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BLESS(8)                  BSD System Manager's Manual                 BLESS(8)

NAME
     bless -- set volume bootability and startup disk options

SYNOPSIS
     bless -help

     bless -folder directory [-folder9 directory] [-mount directory]
           [-bootinfo file] [-bootBlocks | -bootBlockFile file] [-save9]
           [-saveX] [-use9] [-system file] [-systemfile file]
           [-label name | -labelfile file] [-openfolder directory] [-setBoot]
           [-quiet | -verbose]

     bless -device device [-format [fstype] [-fsargs args]
           [-label name | -labelfile file]] [-bootBlockFile file]
           [-mount directory] [-wrapper file] [-startupfile file]
           [-system file] [-setBoot] [-quiet | -verbose]

     bless -info [directory] [-getBoot] [-bootBlocks] [-plist]
           [-quiet | -verbose] [-version]

DESCRIPTION
     bless is used to set volume bootability characteristics for PowerPC-based
     Macintoshes. It can also modify Open Firmware to select a different
     device to boot off of.  bless has 3 modes of execution: Folder Mode,
     Device Mode, and Info Mode.  Folder Mode allows you to select a folder on
     a mounted volume to act as the ``blessed'' system folder, and optionally
     update Open Firmware to boot from that volume.  Device Mode is normally
     only used to format and setup a volume for the first time. Info Mode will
     print out the currently-blessed folder(s) of a volume, or if no mount-
     point is specified, the volume that OF is set to boot from.

     Additionally, -help can be used to display the command-line usage sum-
     mary.

   FOLDER MODE
     Folder Mode has the following options:
     -folder directory      A blessed Mac OS X/Darwin system folder, contain-
                            ing a BootX secondary loader for New World
                            machines.
     -folder9 directory     A Mac OS 9/Classic system folder. If both -folder
                            and -folder9 are given, preference can be given to
                            boot into Mac OS 9 by also using the -use9 flag.
     -mount directory       In lieu of specifying folders to bless, -mount can
                            be given, and the pre-existing blessed folders are
                            used.
     -bootinfo file         Create a BootX file in the Mac OS X/Darwin system
                            folder using file as a source.
     -bootBlocks            Set the boot blocks on the volume. This is
                            required for booting Mac OS 9. Boot blocks can be
                            retrieved from the System file in the blessed Mac
                            OS 9 system folder, or can be specified more
                            directly using the -bootBlockFile or -system
                            flags.
     -bootBlockFile file    Extract boot blocks from file . The first 1024
                            bytes are read from the data fork of that file.
     -save9                 Used if no -folder9 flag was given, but if the
                            pre-existing Mac OS 9 system folder should be pre-
                            served.
     -saveX                 Used if no -folder flag was given, but if the
                            pre-existing Mac OS X/Darwin system folder should
                            be preserved.
     -use9                  Used if both -folder and -folder9 were given, but
                            Mac OS 9 should be the default for the volume.
     -system file           Extract boot blocks from the file System file,
                            using the Carbon resource manager. This will fail
                            under Darwin, where Carbon is not present.
     -systemfile file       Data fork System file to place in blessed System
                            Folder
     -label name            Render a text label used in the OpenFirmware-based
                            OS picker
     -labelfile file        Use a pre-rendered label used for the Open-
                            Firmware-based OS picker
     -openfolder directory  Specify a folder to be opened in the Finder when
                            the volume is attached
     -setBoot               Set the system to boot off the specified parti-
                            tion. This is implemented in a platform-specific
                            manner. On Darwin PPC, the Open Firmware
                            boot-device variable is modified. On Darwin x86,
                            the MBR partition map is adjusted to mark the
                            specified partition as active
     -setOF                 Set the boot-device Open Firmware variable to boot
                            off the volume containing. This option is depre-
                            cated in favor of the more generic -setBoot
                            option.
     -quiet                 Do not print any output
     -verbose               Print verbose output

