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MAKEDEV(8)                    Make Linux Devices                    MAKEDEV(8)



NAME
       MAKEDEV - create devices

SYNOPSIS
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ update ]
       cd  /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ generic ] [ local ] [ group-keyword
       ... device ... ]
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ] device ...

DESCRIPTION
       MAKEDEV is a script that will create the devices in /dev used to inter-
       face with drivers in the kernel.

       Note  that  programs  giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or direc-
       tory''  normally  means  that  the  device  file  is  missing,  whereas
       ``ENODEV:  No such device'' normally means the kernel does not have the
       driver configured or loaded.

OPTIONS
       -n     Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions  that
              would be performed.

       -d     Delete  the  devices.   The main use for this flag is by MAKEDEV
              itself.

       -v     Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.   This
              is the same output as produced by -n.

CUSTOMISATION
       Since  there is currently no standardisation in what names are used for
       system users and groups, it is possible that you  may  need  to  modify
       MAKEDEV to reflect your site's settings.  Near the top of the file is a
       mapping from device type to user, group and permissions (e.g.  all  CD-
       ROM  devices  are set from the $cdrom variable).  If you wish to change
       the defaults, this is the section to edit.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       update This only works on kernels which have  /proc/interrupts  (intro-
              duced  during  1.1.x).  This file is scanned to see what devices
              are currently configured into the kernel, and this  is  compared
              with  the  previous  settings stored in the file called DEVICES.
              Devices which are new since then or have a different major  num-
              ber  are  created,  and those which are no longer configured are
              deleted.

       generic
              Create a generic subset of devices.  This subset consists of the
              standard  devices,  plus floppy drives, various hard drives, CD-
              ROM drives,  pseudo-terminals,  console  devices,  basic  serial
              devices,  busmice,  audio  devices,  video framebuffers, printer
              ports, and some specialized devices. The generic  subset  varies
              somewhat  according to architecture; see the /dev/MAKEDEV script
              itself for details.

       local  This simply runs MAKEDEV.local.  This is a script that can  cre-
              ate any local devices.

DEVICE GROUPS
       MAKEDEV  creates  groups of devices when passed keywords for the group.
       Each listing below shows the MAKEDEV keyword and then lists the devices
       which will be created. Many devices can also be specified individually.

STANDARD DEVICES
       std    Creates this group of standard devices: mem for access to physi-
              cal memory, kmem for access to kernel virtual memory,  null  the
              null  device (infinite sink), port for access to I/O ports, zero
              the null byte source  (infinite  source),  core,  a  symlink  to
              /proc/kcore  (for  kernel  debugging), full which always returns
              ENOSPACE on write, random and urandom  random  byte  generators,
              and tty to access the controlling tty of a process. The loopback
              disk devices loop0 through loop7 are also  created  in  the  std
              group.  These allow you to use a regular file as a block device.
              A filesystem image can be mounted, and used as though it were  a
              filesystem  on a partition or other block device.  loop may also
              be used as a separate keyword to  create  the  8  loop  devices.
              Finally,  the ram group of memory devices is also created by the
              std keyword (see below).

MEMORY DEVICES
       ram    This is  the  keyword  used  to  generate  the  ramdisk  devices
              ram{0..16} and the ram symlink. This group does not include ini-
              trd.

       initrd Ramdisk which has been pre-initialized by a bootloader.   initrd
              is  not  created  in  the  ram  group;  it  must be specifically
              included in the command line if you want it to be created.

       cpu or microcode
              Creates the CPU microcode update interface in the  cpu/  folder,
              with  devices  microcode,  and subfolders {0..3} each containing
              devices msr and cpuid.

       rom    Creates the rom{0..7} rrom{0..7}  flaxh{0..7}  and  rflash{0..7}
              flash  memory  card  devices.  rrom and rflash devices are read-
              only.

CONSOLE DEVICES
       console
              This keyword creates virtual consoles; tty{0..63}  devices,  the
              corresponding  vcs  and  vcsa devices which are used to generate
              screen-dumps, and the console  device  itself  plus  appropriate
              symlinks.   To create the console device alone, use consoleonly.
              The device tty0 is the currently  active  virtual  console.  The
              console device serves the same function.

