gateway
      Specifies	the next hop and gateway to which packets should be
      addressed.

DESCRIPTION

  The route command is a program used to manually manipulate the network
  routing tables.  It normally is not needed, as a system routing table
  management daemon, such as gated or routed, should tend to this task.

  The route command accepts five commands:

  add Adds a route.

  flush
      Removes all gateway entries from the routing tables.  For	the inet6
      family, it also removes all cloned routes.  You can choose to flush
      only those routes	whose destinations are of a given address family by
      specifying an optional keyword (family) that specifies the address fam-
      ily.

  delete
      Deletes a	specific route.

  change
      Changes aspects of a route (such as its gateway).

  monitor
      Reports any changes to the routing information base, routing lookup
      misses, or suspected network partionings.

  Unless the -net or -host parameters are specified on the command line,
  route	creates	a host route or	a network route	by interpreting	the Internet
  address associated with destination parameter.  If the destination has a
  local	address	part of	INADDR_ANY, or if the destination is the symbolic
  name of a network, a network route is	 created; otherwise, a host route is
  created.

  For example, 128.32 is interpreted as	-host 128.0.0.32, 128.32.130 is
  interpreted as -host 128.32.0.130; -net 128.32 is interpreted	as
  128.32.0.0, and -net 128.32.130 is interpreted as 128.32.130.0.

  All symbolic names specified for a destination or gateway are	looked up
  first	as a hostname using gethostbyname(3).  If this lookup fails, getnet-
  byname(3) is then used to interpret the name as that of a network.

  Routes added with the	route command are marked as RTF_STATIC to differen-
  tiate	them from routes added by the routing daemons (gated or	routed).  The
  gated	daemon does not	remove the RTF_STATIC routes when it is	shut down.

  The route command uses a routing socket and the new message types RTM_ADD,
  RTM_DELETE, and RTM_CHANGE.

  Modifiers


  Modifiers provide initial values to metrics and other	information main-
  tained in the	routing	entry.	All modifiers and their	arguments are
  optional and must appear after the gateway field on the command line.	 The
  modifiers for	the add, change, and delete commands are as follows:

  -all
      Specifies	that the kernel	add or delete the specified route on all
      interfaces (for example, tu0 and tu1) that are in	the same subnet	as
      the gateway.  Use	this modifier only with	the add	and delete modifiers.
      Do not use -all with the -dev and	-olddev	modifiers.

  -blackhole
      Specifies	that this route	is a blackhole route.  Packets sent to black-
      hole routes are dropped, and no notification is sent to the packet ori-
      ginators.	This is	different from a normal	route, which allows packets
      to be forwarded out on it.  You must specify 127.0.0.1 (localhost) as
      the gateway argument.

  -cloning
      Generates	a new route on use of this route.

  -dev device
      Specifies	the interface device (for example, tu0 and fta0) to use	in
      the routing entry.  Use this modifier when you want to designate a par-
      ticular interface	for a route.  If you do	not specify this modifier,
      the route	is added on the	first interface	that is	found.

  -genmask mask
      Specifies	that the netmask mask is used for all routes cloned from this
      route.

  -hopcount count
      Sets this	route's	maximum	hopcount to count.

  -iface | -interface
      Specifies	that this route	is via an interface instead of via a gateway
      (gateway is the default).	 This means the	destination is reachable
      directly via an interface; no intermediate system	is required.  The
      gateway parameter	is the address of this host on the common network,
      indicating the interface to be used for transmission.

  -inet
      Sets this	route's	type as	AF_INET.  When used with the delete or flush
      commands,	only AF_INET routes are	deleted.

  -inet6
      Sets this	route's	type as	AF_INET6.  When	used with the delete or	flush
      commands,	only AF_INET6 routes are deleted.

  -iso
      Sets this	route's	type as	AF_ISO.	 When used with	the delete or flush
      commands,	only AF_ISO routes are deleted.

  -limit speed
      Sets this	route's	maximum	speed, in bits per 200 milliseconds, for TCP
      traffic. You can limit bandwidth for either host or network routes.

