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mkisofs(8)							   mkisofs(8)



NAME

  mkisofs - Create a ISO9660 filesystem	with optional Rock Ridge attributes.

SYNOPSIS

  /usr/sbin/mkisofs [-a] [-b boot_image] [-c boot_catalog] [-A
  application_id] [-f] [-d] [-D] [-i include-list] [-l]	[-L] [-p preparer]
  [-P publisher] [-r] [-R] [-T]	[-v] [-V] [-V volid] [-x path] [-z] [-m	glob]
  -o filename path

OPTIONS

  -a  Include all files	on the ISO9660 filesystem.  Normally files that	con-
      tain the characters '~' or '#' will not be included (these are typi-
      cally backup files for editors under UNIX).

  -A application_id
      Specifies	a text string that will	be written into	the volume header.
      This should describe the application that	will be	on the CD-ROM.	There
      is space on the CD-ROM for 128 characters	of information.	 This parame-
      ter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with APPI=id.	If specified
      in both places, the command line version is used.

  -b boot_image
      Specifies	the path and filename of the boot image	to be used when	mak-
      ing an "El Torito" bootable CD-ROM. The pathname must be relative	to
      the source path specified	to mkisofs.  This option is required to	make
      a	bootable CD-ROM. The boot image	must be	exactly	the size of either a
      1.2, 1.44, or a 2.88 meg floppy, and mkisofs will	use this size when
      creating the output ISO9660 filesystem.  It is assumed that the first
      512 byte sector should be	read from the boot image (it is	essentially
      emulating	a normal floppy	drive).	This will work,	for example, if	the
      boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

  -c boot_catalog
      Specifies	the path and filename of the boot catalog to be	used when
      making an	"El Torito" bootable CD-ROM. The pathname must be relative to
      the source path specified	to mkisofs.  This option is required to	make
      a	bootable CD-ROM. This file will	be created by mkisofs in the source
      filesystem.  Ensure that the specified filename does not conflict	with
      an existing file,	as it will be quietly overwritten. Select a unique
      and descriptive name such	as boot.catalog.

  -d  Omit trailing period from	files that do not have a period.  This
      violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.
      Use with caution.

  -D  Do not use deep directory	relocation, and	instead	just pack them in the
      way we see them.	This violates the ISO9660 standard, but	it works on
      many systems.  Use with caution.

  -f  Follow symbolic links when generating the	filesystem.  When this option
      is not in	use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge if
      enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

  -i include-list
      Use the specified	file as	a list of files	to add to the directory	tree.
      This is useful for quickly repacking a CD-ROM while adding files to it.
      The format of this file is path1/file=path2 where	path1 is the direc-
      tory in the ISO9660 file system where file should	appear and path2 is
      the where	to find	the file.


				       Note

	 This option is	not recommended

  -l  Allow full 32 character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 filename	will
      be in an 8.3 format which	is compatible with MS-DOS, even	though the
      ISO9660 standard allows filenames	of up to 32 characters.	 If you	use
      this option, the CD-ROM may be difficult to use on a MS-DOS system.

  -L  Allow filenames to begin with a period.  Usually,	a leading dot is
      replaced with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.

  -m glob
      Exclude glob from	being written to CD-ROM. The glob is a shell wild-
      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the path
      as with option -x	). Technically glob is matched against the d->d_name
      part of the directory entry. Multiple globs may be excluded (up to
      1000). For example:
	   mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

      would exclude all	files ending in	".o", called "core" or "foobar"	to be
      copied to	CD-ROM.	Note that if you had a directory called	"foobar" it
      too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.

  -M path
      Specifies	path to	existing ISO9660 image to be merged.  The output of
      mkisofs will be a	new session which should get written to	the end	of
      the image	specified in -M.  Typically this requires multi-session	capa-
      bility for the recorder and CD-ROM drive that you	are attempting to
      write this image to.


				       Note

	 Support for this option is not	yet complete.

  -N  Omit version numbers from	ISO9660	file names.  This may violate the
      ISO9660 standard,	but no one really uses the version numbers anyway.
      Use with caution.