PSEUDO TERMINALS
       pty    This  keyword  creates the Pseudo-TTY masters pty{a..e,p..z} and
              corresponding tty{a..e,p..z} devices,  along  with  ptmx.   Each
              possible  argument  will  create  a  bank of 16 master and slave
              pairs.  The master pseudo-terminals are pty{p..s}{0..9a..f}, and
              the slaves are tty{p..s}{0..9a..f}.

SERIAL DEVICES
       ttyS{0..63}
              Standard serial ports. There is no group keyword, you must spec-
              ify these individually. However ttyS{0..3} are created under the
              generic option for most architectures.

       cyclades or ttyC
              Creates Cyclades ports ttyC{0..31}.

       digi or ttyD
              Creates Digiboard serial card ports ttyD{0..15}.

       stallion or ttyE
              Creates Stallion devices ttyE{0..255} and staliomem{0..3}.

       computone or ttyF
              Creates  CompuTone  serial  card  ports ttyH{0..255} and special
              devices ip2ipl{0,4,8,12} and ip2stat{1,5,9,13}.

       chase or ttyH
              Creates Chase serial card ports ttyH{0..15}.

       isdnmodem or ttyI
              Creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..63}.

       isdn-tty
              Also creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..7}.

       isdnbri
              Creates ISDN  BRI  driver  devices  isdn{0..63}  isdnctrl{0..63}
              ippp{0..63} and isdninfo.

       isdn-io
              Also  creates  ISDN BRI driver devices isdn{0..7} isdnctrl{0..7}
              ippp{0..7} and isdninfo.  The isdn-ippp keyword can be used sep-
              arately to create only the ippp{0..7} devices.

       ppp    Creates a device independent PPP interface.

       dcbri  Creates Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card devices dcbri{0..3}.

       riscom or ttyL
              Creates Riscom serial card ports ttyL{0..15}.

       PAM or ttyM
              Creates PAM multimodem (or ISI serial card) ports ttyM{0..15}.

       ESP or ttyP
              Creates ESP ports ttyP{0..4}.

       rocketport or ttyR
              Creates Rocketport devices ttyR{0..63}.

       ttyV   Creates Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller ports ttyV{0..15}.

       specialixIO8 or ttyW
              Creates Specialix IO8+ ports ttyW{0..15}.

       specialix or ttyX
              Creates Specialix ports ttyX{0..15}.

       i2c    Creates i2c{0..7} devices for the I2C bus interface.

       tlk    Philips SAA5249 Teletext signal decoder {2.6} ports tlk{0..3}.

PARALLEL PORTS
       lp     Creates  the  standard parallel ports lp0, lp1, and lp2 normally
              used for printers.  These correspond to ports  at  0x3bc,  0x378
              and  0x278.  Hence, on some machines, the first printer port may
              actually be lp1.

       par    Alternative to lp.  The same ports are created,  but  are  named
              par{0..2} instead of lp{0..2}.

       parport
              Creates raw parallel ports parport0, parport1, and parport2.

       slm    Creates  the  Atari  SLM  ACSI  laser  printer (68k/Atari) ports
              slm{0..3}.

       pg     Parallel port generic ATAPI interface (devices pg{0..3}.

       paride Parallel port IDE disk devices pd{a..d} with  15  partitions  on
              each. Also creates pcd{0..3} and pf{0..3}.

OTHER BUS PORTS
       netlink or tap
              Creates  NetLink  devices  route  skip  fwmonitor and tap{0..15}
              Ethertap devices.  The tapx virtual ethernet device was designed
              as  low  level  kernel  support for Ethernet tunneling. Userland
              application can write Ethernet frame to /dev/tapX and the kernel
              will  receive  this  frame from tapX interface.  Every frame the
              kernel writes to a tapX interface can  be  read  by  a  userland
              application from the corresponding /dev/tapX device.

       enskip ENskip kernel encryption package.

       qng    ComScire Quantum Noise Generator.

       ipsec  The Free S/WAN implementation of IPSEC.

       adb    On powerpc, creates adb for the Apple Data Bus and adbmouse.  On
              m68k, adb creates the ACSI disk device adb and  partitions  adb1
              through adb15.

       hamradio
              Creates the scc{0..7} and bc{0..3} device groups.

       comx   Creates COMX devices comx{0..4}.

       irda   Creates  IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation) ircomm0
              ircomm1 irlpt0 and irlpt1.

       comedi Control and Measurement devices comedi{0..3}.

