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LPD(8)                      System Manager's Manual                     LPD(8)

       lpd - printer daemon

       /usr/lib/lpd [ -l ] [ -L logfile ] [ port# ]

       lpd  is  the  line  printer daemon (spool area handler).  It is usually
       invoked at boot time from the  rc(8)  script,   making  a  single  pass
       through  the  printcap(5)  file to find out about the existing printers
       and printing any files left after a crash.  It then accepts requests to
       print  files  in  a queue, transfer files to a spooling area, display a
       queue's status, or remove jobs from a queue.  In each case, it forks  a
       child  process for each request, and continues to listen for subsequent

       The Internet port number used to communicate with  other  processes  is
       usually  obtained  with  getservent(3N),  but can be specified with the
       port# argument.

       If a file cannot be opened,  an  error  message  is  logged  using  the
       LOG_LPR facility of syslog(3).  lpd will try up to 20 times to reopen a
       file it expects to be there, after which it proceeds to the  next  file
       or job.

       -l     Log  valid requests received from the network.  This can be use-
              ful for debugging purposes.

       -L logfile
              Change the file used for writing error  conditions  to  logfile.
              The default is to report a message using the syslog(3) facility.

   Access Control
       Access control is provided by two means.  First, all requests must come
       from one of the machines listed in either the file /etc/hosts.equiv  or
       /etc/hosts.lpd.   (This latter file is in hosts.equiv(5) format.)  Sec-
       ond, if the rs capability is specified in the  printcap  entry,  lpr(1)
       requests  are  only  be  honored for users with accounts on the printer

   Lock File
       The lock file in each spool directory is used to prevent multiple  dae-
       mons  from  becoming  active, and to store information about the daemon
       process for lpr(1), lpq(1), and lprm(1).

       lpd uses flock(2) to provide exclusive access to the lock file  and  to
       prevent  multiple  daemons from becoming active simultaneously.  If the
       daemon should be killed or die unexpectedly, the lock file need not  be
       removed.   The  lock file is kept in a readable ASCII form and contains
       two lines.  The first is the process id of the daemon and the second is
       the  control  file  name  of the current job being printed.  The second
       line is updated to reflect the current status of lpd for  the  programs
       lpq(1) and lprm(1).

   Control Files
       After  the daemon has successfully set the lock, it scans the directory
       for files beginning with cf.  Lines in each cf file specify files to be
       printed or non-printing actions to be performed.  Each such line begins
       with a key character that indicates what to do with  the  remainder  of
       the line.
              J      Job name to print on the burst page.
              C      Classification line on the burst page.
              L      Literal.   This  line contains identification information
                     from the password file, and causes a  burst  page  to  be
              T      Title string for page headings printed by pr(1V).
              H      Hostname of the machine where lpr(1) was invoked.
              P      Person.   Login  name  of  the person who invoked lpr(1).
                     This is used to verify ownership by lprm(1).
              M      Send mail to the specified user when  the  current  print
                     job completes.
              f      Formatted  File,  the  name  of  a  file to print that is
                     already formatted.
              l      Like f, but passes control characters along, and does not
                     make page breaks.
              p      Name of a file to print using pr(1V) as a filter.
              t      Troff  File.  The file contains troff(1) output (cat pho-
                     totypesetter commands).
              n      Ditroff File.  The file contains device independent troff
              d      DVI  File.  The file contains TEX output (DVI format from
              g      Graph File.  The file contains data produced by plot(3X).
              c      Cifplot File. The file contains data produced by cifplot.
              v      The file contains a raster image.
              r      The file contains text data with FORTRAN carriage control
              1      Troff  Font  R. The name of a font file to use instead of
                     the default.
              2      Troff Font I. The name of the font file to use instead of
                     the default.
              3      Troff Font B. The name of the font file to use instead of
                     the default.
              4      Troff Font S. The name of the font file to use instead of
                     the default.
              W      Width.  Changes  the  page  width (in characters) used by
                     pr(1V) and the text filters.
              I      Indent.  Specify the number of  characters  by  which  to
                     indent the output.
              U      Unlink.   The  name  of file to remove upon completion of
              N      Filename.  The name of the file being printed, or a blank
                     for the standard input (when lpr(1) is invoked in a pipe-

   Data Files
       When a file is spooled for printing, the contents  are  copied  into  a
       data file in the spool directory.  Data file names begin with df.  When
       lpr is called with the -s option, the control files contain a  symbolic
       link to the actual file, and no data files are created.

   Minfree File
       The  file  minfree in each spool directory contains the number of kilo-
       bytes to leave free so that the line  printer  queue  won't  completely
       fill the disk.

       /etc/printcap       printer description file
       /var/spool/*        spool directories
                           minimum free space to leave
       /dev/lp*            line printer devices
       /dev/printer        socket for local requests
       /etc/hosts.equiv    hosts allowed equivalent host access
       /etc/hosts.lpd      hosts allowed printer access only

       lpq(1), lpr(1), lprm(1), hosts(5), hosts.equiv(5), printcap(5), lpc(8),

                                5 December 1989                         LPD(8)