RMMOD(8) Linux Module Support RMMOD(8)
rmmod - unload loadable modules
rmmod [ -aehrsvV ] module ...
rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel.
rmmod tries to unload a set of modules from the kernel, with the
restriction that they are not in use and that they are not referred to
by other modules.
If more than one module is named on the command line, the modules will
be removed in the given order. This supports unloading of stacked
With the option '-r', a recursive removal of modules will be attempted.
This means that if a top module in a stack is named on the command
line, all modules that are used by this module will be removed as well,
Do autoclean: tag unused modules as "to be cleaned", and also
remove already tagged modules. Modules stay tagged if they stay
unused since previous autoclean. These two passes avoid
removing transiently unused modules.
Save persistent data for the named modules, without unloading
any modules. If no module names are specified then data is
saved for all modules that have persistent data. Data is only
saved if both the kernel and modutils support persistent data
and /proc/ksyms contains an entry
Display a summary of options and immediately exit.
Remove a module stack.
Output everything to syslog(3) instead of the terminal.
Print the version of modutils.
If a module contains persistent data (see insmod(8) and
modules.conf(5)) then removing the module always writes the persistent
data to the filename in the __insmod _P symbol entry. You can also
save the persistent data at any time by rmmod -e, this will not unload
When the persistent data is written to file, it is preceded by a
generated comment line,
#% kernel_version timestamp
Generated comment lines start with '#%', all generated comments are
stripped from the existing file, other comments are preserved. The
saved data values are written to the file, preserving the existing
order of comments and assignments. New values are added at the end of
the file. If the file contains values that do not exist in the module
then these values are preserved but are preceded by a generated comment
warning that they are not being used. The latter operation allows a
user to switch between kernels without losing persistent data and
without getting any error messages.
Note: Comments are only supported when the first non-space character on
a line is '#'. Any non-blank lines that do not start with '#' are
module options, one per line. The option lines have leading spaces
removed, the remainder of the line is passed to insmod as an option,
including any trailing characters.
insmod(8), lsmod(8), ksyms(8), modprobe(8).
rmmod [-V | --version] should display version information and then exit
immediately. Instead, it prints the version information and behaves as
if no options were given.
Although the fix for this bug is trivial, it changes the behaviour of
modutils. Given the large number of distributions and scripts that run
modutils and expect the current behaviour, any change of behaviour is
unacceptable in 2.4. Don't bother sending patches for this bug, it
will not be fixed in 2.4, it should be fixed in 2.5.
Module support was first conceived by Anonymous
Initial Linux version by Bas Laarhoven <basATvimec.nl>
Version 0.99.14 by Jon Tombs <jonATgtex02.es>
Extended by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rnATblox.se>
Updated for 2.1.17 by Richard Henderson <rthATtamu.edu>
Updated for 2.2.2 by by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rnATblox.se>
Updated for modutils 2.3.20 by by Keith Owens <kaosATocs.au>
Persistent data for modutils 2.3.22 by by Keith Owens <kaosATocs.au>
Linux February 12, 2003 RMMOD(8)