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fsdb(8)								      fsdb(8)


  fsdb - File system debugger


  /usr/sbin/fsdb [options] special


  -?  Display usage

  -o  Override some error conditions

  -p 'string'
      Set prompt to string

  -w  Open for write


  Since	fsdb reads the disk raw, it is able to circumvent normal file system
  security.  Extreme caution is	advised	in determining its availability	on
  the system.  Suggested permissions are 500, owned by bin.

  You must root	to use this command.

  The fsdb command can be used to repair a damaged file	system after a crash.
  It has conversions to	translate block	and i-numbers into their correspond-
  ing disk addresses. Also included are	mnemonic offsets to access different
  parts	of an inode. These greatly simplify the	process	of correcting control
  block	entries	or descending the file system tree.

  The fsdb command contains several error-checking routines to verify inode
  and block addresses. These can be disabled if	necessary by invoking fsdb
  with the -o option.

  The fsdb command reads a block at a time and works with raw as well as
  block	I/O. A buffer management routine is used to retain commonly used
  blocks of data in order to reduce the	number of read system calls. All
  assignment operations	result in an immediate write-through of	the
  corresponding	block. Note that in order to modify any	portion	of the disk,
  fsdb must be invoked with the	-w option.

  Wherever possible, adb-like syntax was adopted to promote the	use of fsdb
  through familiarity.

  Numbers are considered hexadecimal by	default. However, you have control
  over how data	is to be displayed or accepted.	The base command displays or
  sets the input/output	base. Once set,	all input will default to this base
  and all output will be shown in this base. The base can be overridden	tem-
  porarily for input by	preceding hexadecimal numbers with '0x', preceding
  decimal numbers with '0t', or	octal numbers with '0'.	Hexadecimal numbers
  beginning with a-f or	A-F must be preceded with '0x' to distinguish them
  from commands.

  Disk addressing by fsdb is at	the byte level.	However, fsdb offers many
  commands to convert a	desired	inode, directory entry,	block, superblock
  etc. to a byte address. Once the address has been calculated,	fsdb will
  record the result in dot.

  Several global values	are maintained by fsdb:	The current base (referred to
  as base); the	current	address	(referred to as	dot); the current inode
  (referred to as inode); the current count (referred to as count); and	the
  current type (referred to as type). Most commands use	the preset value of
  dot in their execution. For example:

       >> 2:inode

  will first set the value of dot to 2,	':' will alert the start of a com-
  mand,	and the	inode command will set inode to	2. A count is specified	after
  a ','. Once set, count will remain at	this value until a new command is
  encountered which will then reset the	value back to 1	(the default). So, if

       >> 2000,400/X

  is typed, 400	hex longs are listed from 2000,	and when completed, the	value
  of dot will be 2000 +	400 * sizeof (long). If	you press the Return key, the
  output routine uses the current values of dot, count,	and type and displays
  400 more hex longs.  An asterisk (*) causes the entire block to be

  End of fragment, block and file are maintained by fsdb.  When	displaying
  data as fragments or blocks, an error	message	is displayed when the end of
  fragment or block is reached.	When displaying	data using the db, ib, direc-
  tory,	or file	commands, an error message is displayed	if the end of file is
  reached. This	is mainly needed to avoid passing the end of a directory or
  file and getting unknown and unwanted	results.

  An example showing several commands and the use of Return follows:

       >> 2:ino;	0:dir?d


       >> 2:ino;	0:db:block?d

  The two examples are synonymous for getting to the first directory entry of
  the root of the file system.	Once there, subsequent use of the Return key
  ( or +, -) advances to subsequent entries. The following display is again

       >> 2:inode; :ls /


       >> :ls /


  > 2000+400%(20+20)=D
      displays 2010 in decimal (use of fsdb as a calculator for	complex

  > 386:ino?i
      displays i-number	386 in an inode	format.	This now becomes the current

  > :ln=4
      changes the link count for the current inode to 4.

  > :ln=+1
      increments the link count	by 1.

  > :ct=X
      displays the creation time as a hexadecimal long.

  > :mt=t
      displays the modification	time in	time format.