MOUSE DEVICES
       busmice
              This keyword creates the following devices: logibm (Logitech bus
              mouse), psaux (PS/2-style mouse), inportbm (Microsoft Inport bus
              mouse) and atibm (ATI XL bus mouse) and jbm (J-mouse).

       m68k-mice
              Creates mouse devices  for  the  m68k  architecture,  including:
              amigamouse, amigamouse1, atarimouse and adbmouse.

       input  On  powerpc,  this keyword creates the input folder which groups
              input devices mice, mouse{0..3}, event{0..3}, and js{0..3} (joy-
              stick), and creates these devices inside.

JOYSTICK DEVICES
       js     Joystick.  Creates js0 and js1.

       djs    Digital joystick. Creates djs0 and djs1.

USB DEVICES
       usb    USB  is a general purpose I/O bus which can serve many purposes.
              The usb keyword creates a usb folder, and devices in the folder:
              lp{0..15}   (printer),   mouse{0..15}   (USB   connected  mice),
              ez{0..15}  (firmware  loaders)  scanner{0..15}  (scanner  inter-
              faces),  ttyACM{0..15}  and ttyUSB{0..15} (dialout devices), and
              rio500 the Diamond Rio 500 device.

DISK DEVICES
       fd{0..7}
              Floppy disk devices.  The device fdx is the device which autode-
              tects  the  format,  and the additional devices are fixed format
              (whose size is indicated in the name).  The  other  devices  are
              named  as fdx{dqhu}n.  The single letter (d, q, hor u) signifies
              the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d), 5.25" Quad  Density
              (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5" (any model, u). The number n
              represents the capacity of that format in K.  Thus the  standard
              formats are fdxd360, fdxh1200, fdx720, fdx1440, and fdx2880.

              For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.

              Devices  fd0*  through  fd3*  are floppy disks on the first con-
              troller, and devices fd4* through fd7* are floppy disks  on  the
              second controller.

       fd{0..7}-bare
              Creates  just the autodetecting floppy device specified, without
              the fixed format devices.

       hd{a..l}
              AT (ide) hard disks.  The device  hdx  provides  access  to  the
              whole disk, with the partitions being hdx{1..63}.  For i386, the
              four primary partitions are hdx1 through hdx4, with the  logical
              partitions  being  numbered  from hdx5 though hdx20.  (A primary
              partition can be made into an extended partition, which can hold
              4 logical partitions). Other architectures may not differentiate
              partition types.  By default, devices for 20 logical  partitions
              are made. The kernel supports up to 63 partitions per device.

              Drives hda and hdb are the two on the primary controller hdc and
              hdd are the two  drives  on  the  secondary  controller.   These
              devices  can  also  be  used  to  access  IDE CDROMs. Additional
              devices hd{e..l} can be created.

       xd{a..d}
              XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same  as  IDE  disks,  except
              only 8 partitions are created.

       sd{a..h}
              SCSI  hard  disks.  The partitions are similar to the IDE disks,
              but there is a limit  of  11  logical  partitions  sdx5  through
              sdx15,  to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks on a system (addresses
              0 through 7).

       sd{i..z}
              and sd{a..d}{a..z} The kernel (and MAKEDEV) can handle up to 128
              SCSI  disks  (up to sddx).  15 partition devices are created for
              each.

       eda edb
              MCA ESDI hard disk. Partitions are handled the same as hd.

       dasd{a..z}
              Direct Access Storage Devices for the  s390  architecture.  Cur-
              rently  only  one  device  partition  is  created  (for example,
              dasda1).

