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IPCHAINS(8)                                                        IPCHAINS(8)



NAME
       ipchains - IP firewall administration

SYNOPSIS
       ipchains -[ADC] chain rule-specification [options]
       ipchains -[RI] chain rulenum rule-specification [options]
       ipchains -D chain rulenum [options]
       ipchains -[LFZNX] [chain] [options]
       ipchains -P chain target [options]
       ipchains -M [ -L | -S ] [options]

DESCRIPTION
       Ipchains is used to set up, maintain, and inspect the IP firewall rules
       in the Linux kernel.  These rules can be divided into 4 different cate-
       gories:  the  IP  input  chain,  the IP output chain, the IP forwarding
       chain, and user defined chains.

       For each of these categories, a separate table of rules is  maintained,
       any  of  which  might  refer  to  one  of the user-defined chains.  See
       ipfw(4) for more details.

TARGETS
       A firewall rule specifies criteria for a packet, and a target.  If  the
       packet  does not match, the next rule in the chain is then examined; if
       it does match, then the next rule is specified by the value of the tar-
       get,  which can be the name of a user-defined chain, or one of the spe-
       cial values ACCEPT, DENY, REJECT, MASQ, REDIRECT, or RETURN.
       ACCEPT means to let the packet through.  DENY means to drop the  packet
       on  the  floor.   REJECT means the same as drop, but is more polite and
       easier to debug, since an ICMP message is sent back to the sender indi-
       cating that the packet was dropped.  (Note that DENY and REJECT are the
       same for ICMP packets.)
       MASQ is only legal for the forward and user  defined  chains,  and  can
       only  be  used  when  the  kernel is compiled with CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE
       defined.  With this, packets will be masqueraded as if they  originated
       from  the  local host.  Furthermore, reverse packets will be recognized
       as such and they will be  demasqueraded  automatically,  bypassing  the
       forwarding chain.
       REDIRECT  is  only  legal for the input and user-defined chains and can
       only be used when the Linux kernel is compiled with CONFIG_IP_TRANSPAR-
       ENT_PROXY  defined.   With  this, packets will be redirected to a local
       socket, even if they were sent to a remote host.  If the specified  re-
       direction  port  is 0, which is the default value, the destination port
       of a packet will be used as the redirection port.  When this target  is
       used, an optional extra argument (the port number) can be supplied.
       If  the  end  of a user-defined chain is reached, or a rule with target
       RETURN is matched, then the next rule in the previous  (calling)  chain
       is  examined.  If the end of a builtin chain is reached, or a rule in a
       builtin chain with target RETURN is matched, the  target  specified  by
       the chain policy determines the fate of the packet.

OPTIONS
       The options that are recognized by ipchains can be divided into several
       different groups.

   COMMANDS
       These options specify the specific action to perform; only one of  them
       can be specified on the command line, unless otherwise specified below.
       For all the long versions of the command and  option  names,  you  only
       need to use enough letters to ensure that ipchains can differentiate it
       from all other options.

       -A, --append
              Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain.  When
              the  source  and/or  destination  names resolve to more than one
              address, a rule will be added for each possible address combina-
              tion.

       -D, --delete
              Delete one or more rules from the selected chain.  There are two
              versions of this command: the rule can be specified as a  number
              in  the  chain  (starting  at 1 for the first rule) or a rule to
              match.

       -R, --replace
              Replace a rule in the selected chain.  If the source and/or des-
              tination  names  resolve to multiple addresses, the command will
              fail.  Rules are numbered starting at 1.

       -I, --insert
              Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule
              number.   So,  if  the  rule  number is 1, the rule or rules are
              inserted at the head of the chain.

       -L, --list
              List all rules in the selected chain.  If no chain is  selected,
              all  chains  are  listed.   It is legal to specify the -Z (zero)
              option as well, in which case no chain may  be  specified.   The
              exact output is affected by the other arguments given.

       -F, --flush
              Flush  the  selected  chain.  This is equivalent to deleting all
              the rules one by one.

       -Z, --zero
              Zero the packet and byte counters in all chains.  It is legal to
              specify  the  -L, --list (list) option as well, to see the coun-
              ters immediately before they are cleared; if this is done,  then
              no  specific  chain can be specified (they will all be displayed
              and cleared).

       -N, --new-chain
              Create a new user-defined chain of the given name.   There  must
              be no target of that name already.