   DEVICE MODE
     Device Mode has the following options:
     -device device         Open the block device device . No volumes should
                            be mounted from device .
     -format [fstype]       Format the device using the fstype filesystem, or
                            if it is not given, default to HFS+ with an HFS
                            wrapper.
     -fsargs arg            Additional arguments to newfs for the given
                            filesystem
     -label name            Give the filesystem the label while formatting, or
                            set an OF-cased OS picker label
     -labelfile file        Use a pre-rendered label used for the Open-
                            Firmware-based OS picker name (in UTF-8 encoding)
     -bootBlockFile file    Extract boot blocks from file . The first 1024
                            bytes are read from the data fork of that file.
     -mount directory       Use directory as a temporary mount point for the
                            HFS wrapper.
     -wrapper file          Mount the wrapper on -mount and write file into
                            the wrapper as the default System file.
     -system file           Override the file specifications for
                            -bootBlockFile and -wrapper and use this file
                            instead for both those functions.
     -xcoff file            Add the file as the HFS+ StartupFile, and update
                            the partition map to reflect it's location on
                            disk. This is necessary for Old World booting.
                            This option is deprecated in favor of the more
                            generic -startupfile option
     -setBoot               Set the system to boot off the specified parti-
                            tion. This is implemented in a platform-specific
                            manner. On Darwin PPC, the Open Firmware
                            boot-device variable is modified. On Darwin x86,
                            the MBR partition map is adjusted to mark the
                            specified partition as active
     -setOF                 Set the boot-device Open Firmware variable to boot
                            off the volume containing. This option is depre-
                            cated in favor of the more generic -setBoot
                            option.
     -startupfile file      Add the file as the HFS+ StartupFile, and update
                            other information on disk as appropriate for the
                            startup file type.
     -quiet                 Do not print any output
     -verbose               Print verbose output

   INFO MODE
     Info Mode has the following options:
     -info [directory]      Print out the blessed system folder for directory
                            . If directory is not specified, print information
                            for the current boot-device (which may not neces-
                            sarily be '/' .
     -setBoot               Print out which device will be used on next boot,
                            according to the boot-device Open Firmware vari-
                            able. This option will take into account that OF
                            might be pointing to an auxiliary booter parti-
                            tion, and will print out the corresponding root
                            partition for those cases.
     -bootBlocks            Print out salient fields from the boot blocks of
                            the volume.
     -plist                 Output all information in Property List (.plist)
                            format, suitable for parsing by CoreFoundation.
                            This is most useful when bless is executed from
                            another program and its standard output must be
                            parsed.
     -quiet                 Do not print any output
     -verbose               Print verbose output
     -version               Print bless version and exit immediately

FILES
     /usr/standalone/ppc/bootx.bootinfo  Secondary loader with XML headers,
                                         used with -bootinfo flag. Used for
                                         booting New World PPC-based Macin-
                                         toshes
     /System/Library/CoreServices        Typical blessed folder for Mac OS X
                                         and Darwin

EXAMPLES
   FOLDER MODE
     To bless a volume with only Mac OS 9:

           bless -folder9 "/Volumes/Mac OS 9/System Folder" -bootBlockFile
           "/usr/share/misc/bootblockdata"

     To bless a volume with only Mac OS X or Darwin, and create the BootX
     file:

           bless -folder "/Volumes/Mac OS X/System/Library/CoreServices"
           -bootinfo "/Volumes/Mac OS X/usr/standalone/ppc/bootx.bootinfo"

     To set a volume containing either Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X to be the active
     volume:

           bless -mount "/Volumes/Mac OS" -setBoot

   INFO MODE
     To gather information about the currently selected volume (as determined
     by Open Firmware), suitable for piping to a program capable of parsing
     Property Lists:

           bless -info -plist -bootBlocks

SEE ALSO
     mount(8), newfs(8), nvram(8)

Mac OS X                        August 3, 2003                        Mac OS X