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MTREE(8)                  BSD System Manager's Manual                 MTREE(8)

     mtree - map a directory hierarchy

     mtree [-cderux] [-f spec] [-K keywords] [-k keywords] [-p path] [-s seed]

     The utility mtree compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current di-
     rectory against a specification read from the standard input.  Messages
     are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do
     not match the specifications, or which are missing from either the file
     hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as follows:

     -c    Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard out-

     -d    Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -e    Don't complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not
           in the specification.

     -f    Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard in-

     -K    Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the
           current set of keywords.

     -k    Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma
           separated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords.

     -p    Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current di-

     -r    Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in
           the specification.

     -s    Display a single checksum to the standard error output that repre-
           sents all of the files for which the keyword cksum was specified.
           The checksum is seeded with the specified value.

     -u    Modify the owner, group, and permissions of existing files to match
           the specification and create any missing directories.  User, group,
           and permissions must all be specified for missing directories to be

     -x    Don't descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.

     Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e. strings that
     that specify values relating to files.  No keywords have default values,
     and if a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum       The checksum of the file using the default algorithm speci-
                 fied by the cksum(1) utility.

     ignore      Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid         The file group as a numeric value.

     gname       The file group as a symbolic name.

     mode        The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or sym-
                 bolic value.

     nlink       The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     uid         The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname       The file group as a symbolic name.

     size        The size, in bytes, of the file.

     link        The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.

     time        The last modification time of the file.

     type        The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:

                 block       block special device
                 char        character special device
                 dir         directory
                 fifo        fifo
                 file        regular file
                 link        symbolic link
                 socket      socket

     The default set of keywords are gid, mode, nlink, size, slink, time, and

     There are four types of lines in a specification.

     The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of
     the string ``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of key-
     word/value pairs, separated by whitespace.  Keyword/value pairs consist
     of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed by a value,
     without whitespace characters.  Once a keyword has been set, its value
     remains unchanged until either reset or unset.

     The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string ``/un-
     set'', followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords, separat-
     ed by whitespace.

     The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file
     name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace sepa-
     rated keyword/value pairs.  The file name may be preceded by whitespace
     characters.  The file name may contain any of the standard file name
     matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
     in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they

     Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an
     equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace
     characters.  These values override, without changing, the global value of
     the corresponding keyword.

     All paths are relative.  Specifying a directory will cause subsequent
     files to be searched for in that directory hierarchy.  Which brings us to
     the last type of line in a specification: a line containing only the
     string ``..'' causes the current directory path to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark
     (``#'') are ignored.

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error oc-
     curred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.

     To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recom-
     mended that mtree be run on the file systems, and a copy of the results
     stored on a different machine, or, at least, in encrypted form.  The seed
     for the -s option should not be an obvious value and the final checksum
     should not be stored on-line under any circumstances!  Then, periodical-
     ly, mtree should be run against the on-line specifications and the final
     checksum compared with the previous value.  While it is possible for the
     bad guys to change the on-line specifications to conform to their modi-
     fied binaries, it shouldn't be possible for them to make it produce the
     same final checksum value.  If the final checksum value changes, the off-
     line copies of the specification can be used to detect which of the bina-
     ries have actually been modified.

     The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory hi-
     erarchies for distributions and other such things.

     /etc/mtree  system specification directory

     chmod(1),  chown(1),  chgrp(1),  cksum(1),  stat(2),  fts(3),

     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.

4.4BSD                         December 11, 1993                             3