MOUNT(8) BSD System Manager's Manual MOUNT(8)
mount -- mount file systems
mount [-adfpruvw] [-F fstab] [-o options] [-t ufs | external_type]
mount [-dfpruvw] special | node
mount [-dfpruvw] [-o options] [-t ufs | external_type] special node
The mount utility calls the mount(2) system call to prepare and graft a
special device or the remote node (rhost:path) on to the file system tree
at the point node. If either special or node are not provided, the
appropriate information is taken from the fstab(5) file.
The system maintains a list of currently mounted file systems. If no
arguments are given to mount, this list is printed.
The options are as follows:
-a All the file systems described in fstab(5) are mounted. Excep-
tions are those marked as ``noauto'', excluded by the -t flag
(see below), or if they are already mounted (except the root file
system which is always remounted to preserve traditional single
user mode behavior).
-d Causes everything to be done except for the actual system call.
This option is useful in conjunction with the -v flag to deter-
mine what the mount command is trying to do.
Specify the fstab file to use.
-f Forces the revocation of write access when trying to downgrade a
file system mount status from read-write to read-only. Also
forces the R/W mount of an unclean file system (dangerous; use
-o Options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma sepa-
rated string of options. In case of conflicting options being
specified, the rightmost option takes effect. The following
options are available:
acls Enable Access Control Lists, or ACLS, which can be cus-
tomized via the setfacl(1) and getfacl(1) commands.
async All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously.
This is a dangerous flag to set, and should not be used
unless you are prepared to recreate the file system
should your system crash.
When used with the -u flag, this is the same as specify-
ing the options currently in effect for the mounted file
force The same as -f; forces the revocation of write access
when trying to downgrade a file system mount status from
read-write to read-only. Also forces the R/W mount of an
unclean file system (dangerous; use with caution).
fstab When used with the -u flag, this is the same as specify-
ing all the options listed in the fstab(5) file for the
Enable multi-label Mandatory Access Control, or MAC, on
the specified file system. If the file system supports
multilabel operation, individual labels will be main-
tained for each object in the file system, rather than
using a single label for all obejcts. An alternative to
the -l flag in tunefs(8). See mac(4) for more informa-
tion, which cause the multilabel mount flag to be set
automatically at mount-time.
Metadata I/O should be done synchronously, while data I/O
should be done asynchronously. This is the default.
Do not update the file access time when reading from a
file. This option is useful on file systems where there
are large numbers of files and performance is more criti-
cal than updating the file access time (which is rarely
ever important). This option is currently only supported
on local file systems.
noauto This file system should be skipped when mount is run with
the -a flag.
Disable read clustering.
Disable write clustering.
nodev Do not interpret character or block special devices on
the file system. This option is useful for a server that
has file systems containing special devices for architec-
tures other than its own. This option is set automati-
cally when the user does not have super-user privileges.
noexec Do not allow execution of any binaries on the mounted
file system. This option is useful for a server that has
file systems containing binaries for architectures other
than its own.
nosuid Do not allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier
bits to take effect. Note: this option is worthless if a
public available suid or sgid wrapper like suidperl(1) is
installed on your system. It is set automatically when
the user does not have super-user privileges.
Do not follow symlinks on the mounted file system.
ro The same as -r; mount the file system read-only (even the
super-user may not write it).
sync All I/O to the file system should be done synchronously.
This option allows a snapshot of the specified file sys-
tem to be taken. The -u flag is required with this
option. Note that snapshot files must be created in the
file system that is being snapshotted. You may create up
to 20 snapshots per file system. Active snapshots are
recorded in the superblock, so they persist across
unmount and remount operations and across system reboots.
When you are done with a snapshot, it can be removed with
the rm(1) command. Snapshots may be removed in any
order, however you may not get back all the space con-
tained in the snapshot as another snapshot may claim some
of the blocks that it is releasing. Note that the schg
flag is set on snapshots to ensure that not even the root
user can write to them. The unlink command makes an
exception for snapshot files in that it allows them to be
removed even though they have the schg flag set, so it is
not necessary to clear the schg flag before removing a
Once you have taken a snapshot, there are three interest-
ing things that you can do with it:
1. Run fsck(8) on the snapshot file. Assuming that the
file system was clean when it was mounted, you
should always get a clean (and unchanging) result
from running fsck on the snapshot. This is essen-
tially what the background fsck process does.
2. Run dump(8) on the snapshot. You will get a dump
that is consistent with the file system as of the
timestamp of the snapshot.