  -link
      Sets this	route's	type as	AF_LINK.  When used with the delete or flush
      commands,	only AF_LINK routes are	deleted.

  -llinfo
      Specifies	that this route	contains valid link-layer information.

  -lock
      Locks the	metric set by next modifier specified on the command line in
      the routing entry.  A locked metric is not modified by the kernel.  The
      following	metrics	can be locked: mtu, hopcount, recvpipe,	sendpipe,
      ssthresh,	rtt, and rttvar.

  -lockrest
      Locks the	metrics	set by all modifiers that follow on the	command	line
      in the routing entry.  A locked metric is	not modified by	the kernel.
      The following metrics can	be locked: mtu,	hopcount, recvpipe, sendpipe,
      ssthresh,	rtt, and rttvar.

  -mtu size
      Sets this	route's	maximum	transmission unit (MTU), in bytes, to size.

  -netmask mask
      Specifies	the subnet mask	to use for the routing entry.  Networks	that
      use a nonstandard	subnet must include this modifier.  Specify this
      modifier after any optional modifiers.  Do not specify this modifier if
      you specify a CIDR bitmask (/bitmask).  Do not specify this modifier
      with the change command.

  -olddev device
      Specifies	the old	interface device (for example, tu0 and fta0) in	the
      routing entry that you want to change.  Use this modifier	with the
      change command only to move a route from one interface to	another.  See
      the "Examples" section.

  -oldgateway name
      Specifies	the old	gateway	in the routing entry that you want to change.
      Use this modifier	with the change	command	only.  See the "Examples"
      section.

  -oldinterface
      Specifies	the old	interface in the routing entry that you	want to
      change.  Use this	modifier with the change command only.

  -osi
      Sets this	route's	type as	AF_ISO.	 When used with	the delete or flush
      commands,	only AF_ISO routes are deleted.

  -permanent
      Specifies	that this route	is permanent; it cannot	be modified by ICMP
      redirects.

  -precedence value
      Sets the precedence of the route to value.  Among	equivalent routes to
      the same destination, the	route with the lower precedence	is preferred.

  -recvpipe bandwidth
      Sets this	route's	inbound	delay bandwidth	product	(in bytes) to
      bandwidth.

  -reject
      Specifies	that this route	is a reject route.  Packets sent to reject
      routes are dropped and messages designating the route as unreachable
      are sent to the packet originators.  This	is different from a normal
      route, which allows packets to be	forwarded out on it.  You must
      specify 127.0.0.1	(localhost) as the gateway argument.

  -rtt time
      Sets this	route's	round trip time	(in microseconds) to time.

  -rttvar variance
      Sets this	route's	round trip time	variance (in microseconds) to vari-
      ance.

  -sendpipe bandwidth
      Sets this	route's	outbound delay bandwidth product (in bytes) to
      bandwidth.

  -ssthresh threshold
      Sets this	route's	outbound gateway buffer	limit (in bytes) to thres-
      hold.

RESTRICTIONS

  You must be superuser	in order to run	the route command and to modify	the
  routing tables.

DIAGNOSTICS

  Add [host | network] %s: gateway %s options %x
      The specified route is being added to the	tables.	If the gateway
      address used was not the primary address of the gateway (the first one
      returned by gethostbyname), the gateway address is printed numerically
      as well as symbolically.

  Bitmask cannot be used with change command
      The optional /bitmask parameter was specified with the change command.
      Do not specify a bit mask	with the change	command.

  Change [ host	| network ] %s:	gateway	%s oldgateway %s\

    oldinterface %s
      The specified route is being modified in the tables.

  Delete [ host	| network ] %s:	gateway	%s options %x
      The specified route is being deleted from	the tables. If the gateway
      address used was not the primary address of the gateway (the first one
      returned by gethostbyname), the gateway address is printed numerically
      as well as symbolically.

  %s %s	done
      When you use the flush command, each routing table entry deleted is
      indicated	with a message of this form.

  Entry	exists
      An add operation was attempted for an entry that already exists in the
      routing tables.

  Gateway must be 127.0.0.1 for	reject and blackhole routes.
      The gateway value	is incorrect for creating reject and blackhole
      routes.