  -o filename
      This is the name of the file to which the	ISO9660	filesystem image
      should be	written.  This can be a	disk file, a tape drive, or it can
      correspond directly to the device	name of	the CD-ROM writer.  If not
      specified, stdout	is used.  Note that the	output can also	be a block
      special device for a regular disk	drive, in which	case the disk parti-
      tion can be mounted and examined to ensure that the premastering was
      done correctly.

  -P publisher_id
      Specifies	a text string that will	be written into	the volume header.
      This should describe the publisher of the	CD-ROM,	usually	with a mail-
      ing address and phone number.  There is space on the CD-ROM for 128
      characters of information.  This parameter can also be set in the	file
      .mkisofsrc with PUBL=. If	specified in both places, the command line
      version is used.

  -p preparer_id
      Specifies	a text string that will	be written into	the volume header.
      This should describe the preparer	of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing
      address and phone	number.	 There is space	on the CD-ROM for 128
      characters of information.  This parameter can also be set in the	file
      .mkisofsrc with PREP=. If	specified in both places, the command line
      version is used.

  -R  Generate SUSP and	RR records using the Rock Ridge	protocol to further
      describe the files on the	ISO9660	filesystem.

  -r  This is similar to the -R	option,	but file ownership and modes are set
      to more useful values.  The UID and GID are set to zero, because they
      are usually only useful on the author's system, and not useful to	the
      client.  All the file read bits are set true, so that files and direc-
      tories are globally readable on the client.  If any execute bit is set
      for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are glo-
      bally executable on the client.  If any search bit is set	for a direc-
      tory, set	all of the search bits,	so that	directories are	globally
      searchable on the	client.	 All write bits	are cleared, because the
      CD-ROM will be mounted read-only in any case.  If	any of the special
      mode bits	are set, clear them, because file locks	are not	useful on a
      read-only	file system, and set-id	bits are not desirable for UID 0 or
      GID 0.

  -T  Generate a file TRANS.TBL	in each	directory on the CD-ROM, which can be
      used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to	help establish the correct
      file names. There	is also	information present in the file	that indi-
      cates the	major and minor	numbers	for block and character	devices, and
      each symlink has the name	of the link file given.

  -V volid
      Specifies	the volume ID to be written into the master block.  This
      parameter	can also be set	in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id. If
      specified	in both	places,	the command line version is used.

  -v  Verbose execution.

  -x path
      Exclude path from	being written to CD-ROM. The path must be the com-
      plete pathname that results from concatenating the pathname given	as
      command line argument and	the path relative to this directory. Multiple
      paths may	be excluded (up	to 1000). For example:
	   mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1	-x /local/dir2 /local

  -z  Generate special SUSP records for	transparently compressed files.	 This
      is only of use and interest for hosts that support transparent
      decompression.


				       Note

	 This is an experimental feature, and no hosts yet support this, but
	 there are ALPHA patches for Linux that	can make use of	this feature.











DESCRIPTION

  The mkisofs utility is a pre-mastering program to generate the ISO9660
  filesystem.  It takes	a snapshot of a	given directory	tree, and generates a
  binary image corresponding to	an ISO9660 filesystem when written to a	block
  device.

  The mkisofs utility is also capable of generating the	System Use Sharing
  Protocol records specified by	the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This is
  used to describe the files in	the ISO9660 filesystem to a UNIX host, and
  provides information such as longer filenames, UID and GID, POSIX permis-
  sions, and block and character devices.

  Each file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have	a filename in the 8.3
  format (8 characters,	period,	3 characters, all upper	case), even if Rock
  Ridge	is in use.  This filename is used on systems that are not able to
  make use of the Rock Ridge extensions	(such as MS-DOS), and each filename
  in each directory must be different from the other filenames in the same
  directory.  The mkisofs utility generally tries to form correct names	by
  forcing the UNIX filename to upper case and truncating as required, but
  often	times this yields unsatisfactory results when there are	cases where
  the truncated	names are not all unique. The mkisofs utility assigns weight-
  ings to each filename, and if	two names that are otherwise the same are
  found	the name with the lower	priority is renamed to have a 3	digit number
  as an	extension (where the number is guaranteed to be	unique).  An example
  of this would	be the files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~:

    +  The file	foo.bar.~1~ will be written as FOO.000;1

    +  The file	foo.bar	would be written as FOO.BAR;1

  Note that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with	the CD-ROM writer
  directly.  Most CD-ROM writers have proprietary command sets which vary
  from one manufacturer	to another, and	you need a specialized tool to actu-
  ally burn the	disk.