  > 0:file/c
      displays,	in ASCII, block	zero of	the file associated with the current

  > 2:ino,*?d
      displays the first blocks	worth of directory entries for the root	inode
      of this file system. It will stop	prematurely if the eof is reached.

  > 5:dir:inode; 0:file,*/c
      changes the current inode	to that	associated with	the 5th	directory
      entry (numbered from zero) of the	current	inode. The first logical
      block of the file	is then	displayed in ASCII.

  > :sb
      displays the superblock of this file system.

  > 1:cg?c
      displays cylinder	group information and summary for cylinder group 1.

  > 2:inode; 7:dir=3
      changes the i-number for the seventh directory slot in the root direc-
      tory to 3.

  > 7:dir:nm="name"
      changes the name field in	the directory slot to name.

  > 2:db:block,*?d
      displays the third block of the current inode as directory entries.

  > 3c3:fragment,20:fill=0x20
      gets fragment 3c3	and fill 20 type elements with 0x20.

  > 2050=0xffff
      sets the contents	of address 2050	to 0xffffffff. 0xffffffff may be
      truncated	depending on the current type.

  > 1c92434="this is some text"
      places the ASCII for the string at 1c92434.


  The symbols recognized by fsdb are:

      update the value of dot by the current value of type and display using
      the current value	of count.

  #   numeric expressions may be composed of +,	-, *, and % operators
      (evaluated left to right)	and may	use parentheses.  Once evaluated, the
      value of dot is updated.

      count indicator.	The global value of count will be updated to count.
      The value	of count remains until a new command is	run. A count
      specifier	of '*' will attempt to show the	information of a block.	The
      default for count	is 1.

  ? f display in structured style with format specifier	f.

  /f  display in unstructured style with format	specifier f.

  .   the value	of dot.

  +e  increment	the value of dot by the	expression e. The amount actually
      incremented is dependent on the size of type:
	   dot = dot + e * sizeof (type)

      The default for e	is 1.

  -e  decrement	the value of dot by the	expression e (see +).

  *e  multiply the value of dot	by the expression e. Multiplication and	divi-
      sion do not use type. In the above calculation of	dot, consider the
      size of (type) to	be 1.

  %e  divide the value of dot by the expression	e (see *).

      restore an address saved in register name.  name must be a single
      letter or	digit.

  >&gt; name
      save an address in register name.	 name must be a	single letter or

  = f display indicator. If f is a legitimate format specifier,	then the
      value of dot is displayed	using format specifier f. Otherwise, assign-
      ment is assumed.

  = [s]	[e]
      assignment indicator.  The address pointed to by dot has its contents
      changed to the value of the expression e or to the ASCII representation
      of the quoted (" ") string s. This may be	useful for changing directory
      names or ASCII file information.

  =+ e
      incremental assignment. The address pointed to by	dot has	its contents
      incremented by expression	e.

  =- e
      decremental assignment. The address pointed to by	dot has	its contents
      decremented by expression	e.


  A command must be prefixed by	a ':' character. Only enough letters of	the
  command to uniquely distinguish it are needed. Multiple commands may be
  entered on one line by separating them by a space, tab or ';'.

  In order to view a potentially unmounted disk	in a reasonable	manner,	fsdb
  offers the cd, pwd, ls, and find commands. The functionality of these	com-
  mands	substantially matches those of its UNIX	counterparts.  The '*',	'?',
  and '[-]' wild card characters are available.

      display or set base.  As stated above, all input and output is governed
      by the current base. If the '=b' is left off, the	current	base is
      displayed. Otherwise, the	current	base is	set to b. Note that this is
      interpreted using	the old	value of base, so to ensure correctness	use
      the '0', '0t', or	'0x' prefix when changing the base. The	default	for
      base is hexadecimal.

      convert the value	of dot to a block address.

  cd dir
      change the current directory to directory	dir.  The current values of
      inode and	dot are	also updated. If no dir	is specified, then change
      directories to inode 2 ("/").

  cg  convert the value	of dot to a cylinder group.

