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APT-GET(8)                                                          APT-GET(8)



NAME
       apt-get - APT package handling utility -- command-line interface

SYNOPSIS
       apt-get [-hvs] [-o=config string] [-c=file] {update | upgrade |
               dselect-upgrade | install pkg... | remove pkg... |
               source pkg... | build-dep pkg... | check | clean | autoclean}


DESCRIPTION
       apt-get is the command-line tool for handling packages, and may be con-
       sidered the user's "back-end" to other tools  using  the  APT  library.
       Several  "front-end"  interfaces  exist,  such as dselect(8), aptitude,
       synaptic, gnome-apt and wajig.


       Unless the -h, or --help option is given, one  of  the  commands  below
       must be present.


       update update  is  used  to  resynchronize the package index files from
              their sources. The indexes of  available  packages  are  fetched
              from the location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list. For ex-
              ample, when using a Debian archive, this command  retrieves  and
              scans  the  Packages.gz files, so that information about new and
              updated packages is available. An update should always  be  per-
              formed  before  an upgrade or dist-upgrade. Please be aware that
              the overall progress meter will be incorrect as the size of  the
              package files cannot be known in advance.


       upgrade
              upgrade  is  used to install the newest versions of all packages
              currently installed on the system from the sources enumerated in
              /etc/apt/sources.list.  Packages  currently  installed  with new
              versions available are retrieved and upgraded; under no  circum-
              stances  are  currently  installed packages removed, or packages
              not already installed retrieved and installed. New  versions  of
              currently  installed  packages  that  cannot be upgraded without
              changing the install status of another package will be  left  at
              their current version. An update must be performed first so that
              apt-get knows that new versions of packages are available.


       dselect-upgrade
              dselect-upgrade is used in conjunction with the traditional  De-
              bian  packaging  front-end,  dselect(8). dselect-upgrade follows
              the changes made by dselect(8) to the Status field of  available
              packages,  and  performs  the  actions necessary to realize that
              state (for instance, the removal of old and the installation  of
              new packages).


       dist-upgrade
              dist-upgrade  in addition to performing the function of upgrade,
              also intelligently handles changing dependencies with  new  ver-
              sions  of  packages;  apt-get  has a "smart" conflict resolution
              system, and it will attempt to upgrade the most important  pack-
              ages  at  the  expense  of less important ones if necessary. The
              /etc/apt/sources.list file contains a  list  of  locations  from
              which  to  retrieve  desired package files. See also apt_prefer-
              ences(5) for a mechanism for overriding the general settings for
              individual packages.


       install
              install  is followed by one or more packages desired for instal-
              lation. Each package is a package name, not  a  fully  qualified
              filename  (for  instance,  in  a  Debian GNU/Linux system, libc6
              would be the argument provided, not libc6_1.9.6-2.deb) All pack-
              ages  required by the package(s) specified for installation will
              also be retrieved and installed. The /etc/apt/sources.list  file
              is  used to locate the desired packages. If a hyphen is appended
              to the package name (with no intervening space), the  identified
              package  will  be  removed  if it is installed. Similarly a plus
              sign can be used to designate a package to install. These latter
              features  may  be  used  to override decisions made by apt-get's
              conflict resolution system.

              A specific version of a package can be selected for installation
              by  following the package name with an equals and the version of
              the package to select. This will cause that version to be locat-
              ed  and selected for install. Alternatively a specific distribu-
              tion can be selected by following the package name with a  slash
              and the version of the distribution or the Archive name (stable,
              testing, unstable).

              Both of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade  packages
              and must be used with care.

              Finally,  the  apt_preferences(5) mechanism allows you to create
              an alternative installation policy for individual packages.

              If no package matches the given expression  and  the  expression
              contains one of '.', '?' or '*' then it is assumed to be a POSIX
              regular expression, and it is applied to all  package  names  in
              the  database. Any matches are then installed (or removed). Note
              that matching is done by substring so  'lo.*'  matches  'how-lo'
              and  'lowest'.  If this is undesired, anchor the regular expres-
              sion with a '^' or '$' character, or create a more specific reg-
              ular expression.


       remove remove  is identical to install except that packages are removed
              instead of installed. If a plus sign is appended to the  package
              name (with no intervening space), the identified package will be
              installed instead of removed.


       source source causes apt-get to fetch source packages. APT will examine
              the  available packages to decide which source package to fetch.
              It will then find and download into the  current  directory  the
              newest available version of that source package. Source packages
              are tracked separately from binary  packages  via  deb-src  type
              lines  in the sources.list(5) file. This probably will mean that
              you will not get the same source as the  package  you  have  in-
              stalled  or  as  you  could install. If the --compile options is
              specified then the package will be compiled to a binary .deb us-
              ing  dpkg-buildpackage, if --download-only is specified then the
              source package will not be unpacked.

