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NSLOOKUP(8)        BSD System Manager's Manual        NSLOOKUP(8)


NAME
       nslookup - query Internet name servers interactively

SYNOPSIS
       nslookup [ -option ...  ] [ host-to-find | - [ server ]]

DESCRIPTION
       Nslookup  is  a  program  to  query  Internet  domain name
       servers.  Nslookup has two  modes:  interactive  and  non-
       interactive.   Interactive  mode  allows the user to query
       name servers  for  information  about  various  hosts  and
       domains  or  to  print  a list of hosts in a domain.  Non-
       interactive mode is  used  to  print  just  the  name  and
       requested information for a host or domain.


ARGUMENTS
       Interactive mode is entered in the following cases:

       a)  when  no  arguments are given (the default name server
           will be used),

       b)  when the first argument is a hyphen (-) and the second
           argument  is  the  host  name or Internet address of a
           name server.

       Non-interactive mode is used when  the  name  or  Internet
       address  of the host to be looked up is given as the first
       argument. The optional second argument specifies the  host
       name or address of a name server.

       The  options listed under the ``set'' command below can be
       specified in the  .nslookuprc  file  in  the  user's  home
       directory  if  they  are  listed one per line. Options can
       also be specified on the command line if they precede  the
       arguments  and are prefixed with a hyphen. For example, to
       change the default query type to host information, and the
       initial timeout to 10 seconds, type:
            nslookup -query=hinfo  -timeout=10

INTERACTIVE COMMANDS
       Commands  may  be interrupted at any time by typing a con-
       trol-C.  To exit, type a control-D  (EOF)  or  type  exit.
       The  command line length must be less than 256 characters.
       To treat a built-in command as a  host  name,  precede  it
       with  an  escape character (\).  N.B. an unrecognized com-
       mand will be interpreted as a host name.

       host [server]
              Look up information  for  host  using  the  current
              default  server  or  using server if specified.  If



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NSLOOKUP(8)        BSD System Manager's Manual        NSLOOKUP(8)


              host is an Internet address and the query type is A
              or  PTR, the name of the host is returned.  If host
              is a name and does not have a trailing period,  the
              default  domain name is appended to the name. (This
              behavior depends on the state of  the  set  options
              domain, srchlist, defname, and search).  To look up
              a host not in the current domain, append  a  period
              to the name.


       server domain
       lserver domain
              Change  the default server to domain.  Lserver uses
              the initial server to  look  up  information  about
              domain   while  server  uses  the  current  default
              server.  If an authoritative answer can't be found,
              the names of servers that might have the answer are
              returned.


       root   Changes the default server to the  server  for  the
              root of the domain name space.  Currently, the host
              ns.internic.net is used.  (This command is  a  syn-
              onym for lserver ns.internic.net.)  The name of the
              root server can be changed with the set  root  com-
              mand.


       finger [name] [>> filename]
       finger [name] [>>>> filename]
              Connects  with  the  finger  server  on the current
              host.  The current host is defined when a  previous
              lookup  for  a  host  was  successful  and returned
              address information (see the set  querytype=A  com-
              mand).   Name is optional.  >> and >>>> can be used to
              redirect output in the usual manner.


       ls [option] domain [>> filename]
       ls [option] domain [>>>> filename]
              List the information available for domain,  option-
              ally   creating  or  appending  to  filename.   The
              default output contains host names and their Inter-
              net addresses.  Option can be one of the following:

              -t querytype
                  lists all records of the  specified  type  (see
                  querytype below).

              -a  lists  aliases of hosts in the domain.  synonym
                  for -t  CNAME.



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NSLOOKUP(8)        BSD System Manager's Manual        NSLOOKUP(8)


              -d  lists all records for the domain.  synonym  for
                  -t  ANY.

              -h  lists  CPU and operating system information for
                  the domain.  synonym for -t  HINFO.

              -s  lists  well-known  services  of  hosts  in  the
                  domain.  synonym for -t  WKS.

              When  output  is directed to a file, hash marks are
              printed for every  50  records  received  from  the
              server.


       view filename
              Sorts  and  lists  the  output  of previous ls com-
              mand(s) with more(1).


       help

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.


       exit   Exits the program.


       set keyword[=value]
              This command is used to  change  state  information
              that affects the lookups.  Valid keywords are:

              all    Prints the current values of the frequently-
                     used options to set.  Information about  the
                     current  default  server  and  host  is also
                     printed.

              class=value
                     Change the query class to one of:

                     IN        the Internet class.

                     CHAOS     the Chaos class.

                     HESIOD    the MIT Athena Hesiod class.

                     ANY       wildcard (any of the above).

