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RESTORE(8)                  System Manager's Manual                 RESTORE(8)



NAME
       restore - incremental file system restore

SYNOPSIS
       /etc/restore key [ name ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       Restore  reads  tapes dumped with the dump(8) command.  Its actions are
       controlled by the key argument.  The key is a string of characters con-
       taining  at  most one function letter and possibly one or more function
       modifiers.  Other arguments to the command are file or directory  names
       specifying  the  files  that  are  to be restored.  Unless the h key is
       specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the
       files and (recursively) subdirectories of that directory.

       The  function  portion  of the key is specified by one of the following
       letters:

       r    The tape is read and loaded  into  the  current  directory.   This
            should  not  be  done  lightly;  the  r key should only be used to
            restore a complete dump tape  onto  a  clear  file  system  or  to
            restore  an incremental dump tape after a full level zero restore.
            Thus

                 /etc/newfs /dev/rrp0g eagle
                 /etc/mount /dev/rp0g /mnt
                 cd /mnt
                 restore r

            is a typical sequence to restore a complete dump.  Another restore
            can  be  done  to get an incremental dump in on top of this.  Note
            that restore leaves a file restoresymtab in the root directory  to
            pass  information  between  incremental restore passes.  This file
            should  be  removed  when  the  last  incremental  tape  has  been
            restored.
            A  dump(8)  followed by a newfs(8) and a restore is used to change
            the size of a file system.

       R    Restore requests a particular tape of a multi volume set on  which
            to  restart  a  full  restore  (see the r key above).  This allows
            restore to be interrupted and then restarted.

       x    The named files are extracted from the tape.  If  the  named  file
            matches a directory whose contents had been written onto the tape,
            and the h key is  not  specified,  the  directory  is  recursively
            extracted.   The  owner,  modification time, and mode are restored
            (if possible).  If no file argument is given, then the root direc-
            tory is extracted, which results in the entire content of the tape
            being extracted, unless the h key has been specified.

       t    The names of the specified files are listed if they occur  on  the
            tape.   If  no  file argument is given, then the root directory is
            listed, which results in the entire  content  of  the  tape  being
            listed,  unless the h key has been specified.  Note that the t key
            replaces the function of the old dumpdir program.

       i    This mode allows interactive restoration  of  files  from  a  dump
            tape.   After  reading in the directory information from the tape,
            restore provides a shell like interface that allows  the  user  to
            move  around  the  directory tree selecting files to be extracted.
            The available commands are given below; for  those  commands  that
            require an argument, the default is the current directory.


            ls  [arg] - List the current or specified directory.  Entries that
                 are directories are appended with a ``/''.  Entries that have
                 been  marked  for  extraction are prepended with a ``*''.  If
                 the verbose key is set the inode number of each entry is also
                 listed.

            cd  arg  -  Change  the current working directory to the specified
                 argument.

            pwd - Print the full pathname of the current working directory.

            add [arg] - The current directory or specified argument  is  added
                 to  the  list  of  files  to be extracted.  If a directory is
                 specified, then it and all its descendents are added  to  the
                 extraction list (unless the h key is specified on the command
                 line).  Files that are on the extraction list  are  prepended
                 with a ``*'' when they are listed by ls.

            delete  [arg]  -  The  current  directory or specified argument is
                 deleted from the list of files to be extracted.  If a  direc-
                 tory  is  specified,  then  it  and  all  its descendents are
                 deleted from the extraction list (unless the h key is  speci-
                 fied on the command line).  The most expedient way to extract
                 most of the files from a directory is to add the directory to
                 the  extraction list and then delete those files that are not
                 needed.

            extract - All the files  that  are  on  the  extraction  list  are
                 extracted  from the dump tape.  Restore will ask which volume
                 the user wishes to mount.  The fastest way to extract  a  few
                 files  is to start with the last volume, and work towards the
                 first volume.

            verbose - The sense of the v key is toggled.  When set,  the  ver-
                 bose  key  causes the ls command to list the inode numbers of
                 all entries.  It also causes restore to print out information
                 about each file as it is extracted.

            help - List a summary of the available commands.

            quit  -  Restore immediately exits, even if the extraction list is
                 not empty.


       The following characters may be used in addition  to  the  letter  that
       selects the function desired.

       v    Normally  restore  does  its  work  silently.  The v (verbose) key
            causes it to type the name of each file it treats preceded by  its
            file type.

       f    The  next  argument  to restore is used as the name of the archive
            instead of /dev/rmt?.  If the name of the file is  ``-'',  restore
            reads  from standard input.  Thus, dump(8) and restore can be used
            in a pipeline to dump and restore a file system with the command

                 dump 0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)

       y    Restore will not ask whether it should abort the restore if gets a
            tape error.  It will always try to skip over the bad tape block(s)
            and continue as best it can.

       m    Restore will extract by inode numbers rather than  by  file  name.
            This  is  useful  if only a few files are being extracted, and one
            wants to avoid regenerating the complete pathname to the file.

       h    Restore extracts the actual directory, rather than the files  that
            it references.  This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete
            subtrees from the tape.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Complaints about bad key characters.

       Complaints if it gets a read error.  If y has been  specified,  or  the
       user responds ``y'', restore will attempt to continue the restore.

       If  the dump extends over more than one tape, restore will ask the user
       to change tapes.  If the x or i key has been  specified,  restore  will
       also  ask  which  volume  the user wishes to mount.  The fastest way to
       extract a few files is to start with the last volume, and work  towards
       the first volume.

       There  are  numerous  consistency checks that can be listed by restore.
       Most checks are  self-explanatory  or  can  ``never  happen''.   Common
       errors are given below.

       Converting to new file system format.
            A  dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded.  It
            is automatically converted to the new file system format.

       <filename>: not found on tape
            The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but  was
            not  found  on the tape.  This is caused by tape read errors while
            looking for the file, and from using a dump  tape  created  on  an
            active file system.

       expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
            A  file  that was not listed in the directory showed up.  This can
            occur when using a dump tape created on an active file system.

       Incremental tape too low
            When doing incremental restore, a tape that was written before the
            previous  incremental  tape,  or  that  has too low an incremental
            level has been loaded.

       Incremental tape too high
            When doing incremental restore, a tape that  does  not  begin  its
            coverage where the previous incremental tape left off, or that has
            too high an incremental level has been loaded.

       Tape read error while restoring <filename>
       Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
       Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
            A tape read error has occurred.  If a file name is specified, then
            its  contents  are probably partially wrong.  If an inode is being
            skipped or the tape is trying to resynchronize, then no  extracted
            files  have  been  corrupted, though files may not be found on the
            tape.

       resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
            After a tape read error, restore may have to resynchronize itself.
            This message lists the number of blocks that were skipped over.

FILES
       /dev/rmt? the default tape drive
       /tmp/rstdir*   file containing directories on the tape.
       /tmp/rstmode*  owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
       ./restoresymtab     information passed between incremental restores.

SEE ALSO
       rrestore(8C) dump(8), newfs(8), mount(8), mkfs(8)

BUGS
       Restore  can  get  confused  when  doing incremental restores from dump
       tapes that were made on active file systems.

       A level zero dump must be done after a full restore.   Because  restore
       runs in user code, it has no control over inode allocation; thus a full
       restore must be done to get a new set of directories reflecting the new
       inode numbering, even though the contents of the files is unchanged.



4th Berkeley Distribution       19 January 1983                     RESTORE(8)