       ada{a..p}
              ACSI disk (68k/Atari). 15 partitions are created for each.

       dac960.{0..7}
              Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller. For this device, an rd  direc-
              tory  is  created. 32 logical devices cxd{0..31} are created for
              each unit x specified, each with 7 partitions cxd{0..31}p{1..7}.
              The dac960 keyword will create all 7 units at once.

       dpti   Adaptec  I2O RAID and DPT SmartRAID V I2O controllers. Creates 7
              devices for handling up to 7 controllers.

       ataraid.{0..7}
              Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt. For this device, an
              ataraid  directory  is  created.   dx is created for each unit x
              specified, and 15 partitions dxp{1..15}.   The  ataraid  keyword
              will create all 7 units at once.

       i2o.hd{a..d}{a..z}
              I2O  based  harddisk drives. Device nodes are located in the i2o
              directory. The filename is followed by a number  that  specifies
              the  partition on each disk. The numbers are handled the same as
              hd.

       ida.{0..7}
              Compaq Intelligent Drive Array. For this device, an  ida  direc-
              tory  is  created. 16 logical devices cxd{0..15} are created for
              each   unit   x   specified,    each    with    15    partitions
              cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.  The ida keyword will create the first three
              units.

       cciss.{0..7}
              Compaq Next Generation Drive Array. For  this  device,  a  cciss
              directory  is created. 16 logical devices cxd{0..15} are created
              for  each  unit   x   specified,   each   with   15   partitions
              cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.   The  cciss  keyword  will create the first
              three units.

       md     Creates Metadisk (RAID) disk array with 16 devices.

TAPE DEVICES
       st{0..7}
              SCSI tape devices.  This creates the rewinding tape  device  stx
              and  the  non-rewinding  tape  device  nstx, for each of modes 0
              through 3.

       qic    QIC-11, -24, -120, and -150  tapes.   The  devices  created  are
              ntpqic11  tpqic11  ntpqic24 tpqic24 ntpqic120 tpqic120 ntpqic150
              and tpqic150 tape devices, along with rmt8, rmt16,  tape-d,  and
              tape-reset.

       ftape
              Floppy  driver  tapes  (QIC-117).  There are 4 methods of access
              depending on the floppy tape drive.  For each of access  methods
              0,  1,  2  and 3, the devices qftx zqftx and rawqftx (rewinding)
              and nqftx nzqftx nrawqdtx (non-rewinding) are created.  For com-
              patibility,  devices  ftape  and nftape are symlinks to qft0 and
              nqft0 respectively.

       ht0    Creates IDE tape devices ht0 and nht0.

       pt{0..3}
              Creates parallel port ATAPI tape devices pt{0..3} and npt{0..3}.

CDROM DEVICES
       sr or scd or scd-all
              Creates scd{0..16} SCSI CD players and  sr{0..16}  symlinks  for
              these  devices.   cdrom is a symlink which can be created by the
              user to the active CD device.  It is not created by MAKEDEV.

       pktcdvd
              Provides packet writing devices pktcdvd{0..3} for CD/DVD.

       pcd{0..3}
              Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices

       sonycd Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM

       mcd    Mitsumi CD-ROM

       mcdx   Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt.

       cdu535 Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM

       lmscd  Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM. The newer name  for  this  device  is
              cm205, but MAKEDEV creates only lmscd at this time.

       cm206cd
              Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM

       bpcd   MicroSolutions  BackPack  parallel  port  CD-ROM (Obsolete - use
              pcd)

       sbpcd{0..15}
              Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster)  CD-ROM.  Units  {0..3}  are
              created with the keyword sbpcd.

       aztcd  Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM

       gscd   GoldStar CD-ROM

       optcd  Optics Storage CD-ROM

       sjcd   Sanyo CD-ROM

       hitcd  Hitachi CD-ROM

SCANNERS
       logiscan
              Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.

       m105scan
              Mustek M105 Handscanner.

       ac4096 A4Tek Color Handscanner.