3. Mount the snapshot as a frozen image of the file
system. To mount the snapshot /var/snapshot/snap1:
mdconfig -a -t vnode -f /var/snapshot/snap1 -u 4
mount -r /dev/md4 /mnt
You can now cruise around your frozen /var file sys-
tem at /mnt. Everything will be in the same state
that it was at the time the snapshot was taken. The
one exception is that any earlier snapshots will
appear as zero length files. When you are done with
the mounted snapshot:
mdconfig -d -u 4
Further details can be found in the file at
A directory on the mounted file system will respond to
the SUID bit being set, by setting the owner of any new
files to be the same as the owner of the directory. New
directories will inherit the bit from their parents.
Execute bits are removed from the file, and it will not
be given to root.
This feature is designed for use on fileservers serving
PC users via ftp, SAMBA, or netatalk. It provides secu-
rity holes for shell users and as such should not be used
on shell machines, especially on home directories. This
option requires the SUIDDIR option in the kernel to work.
Only UFS file systems support this option. See chmod(2)
for more information.
update The same as -u; indicate that the status of an already
mounted file system should be changed.
union Causes the namespace at the mount point to appear as the
union of the mounted file system root and the existing
directory. Lookups will be done in the mounted file sys-
tem first. If those operations fail due to a non-exis-
tent file the underlying directory is then accessed. All
creates are done in the mounted file system.
Any additional options specific to a file system type that is not
one of the internally known types (see the -t option) may be
passed as a comma separated list; these options are distinguished
by a leading ``-'' (dash). Options that take a value are speci-
fied using the syntax -option=value. For example, the mount com-
mount -t unionfs -o -b /sys $HOME/sys
causes mount to execute the equivalent of:
/sbin/mount_unionfs -b /sys $HOME/sys
Additional options specific to file system types which are not
internally known (see the description of the -t option below) may
be described in the manual pages for the associated
-p Print mount information in fstab(5) format. Implies also the -v
-r The file system is to be mounted read-only. Mount the file sys-
tem read-only (even the super-user may not write it). The same
as the ro argument to the -o option.
-t ufs | external_type
The argument following the -t is used to indicate the file system
type. The type ufs is the default. The -t option can be used to
indicate that the actions should only be taken on file systems of
the specified type. More than one type may be specified in a
comma separated list. The list of file system types can be pre-
fixed with ``no'' to specify the file system types for which
action should not be taken. For example, the mount command:
mount -a -t nonfs,nullfs
mounts all file systems except those of type NFS and NULLFS.
If the type is not one of the internally known types, mount will
attempt to execute a program in /sbin/mount_XXX where XXX is
replaced by the type name. For example, nfs file systems are
mounted by the program /sbin/mount_nfs.
Most file systems will be dynamically loaded by the kernel if not
already present, and if the kernel module is available.
-u The -u flag indicates that the status of an already mounted file
system should be changed. Any of the options discussed above
(the -o option) may be changed; also a file system can be changed
from read-only to read-write or vice versa. An attempt to change
from read-write to read-only will fail if any files on the file
system are currently open for writing unless the -f flag is also
specified. The set of options is determined by applying the
options specified in the argument to -o and finally applying the
-r or -w option.
-v Verbose mode.
-w The file system object is to be read and write.
Various, most of them are self-explanatory.
XXXXX file system is not available
The kernel does not support the respective file system type. Note that
support for a particular file system might be provided either on a static
(kernel compile-time), or dynamic basis (loaded as a kernel module by
PATH_FSTAB If the environment variable PATH_FSTAB is set, all operations
are performed against the specified file. PATH_FSTAB will
not be honored if the process environment or memory address
space is considered ``tainted''. (See issetugid(2) for more
/etc/fstab file system table
getfacl(1), setfacl(1), mount(2), acl(3), mac(4), fstab(5), kldload(8),
mount_cd9660(8), mount_devfs(8), mount_ext2fs(8), mount_fdescfs(8),
mount_hpfs(8), mount_linprocfs(8), mount_msdosfs(8), mount_nfs(8),
mount_ntfs(8), mount_nullfs(8), mount_nwfs(8), mount_portalfs(8),
mount_procfs(8), mount_smbfs(8), mount_std(8), mount_udf(8),
mount_umapfs(8), mount_unionfs(8), umount(8)
It is possible for a corrupted file system to cause a crash.
After a successful mount, the permissions on the original mount point
determine if .. is accessible from the mounted file system. The minimum
permissions for the mount point for traversal across the mount point in
both directions to be possible for all users is 0111 (execute for all).
A mount utility appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.
BSD April 7, 2003 BSD