restore, rrestore - Restores files from tapes written with the dump or
rdump command, respectively
/usr/sbin/restore -[function_option] [modifier_flag...] [argument...]
/usr/sbin/rrestore -f dump_file -[function_option] [modifier_flag...]
The restore and rrestore commands are used to read files and any associated
extended attributes from a local or remote tape, respectively, to local
-i This option permits interactive restoration of files read from the
tape. After reading directory information from the tape device, the
restore or rrestore commands provide a shell-like interface that allows
you to select the files you want to read. Some of the interactive com-
mands require as an arg parameter a subdirectory or filename. When the
arg parameter is unspecified, the default directory is the current one.
The interactive commands are explained in the following list:
Lists files in the current directory or the directory specified
with the arg parameter. Directory entries are appended with a
/ (slash) character. Entries that have been marked for reading
are prepended with a * (asterisk) character. When the -v
modifier flag is used, the inode number of each entry is also
Changes the current directory to the directory specified with
the arg parameter.
pwd Prints the pathname of the current directory to the standard
Adds the files in the current directory or the files specified
by arg to the list of files to be read from the tape (except
when the -h option is used). Files on the list of files to be
read are prepended with the * (asterisk) character when they
are listed with the ls interactive command.
Deletes all the files in the current directory or the files
specified by the arg parameter from the list of files to be
read from the tape. Except when the -h option is specified,
all files and all files in subdirectories of a directory speci-
fied with the arg parameter are deleted.
An expedient way to select wanted files from any directory
whose files are stored on the tape is to add the directory to
the list of files to be read and then delete the ones that are
extract Reads all files on the list of files to be read from the tape.
The restore or rrestore command asks which volume you want to
mount and whether the access modes of . (dot) are affected.
A fast way to read a few files from the tape device is to start
with the last volume and work toward the first volume.
Sets owner, access modes, and file creation times for all
directories that have been added to the files-to-read list;
nothing is read from the tape. This interactive command is
useful for cleaning up files after a restore or rrestore com-
mand has been prematurely aborted.
verbose Toggles the -v modifier (see the -v flag below). When set, the
verbose option causes the ls command to list the inode numbers
of all files in the list of files to read. This interactive
command also causes the restore or rrestore command to output
information about each file to the output device when the file
? Lists a summary of the available interactive commands.
what Outputs the tape header information to the standard output dev-
quit Exits immediately, even when the all the files on list of files
to read have not been read.
debug Toggles the debugging mode.
xit Same as quit command.
-r The tape is read and all files are loaded into the current working
directory. The -r function option should only be used to restore a
complete dump into an empty file system, or to restore a previous
incremental dump or rdump to the file system after a full level 0
(zero) restoration of files. For example:
/sbin/newfs /dev/rdisk/dsk0g eagle
/sbin/mount /dev/disk/dsk0g /mnt
These four line entries are a typical sequence of commands to restore a
complete set of files from tape to the raw disk whose device name is
/dev/rdisk/dsk0g and whose parameters are described in the /etc/disktab
file under the name eagle. The file system name is /dev/disk/dsk0g and
the directory where the file system is mounted and to which the files
are written from the default tape device is called /mnt.
Other restore or rrestore operations may be called to restore addi-
tional files from a previous incremental dump or rdump to the tape dev-
ice. Note that the restore or rrestore process writes a file named
restoresymtab to the current directory. The restoresymtab file is used
by these processes to provide information for incremental file restora-
tions only; this scratch file has no other use and so should be removed
when files from the last incremental storage medium has been restored.
The restoresymtab filename is appended with the node identifier of the
cluster member (member id), which is always zero (0) for standalone
-R The restore or rrestore command requests a particular tape of a mul-
tivolume set on which to restart a full restore (see the -r option).
This allows restore or rrestore to be interrupted and then restarted.
-t name ...