              A specific source version can be  retrieved  by  postfixing  the
              source  name with an equals and then the version to fetch, simi-
              lar to the mechanism used for the package  files.  This  enables
              exact matching of the source package name and version, implicit-
              ly enabling the APT::Get::Only-Source option.

              Note that source packages are not tracked like binary  packages,
              they  exist  only  in  the  current directory and are similar to
              downloading source tar balls.


       build-dep
              build-dep causes apt-get to install/remove packages  in  an  at-
              tempt to satisfy the build dependencies for a source package.


       check  check  is  a  diagnostic  tool; it updates the package cache and
              checks for broken dependencies.


       clean  clean clears out  the  local  repository  of  retrieved  package
              files.   It   removes   everything   but   the  lock  file  from
              /var/cache/apt/archives/  and  /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/.
              When  APT is used as a dselect(8) method, clean is run automati-
              cally. Those who do not use dselect  will  likely  want  to  run
              apt-get clean from time to time to free up disk space.


       autoclean
              Like  clean,  autoclean  clears  out the local repository of re-
              trieved package files. The difference is that  it  only  removes
              package  files that can no longer be downloaded, and are largely
              useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period
              without  it  growing  out  of  control. The configuration option
              APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from  being
              erased if it is set to off.


OPTIONS
       All  command  line options may be set using the configuration file, the
       descriptions indicate the configuration option to set. For boolean  op-
       tions  you  can  override  the  config  file  by  using  something like
       -f-,--no-f, -f=no or several other variations.


       -d, --download-only,
              Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or
              installed. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.


       -f, --fix-broken,
              Fix;  attempt  to  correct  a system with broken dependencies in
              place. This option, when used with install/remove, can omit  any
              packages  to permit APT to deduce a likely solution. Any Package
              that are specified must completely correct the problem. The  op-
              tion is sometimes necessary when running APT for the first time;
              APT itself does not allow broken package dependencies  to  exist
              on a system. It is possible that a system's dependency structure
              can be so corrupt as to require manual intervention (which  usu-
              ally  means  using dselect(8) or dpkg --remove to eliminate some
              of the offending packages). Use of this option together with  -m
              may  produce  an  error  in some situations. Configuration Item:
              APT::Get::Fix-Broken.


       -m, --ignore-missing, --fix-missing,
              Ignore missing packages; If packages cannot be retrieved or fail
              the  integrity  check after retrieval (corrupted package files),
              hold back those packages and handle the result. Use of this  op-
              tion  together  with -f may produce an error in some situations.
              If a package is selected for installation (particularly if it is
              mentioned  on  the  command line) and it could not be downloaded
              then  it  will  be  silently  held  back.  Configuration   Item:
              APT::Get::Fix-Missing.


       --no-download
              Disables  downloading  of packages. This is best used with --ig-
              nore-missing to force APT to use only the .debs it  has  already
              downloaded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download.


       -q, --quiet,
              Quiet;  produces  output suitable for logging, omitting progress
              indicators. More q's will produce more quiet up to a maximum  of
              2.  You can also use -q=# to set the quiet level, overriding the
              configuration file. Note that quiet  level  2  implies  -y,  you
              should  never  use  -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d,
              --print-uris or -s as APT may decided to do  something  you  did
              not expect. Configuration Item: quiet.


       -s, --simulate, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon, --no-act,
              No  action;  perform a simulation of events that would occur but
              do  not  actually  change  the   system.   Configuration   Item:
              APT::Get::Simulate.

              Simulate  prints  out  a series of lines each one representing a
              dpkg operation, Configure (Conf), Remove (Remv), Unpack  (Inst).
              Square  brackets  indicate broken packages with and empty set of
              square brackets  meaning  breaks  that  are  of  no  consequence
              (rare).


       -y, --yes, --assume-yes,
              Automatic  yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts
              and run non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such  as
              changing  a held package or removing an essential package occurs
              then  apt-get  will  abort.  Configuration  Item:  APT::Get::As-
              sume-Yes.


       -u, --show-upgraded,
              Show  upgraded  packages;  Print out a list of all packages that
              are to be upgraded. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Upgraded.


       -V, --verbose-versions,
              Show full versions for upgraded and installed packages. Configu-
              ration Item: APT::Get::Show-Versions.


       -b, --compile, --build,
              Compile  source  packages  after downloading them. Configuration
              Item: APT::Get::Compile.


       --ignore-hold
              Ignore package Holds; This  causes  apt-get  to  ignore  a  hold
              placed  on  a  package.  This  may be useful in conjunction with
              dist-upgrade to override a large number of undesired holds. Con-
              figuration Item: APT::Ignore-Hold.


       --no-upgrade
              Do  not upgrade packages; When used in conjunction with install,
              no-upgrade will prevent packages on the command line from  being
              upgraded  if  they  are  already  installed. Configuration Item:
              APT::Get::Upgrade.