				     Note

       The cdwrite utility is one such tool that runs under Linux and per-
       forms this task.	The latest version of cdwrite is capable of communi-
       cating with Phillips/IMS/Kodak, HP and Yamaha drives.  Most writers
       come with some version of DOS software that allows a direct image copy
       of an ISO9660 image to the writer.  The current version of cdwrite is
       available from sunsite.unc.edu: /utils/disk-management/cdwrite-
       2.0.tar.gz

  Most CD-ROM writers are very particular about	timing.	Once a CD-ROM write
  session is started, the buffer must not empty	before completion, or the
  CD-ROM will be corrupted. It is critical to maintain an uninterrupted	data
  stream to the	CD-ROM writer for the entire time that the CD-ROM is being
  written.

  The path is the path of the directory	tree to	be copied into the ISO9660
  filesystem.

  CONFIGURATION


  The mkisofs utility looks for	the .mkisofsrc file, first in the current
  working directory, then in the user's	home directory,	and then in the
  directory in which the mkisofs binary	is stored.  This file is assumed to
  contain a series of lines of the form	TAG=value, and in this way you can
  specify certain options. The case of the tag is not significant.  Some
  fields in the	volume header are not settable on the command line, but	can
  be altered through this facility. Comments may be placed in this file,
  using	lines which start with a # character.

  APPI	  The application identifier should describe the application that
	  will be on the CD-ROM. There is space	on the CD-ROM for 128 charac-
	  ters of information. May be overridden using the -A command line
	  option.

  COPY	  The copyright	information, often the name of a file on the CD-ROM
	  containing the copyright notice. There is space in the CD-ROM	for
	  37 characters	of information.

  ABST	  The abstract information, often the name of a	file on	the CD-ROM
	  containing an	abstract. There	is space in the	CD-ROM for 37 charac-
	  ters of information.

  BIBL	  The bibliographic information, often the name	of a file on the
	  CD-ROM containing a bibliography. There is space in the CD-ROM for
	  37 characters	of information.

  PREP	  This should describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usually with	a
	  mailing address and phone number. There is space on the CD-ROM for
	  128 characters of information. May be	overridden using the -p	com-
	  mand line option.

  PUBL	  This should describe the publisher of	the CD-ROM, usually with a
	  mailing address and phone number. There is space on the CD-ROM for
	  128 characters of information. May be	overridden using the -P	com-
	  mand line option.

  SYSI	  The System Identifier. There is space	on the CD-ROM for 32 charac-
	  ters of information.

  VOLI	  The Volume Identifier. There is space	on the CD-ROM for 32 charac-
	  ters of information. May be overridden using the -V command line
	  option.

  VOLS	  The Volume Set Name. There is	space on the CD-ROM for	278 charac-
	  ters of information.

  The mkisofs utility can also be configured at	compile	time with defaults
  for many of these fields. See	the file <&lt;defaults.h>&gt;.

RESTRICTIONS

  Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being	copied to the
  ISO9660 filessytem will have an incorrect file reference count.

EXAMPLES

  The following	example	shows a	typical	build instruction using	/build_disk
  as the target	location for the image:

       # mkisofs -D -R -a -d -o	/build_disk/dunix.cdfs /cdimage

FILES

  /usr/sbin/mkisofs
      The executable image.

  .mkisofsrc
      The configuration	file






AUTHOR

  Eric Youngdale <ericyATgnu.edu>	or <ericATandante.com> wrote	both
  the Linux isofs9660 filesystem and the mkisofs utility, and is currently
  maintaining them.  The copyright for the mkisofs utility is held by
  Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated.

  The mkisofs utility is available for anonymous ftp from tsx-11.mit.edu in
  /pub/linux/packages/mkisofs.