                     The class specifies the  protocol  group  of
                     the information.
                     (Default = IN, abbreviation = cl)




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              [no]debug
                     Turn  debugging mode on. A lot more informa-
                     tion is printed about the packet sent to the
                     server and the resulting answer.
                     (Default = nodebug, abbreviation = [no]deb)

              [no]d2 Turn  exhaustive  debugging mode on.  Essen-
                     tially  all  fields  of  every  packet   are
                     printed.
                     (Default = nod2)

              domain=name
                     Change the default domain name to name.  The
                     default domain name is appended to a  lookup
                     request  depending  on the state of the def-
                     name and search options.  The domain  search
                     list  contains  the  parents  of the default
                     domain if it has at least two components  in
                     its  name.   For  example,  if  the  default
                     domain is CC.Berkeley.EDU, the  search  list
                     is  CC.Berkeley.EDU  and  Berkeley.EDU.  Use
                     the set srchlist command to specify  a  dif-
                     ferent  list.   Use  the  set all command to
                     display the list.
                     (Default    =    value    from     hostname,
                     /etc/resolv.conf  or  LOCALDOMAIN, abbrevia-
                     tion = do)

              srchlist=name1/name2/...
                     Change the default domain name to name1  and
                     the domain search list to name1, name2, etc.
                     A maximum of 6 names  separated  by  slashes
                     (/) can be specified.  For example,
                         set srch-
                     list=lcs.MIT.EDU/ai.MIT.EDU/MIT.EDU
                     sets  the  domain  to  lcs.MIT.EDU  and  the
                     search  list  to the three names.  This com-
                     mand overrides the default domain  name  and
                     search  list of the set domain command.  Use
                     the set all command to display the list.
                     (Default  =   value   based   on   hostname,
                     /etc/resolv.conf  or  LOCALDOMAIN, abbrevia-
                     tion = srchl)

              [no]defname
                     If set, append the default domain name to  a
                     single-component  lookup  request (i.e., one
                     that does not contain a period).
                     (Default = defname, abbreviation = [no]def)





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              [no]search
                     If the lookup request contains at least  one
                     period  but  doesn't  end  with  a  trailing
                     period,  append  the  domain  names  in  the
                     domain  search  list to the request until an
                     answer is received.
                     (Default = search, abbreviation = [no]sea)

              port=value
                     Change the default TCP/UDP name server  port
                     to value.
                     (Default = 53, abbreviation = po)

              querytype=value
              type=value
                     Change  the type of information query to one
                     of:

                     A         the host's Internet address.

                     CNAME     the canonical name for an alias.

                     HINFO     the host CPU and operating  system
                               type.

                     MINFO     the  mailbox or mail list informa-
                               tion.

                     MX        the mail exchanger.

                     NS        the  name  server  for  the  named
                               zone.

                     PTR       the  host  name if the query is an
                               Internet  address,  otherwise  the
                               pointer to other information.

                     SOA       the      domain's      ``start-of-
                               authority'' information.

                     TXT       the text information.

                     UINFO     the user information.

                     WKS       the supported well-known services.

                     Other  types  (ANY,  AXFR, MB, MD, MF, NULL)
                     are described in the RFC-1035 document.
                     (Default = A, abbreviations = q, ty)





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              [no]recurse
                     Tell the name server to query other  servers
                     if it does not have the information.
                     (Default = recurse, abbreviation = [no]rec)

              retry=number
                     Set the number of retries to number.  When a
                     reply to a request is not received within  a
                     certain  amount  of  time  (changed with set
                     timeout), the timeout period is doubled  and
                     the request is resent.  The retry value con-
                     trols how many times  a  request  is  resent
                     before giving up.
                     (Default = 4, abbreviation = ret)

              root=host
                     Change  the name of the root server to host.
                     This affects the root command.
                     (Default = ns.internic.net., abbreviation  =
                     ro)

              timeout=number
                     Change  the  initial  timeout  interval  for
                     waiting for a reply to number seconds.  Each
                     retry doubles the timeout period.
                     (Default = 5 seconds, abbreviation = ti)

              [no]vc Always  use  a  virtual circuit when sending
                     requests to the server.
                     (Default = novc, abbreviation = [no]v)

              [no]ignoretc
                     Ignore packet truncation errors.
                     (Default  =   noignoretc,   abbreviation   =
                     [no]ig)

DIAGNOSTICS
       If the lookup request was not successful, an error message
       is printed.  Possible errors are:

       Timed out
            The server did not respond to a request after a  cer-
            tain  amount of time (changed with set timeout=value)
            and a certain number of  retries  (changed  with  set
            retry=value).

       No response from server
            No name server is running on the server machine.

       No records
            The  server  does  not  have  resource records of the



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            current query type for the host,  although  the  host
            name  is valid.  The query type is specified with the
            set querytype command.

       Non-existent domain
            The host or domain name does not exist.

       Connection refused
       Network is unreachable
            The connection to the name or finger server could not
            be  made  at  the  current time.  This error commonly
            occurs with ls and finger requests.

       Server failure
            The name server found an  internal  inconsistency  in
            its database and could not return a valid answer.

       Refused
            The name server refused to service the request.

       Format error
            The name server found that the request packet was not
            in the proper format.  It may indicate  an  error  in
            nslookup.


FILES
       /etc/resolv.conf                initial  domain  name  and
                                       name server addresses.
       $HOME/.nslookuprc               user's initial options.
       /usr/share/misc/nslookup.help   summary of commands.

ENVIRONMENT
       HOSTALIASES    file containing host aliases.
       LOCALDOMAIN    overrides default domain.

SEE ALSO
       resolver(3), resolver(5), named(8),
       RFC-1034  ``Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities''
       RFC-1035  ``Domain Names - Implementation  and  Specifica-
       tion''

AUTHOR
       Andrew Cherenson










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