INTRO(8) System Manager's Manual INTRO(8)
intro - introduction to system maintenance and operation commands
This section contains information related to system bootstrapping,
operation and maintenance. It describes all the server processes and
daemons that run on the system, as well as standalone (PROM monitor)
An 8V section number means one or more of the following:
o The man page documents System V behavior only.
o The man page documents default SunOS behavior, and System V behavior
as it differs from the default behavior. These System V differences
are presented under SYSTEM V section headers.
o The man page documents behavior compliant with IEEE Std 1003.1-1988
Disk formatting and labeling is done by format(8S). Bootstrapping of
the system is described in boot(8S), openboot(8S) and init(8). The
standard set of commands run by the system when it boots is described
in rc(8). Related commands include those that check the consistency of
file systems, fsck(8); those that mount and unmount file systems,
mount(8); add swap devices, swapon(8); force completion of outstanding
file system I/O, sync(2); shutdown or reboot a running system shut-
down(8), halt(8), and reboot(8); and, set the time on a machine from
the time on another machine rdate(8C).
Creation of file systems is discussed in mkfs(8) and newfs(8). File
system performance parameters can be adjusted with tunefs(8). File
system backups and restores are described in dump(8) and restore(8).
Procedures for adding new users to a system are described in
adduser(8), using vipw(8) to lock the password file during editing.
panic(8S) which describes what happens when the system crashes,
savecore(8) which can be used to analyze system crash dumps. Occasion-
ally useful as adjuncts to the fsck(8) file system repair program are
clri(8), dcheck(8), icheck(8), and ncheck(8).
Configuring a new version of the kernel requires using the program con-
fig(8); major system bootstraps often require the use of mkproto(8).
New devices are added to the /dev directory (once device drivers are
configured into the system) using makedev(8) and mknod(8). The
installboot(8S) command can be used to install freshly compiled pro-
grams. The catman(8) command preformats the on-line manual pages.
Resource accounting is enabled by the accton command, and summarized by
sa(8). Login time accounting is performed by ac(8). Disk quotas are
managed using quot(8), quotacheck(8), quotaon(8), and repquota(8).
A number of servers and daemon processes are described in this section.
The update(8) daemon forces delayed file system I/O to occur and
cron(8) runs periodic events (such as removing temporary files from the
disk periodically). The syslogd(8) daemon maintains the system error
log. The init(8) process is the initial process created when the sys-
tem boots. It manages the reboot process and creates the initial login
prompts on the various system terminals, using getty(8). The Internet
super-server inetd(8C) invokes all other internet servers as needed.
These servers include the remote shell servers rshd(8C) and rexecd(8C),
the remote login server rlogind(8C), the FTP and TELNET daemons
ftpd(8C), and telnetd(8C), the TFTP daemon tftpd(8C), and the mail
arrival notification daemon comsat(8C). Other network daemons include
the `load average/who is logged in' daemon rwhod(8C), the routing dae-
mon routed(8C), and the mail daemon sendmail(8).
If network protocols are being debugged, then the protocol debugging
trace program trpt(8C) is often useful. Remote magnetic tape access is
provided by rsh and rmt(8C). Remote line printer access is provided by
lpd(8), and control over the various print queues is provided by
lpc(8). Printer cost-accounting is done through pac(8).
Network host tables may be gotten from the ARPA NIC using gettable(8C)
and converted to UNIX-system-usable format using htable(8).
RPC and NFS daemons
RPC and NFS daemons include:
portmap used by RPC based services.
ypbind used by the Network Information Service (NIS) to
locate the NIS server. Note: the Network Information
Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow Pages
(YP). The functionality of the two remains the same;
only the name has changed.
biod used by NFS clients to read ahead to, and write behind
from, network file systems.
nfsd the NFS server process that responds to NFS requests
on NFS server machines.
ypserv the NIS server, typically run on each NFS server.
rstatd the server counterpart of the remote speedometer
mountd the mount server that runs on NFS server machines and
responds to requests by other machines to mount file
rwalld used for broadcasting messages over the network.
LIST OF MAINTENANCE COMMANDS
Name Appears on PageDescription
22 May 1991 INTRO(8)