named - Internet domain name server
named [ -c config-file ] [ -d debug-level ] [ -f ] [ -g
] [ -n #cpus ] [ -p port ] [ -s ] [ -t directory ] [
-u user ] [ -v ] [ -x cache-file ]
named is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the
BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on the
DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.
When invoked without arguments, named will fork into two
processes for privilege separation. chroot() to
/var/named, read the default configuration file
/var/named/etc/named.conf, read any initial data, and lis-
ten for queries. The privileged process will communicate
with the child and bind to privileged ports on its behalf.
See CAVEATS section below.
Use config-file as the configuration file instead
of the default, /var/named/etc/named.conf. To
ensure that reloading the configuration file con-
tinues to work after the server has changed its
working directory due to a possible directory
option in the configuration file, config-file
should be an absolute pathname.
Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level.
Debugging traces from named become more verbose as
the debug level increases.
-f Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not dae-
-g Run the server in the foreground and force all log-
ging to stderr.
Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of
multiple CPUs. If not specified, named will try to
determine the number of CPUs present and create one
thread per CPU. If it is unable to determine the
number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be cre-
Listen for queries on port port. If not specified,
the default is port 53.
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-s Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.
Note: This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9
developers and may be removed or changed in a
chroot() to directory after processing the command
line arguments, but before reading the configura-
tion file. By default, named chroot()'s to
Warning: This option should be used in conjunction
with the -u option, as chrooting a process running
as root doesn't enhance security on most systems;
the way chroot() is defined allows a process with
root privileges to escape a chroot jail.
setuid() to user after completing privileged opera-
tions, such as creating sockets that listen on
privileged ports. By default, named will run as
-v Report the version number and exit.
Load data from cache-file into the cache of the
Warning: This option must not be used. It is only
of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed
or changed in a future release.
In routine operation, signals should not be used to con-
trol the nameserver; rndc should be used instead.
SIGHUP Force a reload of the server.
Shut down the server.
The result of sending any other signals to the server is
The named configuration file is too complex to describe in
detail here. A complete description is provided in the
BIND9 June 30, 2000 2
BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.
The default configuration file.
The default process-id file.
RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, rndc(8), lwresd(8), BIND 9
Administrator Reference Manual.
Internet Software Consortium
named runs privilege separated for binding the privileged
ports after an interface or address change. The privileged
process will only allow named to bind to default ports.
Make sure you use unprivileged (>1024) ports if you change
any of the default ports in named's configuration or on
BIND9 June 30, 2000 3