AUDIO DEVICES
       audio  This  creates the audio devices used by the sound driver.  These
              include mixer mixer{1..3}  (Mixer  controls),  sequencer  (Audio
              sequencer),  dsp  dsp{1..3} (Digital audio), sndstat (Sound card
              status information), audioctl (SPARC audio control  device)  and
              audio  audio{1..3}  (Sun-compatible digital audio). MIDI devices
              are midi00 through midi03, midi{0..3}, rmidi{0..3}, smpte{0..3}.
              In addition, devices mpu401data and mpu401stat are created.

       pcaudio
              Devices  for  the  PC  Speaker sound driver.  These are pcmixer,
              pxsp, and pcaudio.

VIDEO DEVICES
       fb     Creates   framebuffer   devices    fb{0..7},    fb{0..7}current,
              fb{0..7}autodetect.

       fb{0..7}
              If   the   framebuffer   number   x  is  specifed,  a  group  of
              fbxuser{0..7} devices is created.

       3dfx   is the 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device.

       agpgart
              AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table

       video video4linux v4l radio
              Each of these keywords produces  the  same  result:  Video  cap-
              ture/overlay  devices  video{0..63}, Radio devices radio{0..63},
              Teletext  devices  vtx{0..31},  and  Vertical  blank   interrupt
              devices  vbi{0..31}.   In  addition, the winradio0 and winradio1
              devices, and vtx and vttuner devices, and symlinks  radio  video
              and vbi are created.

       srnd   miroMEDIA Surround board devices srnd0 and srnd1.

       fgrab  Matrox Meteor frame grabber {2.6}. Creates mmetfgrab, wvisfgrab,
              iscc0, iscc1, isccctl0, isccctl1, dcxx0, and dcxx1.

MISCELLANEOUS DEVICES
       sg or sg-all
              Generic SCSI devices.  The devices created are sg0 through sg16.
              These  allow arbitary commands to be sent to any SCSI device, to
              query information or control SCSI devices  that  are  not  disk,
              tape or CDROM (for example, scanner or writeable CDROM).

       fd     To  allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file descrip-
              tor x, use /dev/fd/x  as  the  file  name.   This  also  creates
              /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout, and /dev/stderr.  (Note, these are just
              symlinks into /proc/self/fd).

       ibcs2  Devices socksys spx (and symlinks nfsd XOR) needed by the  IBCS2
              emulation.

       apm    apm_bios Advanced Power Management BIOS device.

       dcf    Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.

       helloworld
              Kernel modules demonstration device.  See the modules source.

       xfs or arla
              Arla XFS network file system.

       capi   CAPI 2.0 interface ports capi20{01..20}.

       ubd    User-mode block devices ubd{0..255}.

       nb{0..7}
              Network block devices.

       raw    Creates  the  raw  block device interface raw device, the rawctl
              symlink, and raw{1..8}.

       raw1394
              IEEE 1394 (Firewire).

       misc   This keyword creates all the following devices. You may find the
              device  explanations  in other categories in this man page, many
              under OTHER DEVICES below.  logibm, psaux, inportbm, atibm, jbm,
              amigamouse, atarimouse, sunmouse, amigamouse1, smouse, pc110pad,
              adbmouse, beep, modreq, watchdog, temperature,  hwtrap,  exttrp,
              apm_bios,  rtc,  openprom, relay8, relay16, msr, pciconf, nvram,
              hfmodem, led, mergemem, pmu.

       Network Devices
              Linux used to have  devices  in  /dev  for  controlling  network
              devices,  but  that  is no longer the case.  To see what network
              devices are known by the kernel, look at /proc/net/dev.