       -X, --delete-chain
              Delete  the specified user-defined chain.  There must be no ref-
              erences to the chain (if there are you must  delete  or  replace
              the  referring  rules  before  the chain can be deleted).  If no
              argument is given, it will attempt to delete  every  non-builtin
              chain.

       -P, --policy
              Set  the policy for the chain to the given target.  See the sec-
              tion TARGETS for the legal targets.  Only non-userdefined chains
              can  have policies, and neither built-in nor user-defined chains
              can be policy targets.

       -M, --masquerading
              This option allows viewing of the currently masqueraded  connec-
              tions  (in  conjuction  with the -L option) or to set the kernel
              masquerading parameters (with the -S option).

       -S, --set tcp tcpfin udp
              Change the timeout values used for masquerading.   This  command
              always  takes  3 parameters, representing the timeout values (in
              seconds) for TCP sessions, TCP sessions after  receiving  a  FIN
              packet,  and UDP packets, respectively.  A timeout value 0 means
              that the current timeout value of  the  corresponding  entry  is
              preserved.   This option is only allowed in combination with the
              -M flag.

       -C, --check
              Check the given packet against  the  selected  chain.   This  is
              extremely  useful  for testing, as the same kernel routines used
              to check "real" network packets are used to check  this  packet.
              It  can  be  used  to  check  user-defined chains as well as the
              builtin ones.  The same arguments used to specify firewall rules
              are  used  to construct the packet to be tested.  In particular,
              the -s (source), -d (destination), -p (protocol), and -i (inter-
              face) flags are compulsory.

       -h, --help
              Give a (currently very brief) description of the command syntax.
              If followed by the word icmp, then  a  list  of  ICMP  names  is
              listed.

       -V, --version
              Simply output the ipchains version number.

   PARAMETERS
       The  following  parameters make up a rule specification (as used in the
       add, delete, replace, append and check commands).

       -p, --protocol[!] protocol
              The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check.  The  speci-
              fied protocol can be one of tcp, udp, icmp, or all, or it can be
              a numeric value, representing one of these protocols or  a  dif-
              ferent  one.   Also  a  protocol  name  from  /etc/protocols  is
              allowed.  A "!" argument before the protocol inverts  the  test.
              The  number  zero is equivalent to all.  Protocol all will match
              with all protocols and is taken as default when this  option  is
              omitted.   All  may not be used in in combination with the check
              command.

       -s, --source, --src [!] address[/mask] [!] [port[:port]]
              Source specification.  Address can be either a hostname, a  net-
              work name, or a plain IP address.  The mask can be either a net-
              work mask or a plain number, specifying the number of 1's at the
              left side of the network mask.  Thus, a mask of 24 is equivalent
              to 255.255.255.0.  A "!" argument before the address  specifica-
              tion inverts the sense of the address.
              The  source may include a port specification or ICMP type.  This
              can either be a service name, a  port  number,  a  numeric  ICMP
              type, or one of the ICMP type names shown by the command
               ipchains -h icmp
              Note  that  many  of  these  ICMP names refer to both a type and
              code, meaning that an ICMP code after the -d  flag  is  illegal.
              In the rest of this paragraph, a port means either a port speci-
              fication or an ICMP type.  An inclusive range can also be speci-
              fied, using the format port:port.  If the first port is omitted,
              "0" is assumed; if the last is omitted, "65535" is assumed.
              Ports may only be specified in combination with the tcp, udp, or
              icmp protocols.  A "!" before the port specification inverts the
              sense.  When the check command is specified, exactly one port is
              required,  and  if the -f (fragment) flag is specified, no ports
              are allowed.

       --source-port [!] [port[:port]]
              This allows separate specification of the source  port  or  port
              range.  See the description of the -s flag above for details.The
              flag --sport is an alias for this option.

       -d, --destination, --dst [!] address[/mask] [!] [port[:port]]
              Destination  specification.   See  the  desciption  of  the   -s
              (source)  flag  for  a  detailed description of the syntax.  For
              ICMP, which does not have ports, a "destination port" refers  to
              the numeric ICMP code.

       --destination-port [!] [port[:port]]
              This  allows  separate  specification  of  the  ports.   See the
              description of the -s flag for details.  The flag --dport is  an
              alias for this option.

