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PWD_MKDB(8)               BSD System Manager's Manual              PWD_MKDB(8)

     pwd_mkdb -- generate the password databases

     pwd_mkdb [-BLps] [-d directory] [-u username] file

     pwd_mkdb creates db(3) style secure and insecure databases for the speci-
     fied file.  These databases are then installed into ``/etc/spwd.db'' and
     ``/etc/pwd.db'' respectively.  The file is installed into
     ``/etc/master.passwd''.  The file must be in the correct format (see
     passwd(5)).  It is important to note that the format used in this system
     is different from the historic Version 7 style format.

     The options are as follows:

     -B    Store data in big-endian format.

     -L    Store data in little-endian format.

     -d directory
           Change the root directory of the generated files from ``/'' to

     -p    Create a Version 7 style password file and install it into

     -s    Update the secure database only.  This is useful when only
           encrypted passwords have changed.  This option negates the effect
           of any -p option.

     -u name
           Don't re-build the database files, but instead modify or add
           entries for the specified user only.  This option may only be used
           when the line number and user name in the password file have not
           changed, or when adding a new user from the last line in the pass-
           word file.

     The two databases differ in that the secure version contains the user's
     encrypted password and the insecure version has an asterisk (``*'').

     The databases are used by the C library password routines (see

     pwd_mkdb exits zero on success, non-zero on failure.

     /etc/master.passwd                The current password file.
     /etc/passwd                       A Version 7 format password file.
     /etc/pwd.db                       The insecure password database file.
     /etc/pwd.db.tmp                   A temporary file.
     /etc/spwd.db                      The secure password database file.
     /etc/spwd.db.tmp                  A temporary file.

     Because of the necessity for atomic update of the password files,
     pwd_mkdb uses rename(2) to install them.  This, however, requires that
     the file specified on the command line live on the same file system as
     the ``/etc'' directory.

     There are the obvious races with multiple people running pwd_mkdb on dif-
     ferent password files at the same time.  The front-ends to chpass(1),
     passwd(1), useradd(8), userdel(8), usermod(8), and vipw(8) handle the
     locking necessary to avoid this problem.

     The database files are copied when the -u option is used.  Real locking
     would make this unnecessary.

     Although the DB format is endian-transparent, the data stored in the DB
     is not.  Also, the format doesn't lend itself to insertion or removal of
     records from arbitrary locations in the password file.  This is difficult
     to fix without breaking compatibility.

     Using the -u option on a system where multiple users share the same UID
     can have unexpected results.

     Previous versions of the system had a program similar to pwd_mkdb which
     built dbm style databases for the password file but depended on the call-
     ing programs to install them.  The program was renamed in order that pre-
     vious users of the program not be surprised by the changes in functional-

     chpass(1), passwd(1), db(3), getpwent(3), pw_mkdb(3), passwd(5),
     useradd(8), userdel(8), usermod(8), vipw(8)

BSD                             April 27, 1995                             BSD