The files specified by the name parameter are listed when they are
stored on the tape. When a name parameter is not specified, all files
in the root directory stored on the tape are listed, except when the -h
option is specified.
-x name ...
The files specified by the name parameter are read from the tape dev-
ice. When the name parameter matches a directory whose contents are
stored on the tape, and the -h option is not specified, the directory
is recursively searched until all files have been read. The file
owner, time of modification, and access mode are restored when possi-
ble. When no file is specified with the name parameter, the root
directory is read from the tape device. Reading of the root directory
results in storage of the entire file content from the tape, except
when the -h option has been specified.
The argument that follows this modifier option is used as the block
size of the tape (in kilobytes). When this modifier flag is not speci-
fied, restore or rrestore determines tape block size dynamically as
long as the maximum number of tape blocks to be read (blocking factor)
is less than 128k. Otherwise, include this option with the appropriate
-c Reads an old style dump tape (pre-4.2BSD file system).
-d Debug mode. restore or rrestore performs many internal checks about
the consistency of internal structures and prints debugging information
to the standard output.
When an argument follows the -f modifier flag, it is used as the name
of the archive device, replacing the default tape device
/dev/tape/tape0_d0. When the argument is the character - (dash),
restore or rrestore reads from standard input. Thus, dump and restore
or rdump and rrestore may be used in a pipeline expression to copy file
systems with the following typical command:
dump -0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore -xf -)
The argument that follows the -F modifier flag is used as the name of
the file from which interactive input is read. As described in the
foregoing list of Function Flags for the -i function option, normally
standard input is read. The -F modifier flag allows the interactive
mode of the restore or rrestore command to be obtained from a previ-
ously written command file (similar to a shell script).
In the application described here, the following are affected:
1. The interactive interface
2. A prompt for the next volume number
3. A prompt to set the access mode for . (dot)
Error recovery interaction and the verification of operator readiness
are not affected. For example, if the file named inputfile contains
the following interactive command lines (the commands are taken from
the Function Flags list):
issuing the command:
restore -iF inputfile
uses the interactive mode to automatically mark everything for reading
(add), to unmark the subdirectory (delete foo), to mark the file
foo/bar (add foo/bar), to read the marked files (extract), to specify
volume 1 (1) of the default tape, to set the access mode for dot, .
(yes), and then quit (quit).
-h Use this modifier to restore files to a specific directory level. The
specific directory level is the file name defined by the -x switch or
the -t switch (when using command mode) or a file name in the argument
list of the add or the delete command (when using interactive mode).
Files in the named directory that are directories are not restored.
Thus, you can use this modifier to prevent hierarchical restoration of
-m When this modifier is specified, restore or rrestore reads according to
inode numbers rather than filename. This read operation is useful when
only a few files are restored and you want to avoid rewriting the com-
plete pathname to each file.
-N Tells restore not to write to disk. This option does not permit the
process to act on files in the current directory.
-s The argument that follows this modifier flag is used as the number (1
is the origin) of the file to restore. This option is used to write
more than one dump file from the tape.
-v Normally the restore or rrestore commands do not notify you about their
progress in reading from the storage device. When this modifier option
is used, the name of each file read from the tape is written to the
standard output device.
-y When this modifier is specified, restore or rrestore does not query
whether a tape error should cause the read operation to abort, but
instead the process attempts to skip over the bad block(s) and continue
the read operation.
-Y Overwrites the existing files and links without any query.
-Z When this flag is used, the restore or rrestore does not overwrite
The restore and rrestore commands are used to read files and associated
extended attributes (including ACLs, see the acl(4) and proplist(4) refer-
ence pages), from a local or remote file system backup (respectively). The
file system backup must have been written by the dump or rdump command.
The restore and rrestore commands only read files to local file systems.