OTHER DEVICES
       Many of these devices are architecture-specific.

       scc    Z8530 HDLC driver (HAM radio)

       bc     Baycom radio modem (HAM radio)

       cfs0 or cfs or coda
              Coda network file system

       sunmouse
              Sun mouse

       smouse Simple serial mouse driver

       pc110pad
              IBM PC-110 digitizer pad

       vrtpanel
              Vr41xx embedded touch panel

       vpcmouse
              Connectix Virtual PC Mouse

       beep   Fancy beep device

       modreq Kernel module load request {2.6}

       watchdog
              Watchdog timer port

       temperature
              Machine internal temperature

       hwtrap Hardware fault trap

       exttrp External device trap

       rtc    Real Time Clock

       efirtc Real Time Clock

       openprom
              SPARC OpenBoot PROM

       relay8 Berkshire Products Octal relay card

       relay16
              Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card

       msr    x86 model-specific registers {2.6}

       pciconf
              PCI configuration space

       nvram  Non-volatile configuration RAM

       hfmodem
              Soundcard shortwave modem control {2.6}

       graphics
              Linux/SGI graphics device

       opengl Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe

       gfx    Linux/SGI graphics effects device

       lcd    Front panel LCD display

       led    Front panel LEDs

       mergemem
              Memory merge device

       pmu    Macintosh PowerBook power manager

       isictl MultiTech ISICom serial control

       ac     Applicom Intl Profibus card

       nwbutton
              Netwinder external button

       nwdebug
              Netwinder debug interface

       nwflash
              Netwinder flash memory

       userdma
              User-space DMA access

       smbus  System Management Bus

       lik    Logitech Internet Keyboard

       ipmo   Intel Intelligent Platform Management

       vmmon  VMWare virtual machine monitor

       tcldrv Technology Concepts serial control

       specialix_sxctl
              Specialix serial control

       specialix_rioctl
              Specialix RIO serial control

       smapi or thinkpad
              IBM Thinkpad smapi device, and a symlink thinkpad.

       srripc QNX4 API IPC manager

       usemaclone
              Semaphore clone device

       ipmi or ipmikcs
              Intelligent Platform Management

       uctrl  SPARCbook 3 microcontroller

       gtrsc  Gorgy Timing radio clock

       cbm    Serial CBM bus

       jsflash
              JavaStation OS flash SIMM

       xsvc   High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service

       vrbuttons
              Vr41xx button input device

       toshiba
              Toshiba laptop SMM support

       perfctr
              Performance-monitoring counters

       intel_rng
              Intel i8x0 random number generator

       atomicps
              Atomic shapshot of process state data

       irnet  IrNET device

       smbusbios
              SMBus BIOS

       ussp_ctl
              User space serial port control

       crash  Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility

       nas_xbus
              NAS xbus LCD/buttons access

       d7s    SPARC 7-segment display

       zkshim Zero-Knowledge network shim control

       sexec  Signed executable interface

       kchuid Inter-process chuid control

       mptctl Message passing technology (MPT) control

       button/gulpb
              Transmeta GULP-B buttons

       compaq/cpqphpc
              Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller

       compaq/cpqrid
              Compaq Remote InsightDriver

       elographics/e2201
              Elographics touchscreen E271-2201

       fujitsu/apanel
              Fujitsu/Siemens application panel

       i2o/ctl
              I2O configuration manager

       impi/bt
              IMPI coprocessor block transfer

       impi/smic
              IMPI coprocessor stream interface

       input/mouse
              Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse

       input/keyboard
              Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard

       modems/mwave
              MWave modem firmware upload

       mvista/hssdsi
              Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver

       mvista/hasi
              Montavista PICMG high availability

       net/tun
              TAP/TUN network device

       ni/natmotn
              National Instruments Motion

       scanners/cuecat
              :CueCat barcode scanner

       touchscreen/ucb1x00
              UCB 1x00 touchscreen

       touchscreen/mk712
              MK712 touchscreen

       video/em8300
              EM8300 DVD decoder control

       video/em8300_mv
              EM8300 DVD decoder video

       video/em8300_ma
              EM8300 DVD decoder audio

       video/em8300_sp
              EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture

       watchdogs/{0..3}
              Watchdog devices 0 through 3


SEE ALSO
       Linux   Allocated    Devices,    maintained    by    H. Peter    Anvin,
       <Peter.AnvinATlinux.org>, and devices.txt in the Linux kernel source.

AUTHOR
       Nick Holloway, rewritten and updated by Chris Tillman




Linux                             May 17 2002                       MAKEDEV(8)