      If the current inode is a	directory, then	the value of dot is converted
      to a directory slot offset in that directory and dot now points to this

      the value	of dot is taken	as a relative block count from the beginning
      of the file. The value of	dot is updated to the first byte of this

  find dir [-name n] [-inum i]
      find files by name or i-number.  find recursively	searches directory
      dir and below for	filenames whose	i-number matches i or whose name
      matches pattern n.  Note that only one of	the two	options	(-name or
      -inum) may be used at one	time. Also, the	-print is not needed or

      fill an area of disk with	pattern	p. The area of disk is delimited by
      dot and count.

      convert the value	of dot to a fragment address. The only difference
      between the fragment command and the block command is the	amount that
      is able to be displayed.

      convert the value	of dot to an inode address. If successful, the
      current value of inode will be updated as	well as	the value of dot. As
      a	convenient shorthand, if ':inode' appears at the beginning of the
      line, the	value of dot is	set to the current inode and that inode	is
      displayed	in inode format.

  ls [-R] [-l] pat1 pat2 ...
      list directories or files. If no file is specified, the current direc-
      tory is assumed. Either or both of the options may be used (but, if
      used, must be specified before the filename specifiers). Also, as
      stated above, wild card characters are available and multiple arguments
      may be given.  The long listing shows only the i-number and the name;
      use the inode command with '?i' to get more information.

      toggle the value of override. Some error conditions may be overridden
      if override is toggled on.

  prompt p
      change the fsdb prompt to	p. p must be surrounded	by (")s.

  pwd display the current working directory.

      quit fsdb.

  sb  the value	of dot is taken	as a cylinder group number and then converted
      to the address of	the superblock in that cylinder	group. As a short-
      hand, ':sb' at the beginning of a	line will set the value	of dot to the
      superblock and display it	in superblock format.

  !   escape to	shell

  Inode	Commands

  In addition to the above commands, there are several commands	that deal
  with inode fields and	operate	directly on the	current	inode (they still
  require the ':'). They may be	used to	more easily display or change the
  particular fields.

  The value of dot is only used	by the ':db' and ':db' commands. Upon comple-
  tion of the command, the value of dot	is changed to point to that particu-
  lar field. For example,


  would	increment the link count of the	current	inode and set the value	of
  dot to the address of	the link count field.

  at  access time.

  bs  block size.

  ct  creation time.

  db  use the current value of dot as a	direct block index, where direct
      blocks number from 0 - 11. In order to display the block itself, you
      need to 'pipe' this result into the block	or fragment command. For

      would get	the contents of	data block field 1 from	the inode and convert
      it to a block address. 20	longs are then displayed in hexadecimal	(see
      Formatted	Output section).

  gid group id.

  ib  use the current value of dot as an indirect block	index where indirect
      blocks number from 0 - 2.	This will only get the indirect	block itself
      (the block containing the	pointers to the	actual blocks).	Use the	file
      command and start	at block 12 to get to the actual blocks.

  ln  link count.

  mt  modification time.

  md  mode.

  maj major device number.

  min minor device number.

  nm  although listed here, this command actually operates on the directory
      name field. Once poised at the desired directory entry (using the
      directory	command), this command will allow you to change	or display
      the directory name. For example,
	   >&gt; 7:dir:nm="foo"

      will get the 7th directory entry of the current inode and	change its
      name to foo. Note	that names cannot be made larger than the field	is
      set up for. If an	attempt	is made, the string is truncated to fit	and a
      warning message to this effect is	displayed.

  sz  file size.

  uid user id.

  Formatted Output

  There	are two	styles and many	format types. The two styles are structured
  and unstructured. Structured output is used to display inodes, directories,
  superblocks and the like. Unstructured just displays raw data. The follow-
  ing table shows the different	ways of	displaying:

  ?   Format specifier,	followed by one	of:

  c   display as cylinder groups

  i   display as inodes

  d   display as directories

  s   display as superblocks

  /   Format specifier,	followed by one	of:

  b   display as bytes

  c   display as characters

  o O display as octal shorts or longs

  d D display as decimal shorts	or longs

  x X display as hexadecimal shorts or longs

  The format specifier immediately follows the '/' or '?' character. The
  values displayed by '/b' and all '?' formats are displayed in	the current
  base.	Also, type is appropriately updated upon completion.


      Specifies	the command path


  Commands: fsck(8)