The options bcdfhimrstvxyFNRYZ consist of function options and modifier
flags, which may be used in any logical combination, but with a preceding -
(dash) character. Each group of options contains at most one function
option and possibly one or more modifier flags. Function options are irtx
and R; all other options are modifier options. Other arguments specified
with these commands are the file or subdirectory name that specifies files
to be restored. The function options and modifier flags are described
Unless the -h modifier flag is specified (see the -h flag), inclusion of a
directory name refers to all files and recursively, all files in all sub-
directories of that directory.
The rrestore command reads files from a remote magnetic tape or other
specified storage device. The files were previously saved to tape with a
dump or rdump command. The rrestore command is identical in operation to
restore, except the -f function option must be specified, and the dump_file
parameter must have the form:
If you want to specify an IPv6 address for machine, you must prefix the
address with the \[ (backslash, left bracket) characters and terminate the
address with the \] (backslash, right bracket) characters. Because the
bracket characters are shell metacharacters, your must precede them with
the backslash character.
The rrestore command starts remote server /usr/sbin/rmt on the client
machine to access the storage medium.
Do not use the restore or rrestore commands to extract an archive on an
The restore or rrestore process may become confused when doing incremental
reads from tapes that were previously written from an active file system.
A level 0 (zero) tape dump or rdump must be done after a full restore.
Because restore or rrestore runs without kernel privileges, it has no con-
trol over inode allocation; thus, a full restore must be done to get a new
set of directories that reflect new inode numbering, even when the content
of files are unchanged.
When the -Y flag is specified, all files, including hard and symbolic
links, are overwritten. When the -Y flag is not specified, hard and sym-
bolic links are not overwritten, as in previous releases.
Attempting to do a restore/rrestore to a base directory that has a default
ACL or a default access ACL may cause unintended ACLs to be created on the
restored files and directories. If ACLs are enabled on the system, check
all ACLs after the restore/rrestore.
Detects bad option characters.
Detects read errors. When the -y modifier flag has been specified, or you
respond with y, the process attempts to continue the restore operation.
When a previous dump or rdump writes over more than one storage device,
restore or rrestore asks you to change a filled volume.
When the -x or -i function option has been specified, restore or rrestore
also asks what volume you wish to mount. Note, the restore -x command is
silent if a pipe or a regular file is involved.
A fast way to read a few files is to first mount the last volume, and then
mount other previous volumes working toward the first volume.
There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore. Most
checks are self-explanatory.
Common errors are listed as follows:
Converting to new filesystem format.
A tape previously written from an old file system has been loaded. On
reading, the old file system was automatically converted to a new
filename: not found on tape
One or more filenames specified by the filename parameter was listed in
the tape directory, but was not found on the tape. This is caused by
storage device read errors when searching for a named file, or when a
previously written tape was created on an active file system.
expected next file inumber, got inumber
A file that was not listed in the directory was detected. This can
occur when using a tape previously created on an active file system.
Incremental tape too low
When doing incremental restore, a tape that was written before the pre-
vious incremental tape, or one that has too low an incremental level
has been loaded.
Incremental tape too high
When doing incremental restore or rrestore, a storage process does not
begin its coverage where the previous incremental tape left off, or one
that has too high an incremental level has been loaded.
Tape read error while restoring << filename >.
Tape read error while skipping over inode << inumber >
Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
A tape read error has occurred. When a filename is specified, its con-
tents are probably partially wrong. When an inode is being skipped, or
the tape is trying to resynchronize, no files read from tape have been
corrupted although some files may not be found on the tape.
resync restore, skipped << num > blocks
After a tape read error, restore or rrestore may have to resynchronize
itself. This message lists the number of blocks that were skipped.
Specifies the command path
Specifies the command path
The default storage device.
A file that lists directories stored on the default tape.
Owner, permission mode, and timestamps for stored directories.
Holds information required during incremental restore or rrestore
operations. The file is created in the current working directory and
is appended with the node identifier of the cluster member, such as
Commands: dump(8), rdump(8), mount(8), umount(8), newfs(8)
Files: acl(4), proplist(4)