  Invalid bitmask
      The bitmask specified is not in the range	of 1 to	32, inclusive.

  Netmask cannot be used with bitmask.
      The -netmask modifier was	specified together with	a CIDR bit mask.

  Netmask cannot be used with change command
      The optional -netmask modifier was specified with	the change command.
      Do not specify a network mask with the change command.

  Network is unreachable
      An attempt to add	a route	failed because the gateway listed was not on
      a	directly connected network.  The next hop gateway must be given.

  Not in table
      A	delete operation was attempted for an entry that was not present in
      the tables.

  Routing table	overflow
      An add operation was attempted, but the system was low on	resources and
      was unable to allocate memory to create the new entry.

EXAMPLES

   1.  To add gateway 128.32.0.130 as a	default	gateway, enter:
	    route   add	  default   128.32.0.130

   2.  To add a	route to host milan via	gateway	128.32.0.130, enter:
	    route   add	  -host	  milan	 128.32.0.130

   3.  To delete an existing route via gateway 128.32.0.130 to host milan,
       enter:
	    route   delete   -host   milan   128.32.0.130

   4.  To add a	route with a precedence	value of 1 to host milan via gateway
       128.32.0.130, enter:
	    route   add	 -precedence 1 -host   milan   128.32.0.130

   5.  To change an existing route for host milan via gateway 128.32.0.130 to
       use a new gateway 128.32.10.101,	enter:
	    route  change  -oldgateway 128.32.0.130 -oldinterface le0 \
	    -host milan	128.32.10.101

   6.  To add a	route to network 212.232.32 via	gateway	128.32.0.130, enter:
	    route   add	   -net	   212.232.32/22  128.32.0.130

       The previous example aggregates routes for four Class C networks:
       212.232.32, 212.232.33, 212.232.34, and 212.232.35.

   7.  To add an IPv6 route to network feco:10:50::/48 through the configured
       tunnel interface	ipt0, enter:
	    route add -inet6 fec0:10:50::48 -inet6 fe80::a0a:2805 -dev ipt0

   8.  To add a	route to network 212.232.32/22 via gateway 128.32.0.130	and
       lock the	MTU size at 1500, enter:
	    route add -net 197.45.63/24	214.89.32.235 -lock -mtu 1500

   9.  To add a	route to network 212.232.32/22 via gateway 128.32.0.130	and
       lock the	MTU size and hop count,	enter:
	    route add -net 197.45.63/24	214.89.32.235 -lockrest	-mtu 1500 \
	    -hopcount 2

   10. To change existing network route	206.98.17 via gateway 206.98.17.45
       from using interface device tu0 to tu1, enter:
	    route change -net 206.98.17	206.98.17.45 -olddev tu0 -dev tu1

       This assumes that interface device tu1 is configured with an IP
       address in the same subnet as tu0.

   11. To change existing network route	206.98.17 from using gateway
       206.98.17.45 to 206.98.17.162, enter:
	    route change -net 206.98.17	206.98.17.162 -oldgateway 206.98.17.45

   12. To change existing network route	206.98.17 using	interface device tu0
       and gateway 206.98.17.45	to use device tu1 and gateway 206.98.17.162,
       enter:
	    route change -net 206.98.17	206.98.17.162 -olddev tu0 -dev tu1 \
	    -oldgateway	206.98.17.45

   13. To add a	route to host 219.67.129.16 via	gateway	219.67.122.41 using
       interface device	tu1, enter:
	    route add -host 219.67.129.16  219.67.122.41 -dev tu1

   14. To delete a route to network 219.84.6 via gateway 219.84.6.79 using
       interface device	fta0, enter:
	    route delete -net 219.84.6	219.84.6.79 -olddev fta0

   15. To add a	route to host 202.54.164.79 via	gateway	202.54.163.11 using
       all interfaces connected	to the 202.54.163/24 subnet, enter:
	    route add -host 202.54.164.79 202.54.163.11	-all



FILES

  /usr/sbin/route
      Specifies	the command path

SEE ALSO

  Commands: netstat(1),	gated(8), routed(8)

  Networking: netintro(7)