       --icmp-type [!] typename
              This  allows  specification  of  the  ICMP type (use the -h icmp
              option to see valid ICMP type names).  This is often more conve-
              nient than appending it to the destination specification.

       -j, --jump target
              This  specifies  the  target  of the rule; ie. what to do if the
              packet matches it.  The target can be a user-defined chain  (not
              the  one  this  rule  is in) or one of the special targets which
              decide the fate of the packet immediately.  If  this  option  is
              omitted in a rule, then matching the rule will have no effect on
              the packet's fate, but the counters on the rule will  be  incre-
              mented.

       -i, --interface [!] name
              Optional  name  of  an  interface via which a packet is received
              (for packets entering the input chain), or via which  is  packet
              is  going to be sent (for packets entering the forward or output
              chains).  When this option  is  omitted,  the  empty  string  is
              assumed,  which  has  a  special meaning and will match with any
              interface name.  When the  "!"   argument  is  used  before  the
              interface  name,  the  sense is inverted.  If the interface name
              ends in a "+", then any interface which begins  with  this  name
              will match.

       [!]  -f, --fragment
              This means that the rule only refers to second and further frag-
              ments of fragmented packets.  Since there is no way to tell  the
              source  or  destination  ports  of such a packet (or ICMP type),
              such a packet will not match any rules which specify them.  When
              the "!" argument precedes the "-f" flag, the sense is inverted.

   OTHER OPTIONS
       The following additional options can be specified:

       -b, --bidirectional
              Bidirectional mode.  The rule will match with IP packets in both
              directions; this has the same effect as repeating the rule  with
              the source & destination reversed.  Note that this does NOT mean
              that if you allow TCP syn packets out, the -b  rule  will  allow
              non-SYN packets back in: the reverse rule is exactly the same as
              the rule you entered.  This means that it's  usually  better  to
              simply avoid the -b flag and spell the rules out explicitly.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbose  output.   This  option  makes the list command show the
              interface address, the rule options (if any), and the TOS masks.
              The  packet  and  byte counters are also listed, with the suffix
              'K', 'M' or 'G' for 1000, 1,000,000 and 1,000,000,000  multipli-
              ers  respectively  (but  see  the -x flag to change this).  When
              used in  combination  with  -M,  information  related  to  delta
              sequence numbers will also be listed.  For appending, insertion,
              deletion and replacement, this causes  detailed  information  on
              the rule or rules to be printed.

       -n, --numeric
              Numeric  output.   IP addresses and port numbers will be printed
              in numeric format.  By default, the program will try to  display
              them  as host names, network names, or services (whenever appli-
              cable).

       -l, --log
              Turn on kernel logging of matching packets.  When this option is
              set  for a rule, the Linux kernel will print some information of
              all matching packets (like most IP header fields) via printk().

       -o, --output [maxsize]
              Copy matching packets to the userspace  device.   This  is  cur-
              rently  mainly  for developers who want to play with firewalling
              effects in userspace.  The optional maxsize argument can be used
              to  limit  the maximum number of bytes from the packet which are
              to be copied.  This option is only valid if the kernel has  been
              compiled with CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL_NETLINK set.

       -m, --mark markvalue
              Mark  matching  packets.   Packets  can  be marked with a 32-bit
              unsigned value which may (one day) change how they  are  handled
              internally.   If you are not a kernel hacker you are unlikely to
              care about this.  If the string markvalue begins with a + or  -,
              then  this  value  will  be added or subtracted from the current
              marked value of the packet (which starts at zero).

       -t, --TOS andmask xormask
              Masks used for modifying the TOS field in the IP header.  When a
              packet  matches  a  rule,  its TOS field is first bitwise and'ed
              with first mask and the result of this will  be  bitwise  xor'ed
              with the second mask.  The masks should be specified as hexadec-
              imal 8-bit values.  As the LSB of the TOS field  must  be  unal-
              tered  (RFC 1349), TOS values which would cause it to be altered
              are rejected, as are any rules which always set  more  than  one
              TOS  bit.   Rules  which might set multiple TOS bits for certain
              packets result in warnings (sent to stdout) which can be ignored
              if  you know that packets with those TOS values will never reach
              that rule.   Obviously, manipulating the TOS  is  a  meaningless
              gesture if the rule's target is DENY or REJECT.

