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MOUNT_NULL(8)             BSD System Manager's Manual            MOUNT_NULL(8)

     mount_null - mount a loopback filesystem sub-tree; demonstrate the use of
     a null file system layer

     mount_null [-o options] target mount-point

     The mount_null command creates a null layer, duplicating a sub-tree of
     the file system name space under another part of the global file system
     namespace.  This allows existing files and directories to be accessed us-
     ing a different pathname.

     The primary differences between a virtual copy of the filesystem and a
     symbolic link are that getcwd(3) functions correctly in the virtual copy,
     and that other filesystems may be mounted on the virtual copy without af-
     fecting the original.  A different device number for the virtual copy is
     returned by stat(2),  but in other respects it is indistinguishable from
     the original.

     The mount_null filesystem differs from a traditional loopback file system
     in two respects: it is implemented using a stackable layers techniques,
     and it's ``null-node'' s stack above all lower-layer vnodes, not just
     over directory vnodes.

     The options are as follows:

     -o      Options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma separat-
             ed string of options.  See the mount(8) man page for possible op-
             tions and their meanings.

     The null layer has two purposes.  First, it serves as a demonstration of
     layering by proving a layer which does nothing.  (It actually does every-
     thing the loopback file system does, which is slightly more than noth-
     ing.)  Second, the null layer can serve as a prototype layer.  Since it
     provides all necessary layer framework, new file system layers can be
     created very easily be starting with a null layer.

     The remainder of this man page examines the null layer as a basis for
     constructing new layers.

     New null layers are created with mount_null(8).  Mount_null(8) takes two
     arguments, the pathname of the lower vfs (target-pn) and the pathname
     where the null layer will appear in the namespace (mount-point-pn).  Af-
     ter the null layer is put into place, the contents of target-pn subtree
     will be aliased under mount-point-pn.

     The null layer is the minimum file system layer, simply bypassing all
     possible operations to the lower layer for processing there.  The majori-
     ty of its activity centers on the bypass routine, though which nearly all
     vnode operations pass.

     The bypass routine accepts arbitrary vnode operations for handling by the
     lower layer.  It begins by examing vnode operation arguments and replac-
     ing any null-nodes by their lower-layer equivalents.  It then invokes the
     operation on the lower layer.  Finally, it replaces the null-nodes in the
     arguments and, if a vnode is returned by the operation, stacks a null-
     node on top of the returned vnode.

     Although bypass handles most operations, vop_getattr, vop_inactive,
     vop_reclaim, and vop_print are not bypassed.  Vop_getattr must change the
     fsid being returned.  Vop_inactive and vop_reclaim are not bypassed so
     that they can handle freeing null-layer specific data.  Vop_print is not
     bypassed to avoid excessive debugging information.

     Mounting associates the null layer with a lower layer, in effect stacking
     two VFSes.  Vnode stacks are instead created on demand as files are ac-

     The initial mount creates a single vnode stack for the root of the new
     null layer.  All other vnode stacks are created as a result of vnode op-
     erations on this or other null vnode stacks.

     New vnode stacks come into existence as a result of an operation which
     returns a vnode.  The bypass routine stacks a null-node above the new vn-
     ode before returning it to the caller.

     For example, imagine mounting a null layer with

           mount_null /usr/include /dev/layer/null
     Changing directory to /dev/layer/null will assign the root null-node
     (which was created when the null layer was mounted).  Now consider open-
     ing sys. A vop_lookup would be done on the root null-node.  This opera-
     tion would bypass through to the lower layer which would return a vnode
     representing the UFS sys. Null_bypass then builds a null-node aliasing
     the UFS sys and returns this to the caller.  Later operations on the
     null-node sys will repeat this process when constructing other vnode

     One of the easiest ways to construct new file system layers is to make a
     copy of the null layer, rename all files and variables, and then begin
     modifyng the copy.  Sed can be used to easily rename all variables.

     The umap layer is an example of a layer descended from the null layer.

     There are two techniques to invoke operations on a lower layer when the
     operation cannot be completely bypassed.  Each method is appropriate in
     different situations.  In both cases, it is the responsibility of the
     aliasing layer to make the operation arguments "correct" for the lower
     layer by mapping an vnode arguments to the lower layer.

     The first approach is to call the aliasing layer's bypass routine.  This
     method is most suitable when you wish to invoke the operation currently
     being handled on the lower layer.  It has the advantage the the bypass
     routine already must do argument mapping.  An example of this is
     null_getattrs in the null layer.

     A second approach is to directly invoked vnode operations on the lower
     layer with the VOP_OPERATIONNAME interface.  The advantage of this method
     is that it is easy to invoke arbitrary operations on the lower layer.
     The disadvantage is that vnodes arguments must be manually mapped.


     UCLA Technical Report CSD-910056, Stackable Layers: an Architecture for
     File System Development.

     The mount_null utility first appeared in 4.4BSD.

4.4BSD                            May 1, 1995                                2