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FSCK_FFS(8)               BSD System Manager's Manual              FSCK_FFS(8)

     fsck_ffs -- Fast File System consistency check and interactive repair

     fsck_ffs [-adFfpq] [-B byte order] [-b block#] [-c level] [-m mode]
              [-y | -n] filesystem ...

     fsck_ffs performs interactive file system consistency checks and repair
     for each of the file systems specified on the command line.  It is nor-
     mally invoked from fsck(8).

     The kernel takes care that only a restricted class of innocuous file sys-
     tem inconsistencies can happen unless hardware or software failures
     intervene.  These are limited to the following:

     Unreferenced inodes
     Link counts in inodes too large
     Missing blocks in the free map
     Blocks in the free map also in files
     Counts in the super-block wrong

     These are the only inconsistencies that fsck_ffs in ``preen'' mode (with
     the -p option) will correct; if it encounters other inconsistencies, it
     exits with an abnormal return status.  For each corrected inconsistency
     one or more lines will be printed identifying the file system on which
     the correction will take place, and the nature of the correction.  After
     successfully correcting a file system, fsck_ffs will print the number of
     files on that file system, the number of used and free blocks, and the
     percentage of fragmentation.

     If sent a QUIT signal, fsck_ffs will finish the file system checks, then
     exit with an abnormal return status.

     If fsck_ffs receives a SIGINFO signal (see the status argument for
     stty(1)), a line will be written to the standard error output indicating
     the name of the device currently being checked, the current phase number
     and phase-specific progress information.

     Without the -p option, fsck_ffs audits and interactively repairs incon-
     sistent conditions for file systems.  If the file system is inconsistent
     the operator is prompted for concurrence before each correction is
     attempted.  It should be noted that some of the corrective actions which
     are not correctable under the -p option will result in some loss of data.
     The amount and severity of data lost may be determined from the diagnos-
     tic output.  The default action for each consistency correction is to
     wait for the operator to respond yes or no.  If the operator does not
     have write permission on the file system fsck_ffs will default to a -n

     fsck_ffs has more consistency checks than its predecessors check, dcheck,
     fcheck, and icheck combined.

     The following flags are interpreted by fsck_ffs.

     -a      Interpret the filesystem as an Apple UFS filesystem, even if
             there is no Apple UFS volume label present.

     -B      Convert the file system metadata to the specified byte order if
             needed.  Valid byte order are `be' and `le'.  If fsck_ffs is
             interrupted while swapping the metadata byte order, the file sys-
             tem cannot be recovered.  fsck_ffs will print a message in inter-
             active mode if the file system is not in host byte order.

     -b      Use the block specified immediately after the flag as the super
             block for the file system.  Block 32 is usually an alternative
             super block.

     -c      Convert the file system to the specified level.  Note that the
             level of a file system can only be raised.
             There are currently five levels defined:

             0       The file system is in the old (static table) format.

             1       The file system is in the new (dynamic table) format.

             2       The file system supports 32-bit uid's and gid's, short
                     symbolic links are stored in the inode, and directories
                     have an added field showing the file type.

             3       If maxcontig is greater than one, build the free segment
                     maps to aid in finding contiguous sets of blocks.  If
                     maxcontig is equal to one, delete any existing segment

             4       Rearrange the super block to the same layout as UFS2;
                     disable the rotational layout tables and per cylinder
                     group block totals.

             In interactive mode, fsck_ffs will list the conversion to be made
             and ask whether the conversion should be done.  If a negative
             answer is given, no further operations are done on the file sys-
             tem.  In preen mode, the conversion is listed and done if possi-
             ble without user interaction.  Conversion in preen mode is best
             used when all the file systems are being converted at once.  The
             format of a file system can be determined from the second line of
             output from dumpfs(8).

     -d      Print debugging output.

     -F      Indicates that filesystem is a file system image, rather than a
             raw character device.  filesystem will be accessed 'as-is', and
             no attempts will be made to read a disklabel.

     -f      Force checking of file systems.  Normally, if a file system is
             cleanly unmounted, the kernel will set a ``clean flag'' in the
             file system super block, and fsck_ffs will not check the file
             system.  This option forces fsck_ffs to check the file system,
             regardless of the state of the clean flag.

     -m      Use the mode specified in octal immediately after the flag as the
             permission bits to use when creating the lost+found directory
             rather than the default 1700.  In particular, systems that do not
             wish to have lost files accessible by all users on the system
             should use a more restrictive set of permissions such as 700.

     -n      Assume a no response to all questions asked by fsck_ffs except
             for 'CONTINUE?', which is assumed to be affirmative; do not open
             the file system for writing.

     -p      Specify ``preen'' mode, described above.

     -q      Quiet mode, do not output any messages for clean filesystems.

     -y      Assume a yes response to all questions asked by fsck_ffs; this
             should be used with great caution as this is a free license to
             continue after essentially unlimited trouble has been encoun-

           Inconsistencies checked are as follows:
           1.   Blocks claimed by more than one inode or the free map.
           2.   Blocks claimed by an inode outside the range of the file sys-
           3.   Incorrect link counts.
           4.   Size checks:
                      Directory size not a multiple of DIRBLKSIZ.
                      Partially truncated file.
           5.   Bad inode format.
           6.   Blocks not accounted for anywhere.
           7.   Directory checks:
                      File pointing to unallocated inode.
                      Inode number out of range.
                      Dot or dot-dot not the first two entries of a directory
                      or having the wrong inode number.
           8.   Super Block checks:
                      More blocks for inodes than there are in the file sys-
                      Bad free block map format.
                      Total free block and/or free inode count incorrect.

     Orphaned files and directories (allocated but unreferenced) are, with the
     operator's concurrence, reconnected by placing them in the lost+found
     directory.  The name assigned is the inode number.  If the lost+found
     directory does not exist, it is created.  If there is insufficient space
     its size is increased.

     Because of inconsistencies between the block device and the buffer cache,
     the raw device should always be used.

     The diagnostics produced by fsck_ffs are fully enumerated and explained
     in Appendix A of Fsck - The UNIX File System Check Program.

     fs(5), fstab(5), fsck(8), fsdb(8), newfs(8), reboot(8)

BSD                              June 2, 2004                              BSD