restore - incremental file system restore
/etc/restore key [ name ... ]
Restore reads tapes dumped with the dump(8) command. Its actions are
controlled by the key argument. The key is a string of characters con-
taining at most one function letter and possibly one or more function
modifiers. Other arguments to the command are file or directory names
specifying the files that are to be restored. Unless the h key is
specified (see below), the appearance of a directory name refers to the
files and (recursively) subdirectories of that directory.
The function portion of the key is specified by one of the following
r The tape is read and loaded into the current directory. This
should not be done lightly; the r key should only be used to
restore a complete dump tape onto a clear file system or to
restore an incremental dump tape after a full level zero restore.
/etc/newfs /dev/rrp0g eagle
/etc/mount /dev/rp0g /mnt
is a typical sequence to restore a complete dump. Another restore
can be done to get an incremental dump in on top of this. Note
that restore leaves a file restoresymtab in the root directory to
pass information between incremental restore passes. This file
should be removed when the last incremental tape has been
A dump(8) followed by a newfs(8) and a restore is used to change
the size of a file system.
R Restore requests a particular tape of a multi volume set on which
to restart a full restore (see the r key above). This allows
restore to be interrupted and then restarted.
x The named files are extracted from the tape. If the named file
matches a directory whose contents had been written onto the tape,
and the h key is not specified, the directory is recursively
extracted. The owner, modification time, and mode are restored
(if possible). If no file argument is given, then the root direc-
tory is extracted, which results in the entire content of the tape
being extracted, unless the h key has been specified.
t The names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the
tape. If no file argument is given, then the root directory is
listed, which results in the entire content of the tape being
listed, unless the h key has been specified. Note that the t key
replaces the function of the old dumpdir program.
i This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a dump
tape. After reading in the directory information from the tape,
restore provides a shell like interface that allows the user to
move around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted.
The available commands are given below; for those commands that
require an argument, the default is the current directory.
ls [arg] - List the current or specified directory. Entries that
are directories are appended with a ``/''. Entries that have
been marked for extraction are prepended with a ``*''. If
the verbose key is set the inode number of each entry is also
cd arg - Change the current working directory to the specified
pwd - Print the full pathname of the current working directory.
add [arg] - The current directory or specified argument is added
to the list of files to be extracted. If a directory is
specified, then it and all its descendents are added to the
extraction list (unless the h key is specified on the command
line). Files that are on the extraction list are prepended
with a ``*'' when they are listed by ls.
delete [arg] - The current directory or specified argument is
deleted from the list of files to be extracted. If a direc-
tory is specified, then it and all its descendents are
deleted from the extraction list (unless the h key is speci-
fied on the command line). The most expedient way to extract
most of the files from a directory is to add the directory to
the extraction list and then delete those files that are not
extract - All the files that are on the extraction list are
extracted from the dump tape. Restore will ask which volume
the user wishes to mount. The fastest way to extract a few
files is to start with the last volume, and work towards the
verbose - The sense of the v key is toggled. When set, the ver-
bose key causes the ls command to list the inode numbers of
all entries. It also causes restore to print out information
about each file as it is extracted.
help - List a summary of the available commands.
quit - Restore immediately exits, even if the extraction list is
The following characters may be used in addition to the letter that
selects the function desired.
v Normally restore does its work silently. The v (verbose) key
causes it to type the name of each file it treats preceded by its
f The next argument to restore is used as the name of the archive
instead of /dev/rmt?. If the name of the file is ``-'', restore
reads from standard input. Thus, dump(8) and restore can be used
in a pipeline to dump and restore a file system with the command
dump 0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)
y Restore will not ask whether it should abort the restore if gets a
tape error. It will always try to skip over the bad tape block(s)
and continue as best it can.
m Restore will extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.
This is useful if only a few files are being extracted, and one
wants to avoid regenerating the complete pathname to the file.
h Restore extracts the actual directory, rather than the files that
it references. This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete
subtrees from the tape.
Complaints about bad key characters.
Complaints if it gets a read error. If y has been specified, or the
user responds ``y'', restore will attempt to continue the restore.
If the dump extends over more than one tape, restore will ask the user
to change tapes. If the x or i key has been specified, restore will
also ask which volume the user wishes to mount. The fastest way to
extract a few files is to start with the last volume, and work towards
the first volume.
There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore.
Most checks are self-explanatory or can ``never happen''. Common
errors are given below.
Converting to new file system format.
A dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded. It
is automatically converted to the new file system format.
<filename>: not found on tape
The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was
not found on the tape. This is caused by tape read errors while
looking for the file, and from using a dump tape created on an
active file system.
expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
A file that was not listed in the directory showed up. This can
occur when using a dump tape created on an active file system.
Incremental tape too low
When doing incremental restore, a tape that was written before the
previous incremental tape, or that has too low an incremental
level has been loaded.
Incremental tape too high
When doing incremental restore, a tape that does not begin its
coverage where the previous incremental tape left off, or that has
too high an incremental level has been loaded.
Tape read error while restoring <filename>
Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
A tape read error has occurred. If a file name is specified, then
its contents are probably partially wrong. If an inode is being
skipped or the tape is trying to resynchronize, then no extracted
files have been corrupted, though files may not be found on the
resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
After a tape read error, restore may have to resynchronize itself.
This message lists the number of blocks that were skipped over.
/dev/rmt? the default tape drive
/tmp/rstdir* file containing directories on the tape.
/tmp/rstmode* owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
./restoresymtab information passed between incremental restores.
rrestore(8C) dump(8), newfs(8), mount(8), mkfs(8)
Restore can get confused when doing incremental restores from dump
tapes that were made on active file systems.
A level zero dump must be done after a full restore. Because restore
runs in user code, it has no control over inode allocation; thus a full
restore must be done to get a new set of directories reflecting the new
inode numbering, even though the contents of the files is unchanged.
4th Berkeley Distribution 19 January 1983 RESTORE(8)