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NAMED(8)                                                 NAMED(8)

       named - Internet domain name server

       named [ -c config-file ]  [ -d debug-level ]  [ -f ]  [ -g
       ]  [ -n #cpus ]  [ -p port ]  [ -s ]  [ -t directory ]   [
       -u user ]  [ -v ]  [ -x cache-file ]

       named  is  a  Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the
       BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on  the
       DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.

       When  invoked  without arguments, named will fork into two
       processes   for   privilege   separation.    chroot()   to
       /var/named,    read   the   default   configuration   file
       /var/named/etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and lis-
       ten  for  queries. The privileged process will communicate
       with the child and bind to privileged ports on its behalf.
       See CAVEATS section below.

       -c config-file
              Use  config-file  as the configuration file instead
              of  the  default,   /var/named/etc/named.conf.   To
              ensure  that  reloading the configuration file con-
              tinues to work after the  server  has  changed  its
              working  directory  due  to  a  possible  directory
              option  in  the  configuration  file,   config-file
              should be an absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
              Set   the  daemon's  debug  level  to  debug-level.
              Debugging traces from named become more verbose  as
              the debug level increases.

       -f     Run  the server in the foreground (i.e. do not dae-

       -g     Run the server in the foreground and force all log-
              ging to stderr.

       -n #cpus
              Create  #cpus  worker  threads to take advantage of
              multiple CPUs. If not specified, named will try  to
              determine the number of CPUs present and create one
              thread per CPU.  If it is unable to  determine  the
              number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be cre-

       -p port
              Listen for queries on port port. If not  specified,
              the default is port 53.

BIND9                     June 30, 2000                         1

NAMED(8)                                                 NAMED(8)

       -s     Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.

              Note:  This  option is mainly of interest to BIND 9
              developers and may  be  removed  or  changed  in  a
              future release.

       -t directory
              chroot()  to directory after processing the command
              line arguments, but before reading  the  configura-
              tion   file.    By  default,  named  chroot()'s  to

              Warning: This option should be used in  conjunction
              with  the -u option, as chrooting a process running
              as root doesn't enhance security on  most  systems;
              the  way  chroot() is defined allows a process with
              root privileges to escape a chroot jail.

       -u user
              setuid() to user after completing privileged opera-
              tions,  such  as  creating  sockets  that listen on
              privileged ports.  By default, named  will  run  as
              user named.

       -v     Report the version number and exit.

       -x cache-file
              Load  data  from  cache-file  into the cache of the
              default view.

              Warning: This option must not be used. It  is  only
              of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed
              or changed in a future release.

       In routine operation, signals should not be used  to  con-
       trol the nameserver; rndc should be used instead.

       SIGHUP Force a reload of the server.

              Shut down the server.

       The  result  of sending any other signals to the server is

       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in
       detail  here.  A  complete  description is provided in the

BIND9                     June 30, 2000                         2

NAMED(8)                                                 NAMED(8)

       BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.

              The default configuration file.

              The default process-id file.

       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, rndc(8), lwresd(8),  BIND  9
       Administrator Reference Manual.

       Internet Software Consortium

       named  runs privilege separated for binding the privileged
       ports after an interface or address change. The privileged
       process  will  only  allow named to bind to default ports.
       Make sure you use unprivileged (>1024) ports if you change
       any  of  the  default ports in named's configuration or on
       the command-line.

BIND9                     June 30, 2000                         3