       -x, --exact
              Expand  numbers.  Display the exact value of the packet and byte
              counters, instead of only the rounded number in  K's  (multiples
              of  1000)  M's (multiples of 1000K) or G's (multiples of 1000M).
              This option is only relevant for the -L command.

       [!] -y, --syn
              Only match TCP packets with the SYN bit set and the ACK and  FIN
              bits  cleared.   Such packets are used to request TCP connection
              initiation; for example, blocking  such  packets  coming  in  an
              interface  will  prevent  incoming TCP connections, but outgoing
              TCP connections will be unaffected.  This option is  only  mean-
              ingful  when  the  protocol type is set to TCP.  If the "!" flag
              precedes the "-y", the sense of the option is inverted.

       --line-numbers
              When listing rules, add line numbers to the  beginning  of  each
              rule, corresponding to that rule's position in the chain.

       --no-warnings
              Disable all warnings.

FILES
       /proc/net/ip_fwchains
       /proc/net/ip_masquerade

DIAGNOSTICS
       Various error messages are printed to standard error.  The exit code is
       0 for correct functioning.  Errors which appear to be caused by invalid
       or  abused  command  line parameters cause an exit code of 2, and other
       errors cause an exit code of 1.

BUGS
       If input is a terminal, and a rule is inserted in, or appended to,  the
       forward chain, and IP forwarding does not seem to be enabled, and --no-
       warnings is not specified, a message is  printed  to  standard  output,
       warning that no forwarding will occur until this is rectified.  This is
       to help users unaware of the requirement (which did not  exist  in  the
       2.0 kernels).

       There  is  no  way  to  reset the packet and byte counters in one chain
       only.  This is a kernel limitation.

       Loop detection is not done in ipchains; packets in a loop  get  dropped
       and  logged, but that's the first you'll find out about it if you inad-
       vertantly create a loop.

       The explanation of what effect marking a packet  has  is  intentionally
       vague until documentation describing the new 2.1 kernel's packet sched-
       uling routines is released.

       There is no way to zero the policy counters (ie. those on the  built-in
       chains).

NOTES
       This ipchains is very different from the ipfwadm by Jos Vos, as it uses
       the new IP firewall trees.  Its functionality is a superset of ipfwadm,
       and  there  is  generally a 1:1 mapping of commands.  I believe the new
       command names are more rational.  There are, however, a few changes  of
       which you should be aware.

       Fragments  are handled differently.  All fragments after the first used
       to be let through (which is usually safe); they can  now  be  filtered.
       This  means  that  you  should  probably add an explicit rule to accept
       fragments if you are converting over.  Also, look  for  old  accounting
       rules  which check for source and destination ports of 0xFFFF (0xFF for
       ICMP packets) which was the old way of doing accounting on fragments.

       Accounting rules are now simply integrated into the  input  and  output
       chains; you can simulate the old behaviour like so:
        ipchains -N acctin
        ipchains -N acctout
        ipchains -N acctio
        ipchains -I input -j acctio
        ipchains -I input -j acctin
        ipchains -I output -j acctio
        ipchains -I output -j acctout
       This  creates  three  user-defined  chains, acctin, acctout and acctio,
       which are to contain any accounting rules (these rules should be speci-
       fied  without  a  -j flag, so that the packets simply pass through them
       unscathed).

       A MASQ or REDIRECT target encountered by the kernel out of  place  (ie.
       not  during  a forward or input rule respectively) will cause a message
       to the syslog and the packet to be dropped.

       The old behaviour of SYN and ACK matching (which was previously ignored
       for  non-TCP packets) has changed; the SYN option is not valid for non-
       TCP-specific rules.

       The ACK matching option (the -k flag) is no longer supported; the  com-
       bination of !  and -y will give the equivalent).

       It  is  now  illegal  to specify a TOS mask which will set or alter the
       least significant TOS bit; previously TOS masks were  silently  altered
       by the kernel if they tried to do this.

       The  -b  flag  is now handled by simply inserting or deleting a pair of
       rules, one with the source and destination specifications reversed.

       There is no way to specify an interface by address: use its name.

SEE ALSO
       ipfw_chains(4), ipchains-save(8), ipchains-restore(8)

AUTHOR
       Rusty Russell.  Thanks also to Hans Persson for detailed  proofreading;
       I want him to read all my future documents!



                               February 8, 1998                    IPCHAINS(8)