named, in.named - Internet domain name server
/usr/etc/in.named [ -d level ] [ -p port ] [[-b] bootfile ]
named is the Internet domain name server. It is used by resolver
libraries to provide access to the Internet distributed naming data-
base. The domain name server is described in the See RFC 1034 and RFC
1035 for more details. With no arguments named reads /etc/named.boot
for any initial data, and listens for queries on a privileged port.
Print debugging information. level is a number indicating the
level of messages printed.
Use port as the port number, rather than the standard port num-
Use bootfile rather than /etc/named.boot.
; boot file for name server
; type domain source file or host
primary berkeley.edu named.db
secondary cc.berkeley.edu 10.2.0.78 126.96.36.199
cache . named.ca
The primary line states that the file named.db contains authoritative
data for berkeley.edu. The file named.db contains data in the master
file format, described in RFC 1035, except that all domain names are
relative to the origin; in this case, berkeley.edu (see below for a
more detailed description).
The secondary line specifies that all authoritative data under
cc.berkeley.edu is to be transferred from the name server at 10.2.0.78.
If the transfer fails it will try 188.8.131.52, and continue for up to
10 tries at that address. The secondary copy is also authoritative for
The cache line specifies that data in named.ca is to be placed in the
cache (only used to find the root domain servers). The file named.ca
is in the same format as named.db.
The master file consists of entries of the form:
<<domain>> <<opt_ttl>> <<opt_class>> <<type>> <<resource_record_data>>
where domain is `.' for the root, `@' for the current origin, or a
standard domain name. If domain is a standard domain name that does
not end with `.', the current origin is appended to the domain. Domain
names ending with `.' are unmodified.
The opt_ttl field is an optional integer number for the time-to-live
field. It defaults to zero.
The opt_class field is currently one token, `IN' for the Internet.
The type field is one of the following tokens; the data expected in the
resource_record_data field is in parentheses.
A A host address (dotted quad).
NS An authoritative name server (domain).
MX A mail exchanger (domain).
CNAME The canonical name for an alias (domain).
SOA Marks the start of a zone of authority (5 numbers). (see RFC
MB A mailbox domain name (domain).
MG A mail group member (domain).
MR A mail rename domain name (domain).
NULL A null resource record (no format or data).
WKS A well know service description (not implemented yet).
PTR A domain name pointer (domain).
HINFO Host information (cpu_type OS_type).
MINFO Mailbox or mail list information (request_domain error_domain).
/etc/named.boot name server configuration boot file
/etc/named.pid the process ID
/var/tmp/named.run debug output
dump of the name servers database
kill(1), signal(3V), resolver(3), resolv.conf(5), nslookup(8C)
Mockapetris, Paul, Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities, RFC 1034,
Network Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., No-
Mockapetris, Paul, Domain Names - Implementation and Specification, RFC
1035, Network Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park,
Calif., November 1987.
Mockapetris, Paul, Domain System Changes and Observations, RFC 973,
Network Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., Jan-
Partridge, Craig, Mail Routing and the Domain System, RFC 974, Network
Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., January
The following signals have the specified effect when sent to the server
process using the kill(1) command.
SIGHUP Causes server to read named.boot and reload database.
SIGINT Dumps current data base and cache to /var/tmp/named_dump.db.
Turns on debugging; each subsequent SIGUSR1 increments debug
Turns off debugging completely.
30 June 1989 NAMED(8C)