       --force-yes
              Force yes; This is a dangerous option that  will  cause  apt  to
              continue  without prompting if it is doing something potentially
              harmful. It should not be used except  in  very  special  situa-
              tions. Using force-yes can potentially destroy your system! Con-
              figuration Item: APT::Get::force-yes.


       --print-uris
              Instead of fetching the files to install their URIs are printed.
              Each URI will have the path, the destination file name, the size
              and the expected md5 hash. Note that the file name to  write  to
              will not always match the file name on the remote site! This al-
              so works with the source and update commands. When used with the
              update  command  the MD5 and size are not included, and it is up
              to the user to decompress any  compressed  files.  Configuration
              Item: APT::Get::Print-URIs.


       --purge
              Use  purge instead of remove for anything that would be removed.
              An asterisk ("*") will be displayed next to packages  which  are
              scheduled to be purged. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.


       --reinstall
              Re-Install packages that are already installed and at the newest
              version. Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.


       --list-cleanup
              This option defaults to on, use  --no-list-cleanup  to  turn  it
              off.  When  on apt-get will automatically manage the contents of
              /var/lib/apt/lists to ensure that obsolete files are erased. The
              only  reason  to  turn  it  off is if you frequently change your
              source list. Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.


       -t, --target-release, --default-release,
              This option controls the default input to the policy engine,  it
              creates  a  default  pin at priority 990 using the specified re-
              lease string. The preferences file  may  further  override  this
              setting. In short, this option lets you have simple control over
              which distribution packages will be retrieved from. Some  common
              examples  might be -t '2.1*' or -t unstable. Configuration Item:
              APT::Default-Release; see  also  the  apt_preferences(5)  manual
              page.


       --trivial-only
              Only  perform  operations that are 'trivial'. Logically this can
              be considered related to --assume-yes, where  --assume-yes  will
              answer yes to any prompt, --trivial-only will answer no. Config-
              uration Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.


       --no-remove
              If any packages are to be  removed  apt-get  immediately  aborts
              without prompting. Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove.


       --only-source
              Only  has  meaning  for the source and build-dep commands. Indi-
              cates that the given source names are not to be  mapped  through
              the  binary  table. This means that if this option is specified,
              these commands will only accept source package  names  as  argu-
              ments, rather than accepting binary package names and looking up
              the   corresponding   source   package.   Configuration    Item:
              APT::Get::Only-Source.


       --diff-only, --tar-only,
              Download only the diff or tar file of a source archive. Configu-
              ration Item: APT::Get::Diff-Only and APT::Get::Tar-Only.


       --arch-only
              Only process architecture-dependent build-dependencies. Configu-
              ration Item: APT::Get::Arch-Only.


       -h, --help,
              Show a short usage summary.


       -v, --version,
              Show the program version.


       -c, --config-file,
              Configuration  File;  Specify  a  configuration file to use. The
              program will read the default configuration file and  then  this
              configuration file. See apt.conf(5) for syntax information.


       -o, --option,
              Set a Configuration Option; This will set an arbitary configura-
              tion option. The syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar.


FILES
       /etc/apt/sources.list
              Locations  to   fetch   packages   from.   Configuration   Item:
              Dir::Etc::SourceList.


       /etc/apt/apt.conf
              APT configuration file. Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.


       /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/
              APT    configuration    file   fragments   Configuration   Item:
              Dir::Etc::Parts.


       /etc/apt/preferences
              Version preferences file. This is where you would specify  "pin-
              ning", i.e. a preference to get certain packages from a separate
              source or from a different version of a distribution. Configura-
              tion Item: Dir::Etc::Preferences.


       /var/cache/apt/archives/
              Storage  area  for  retrieved package files. Configuration Item:
              Dir::Cache::Archives.


       /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/
              Storage area for package files in transit.  Configuration  Item:
              Dir::Cache::Archives (implicit partial).


       /var/lib/apt/lists/
              Storage  area  for  state  information for each package resource
              specified     in     sources.list(5)     Configuration     Item:
              Dir::State::Lists.


       /var/lib/apt/lists/partial/
              Storage  area  for  state  information in transit. Configuration
              Item: Dir::State::Lists (implicit partial).


SEE ALSO
       apt-cache(8),  apt-cdrom(8),  dpkg(8),   dselect(8),   sources.list(5),
       apt.conf(5),     apt-config(8),     The    APT    User's    guide    in
       /usr/share/doc/apt/, apt_preferences(5), the APT Howto.


DIAGNOSTICS
       apt-get returns zero on normal operation, decimal 100 on error.


BUGS
       APT bug page: http://bugs.debian.org/src:apt. If you wish to  report  a
       bug  in  APT, please see /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the
       reportbug(1) command.


AUTHORS
       Jason Gunthorpe, APT team.



Linux                          29 February 2004                     APT-GET(8)