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PORTS(7)                   OpenBSD Reference Manual                   PORTS(7)

     ports - contributed applications

     The OpenBSD Ports Collection (shamelessly stolen from the FreeBSD Ports
     Collection) offers a simple way for users and administrators to install
     applications.  Each port contains any patches necessary to make the orig-
     inal application source code compile and run on OpenBSD. Compiling an ap-
     plication is as simple as typing make in the port directory!  The
     Makefile automatically fetches the application source code, either from a
     local disk or via ftp, unpacks it on the local system, applies the patch-
     es, and compiles it.  If all goes well, simply type sudo make install to
     install the application.

     For more information about using ports, see The OpenBSD Ports Mechanism
     (http://www.openbsd.org/ports.html) and the OpenBSD FAQ
     (http://www.openbsd.org/faq/).  For information about creating new ports,
     see the OpenBSD Porting Checklist (http://www.openbsd.org/check-

     For a detailed description of the build process, see bsd.port.mk(5).

     The ports master Makefile, normally located in /usr/ports/Makefile (but
     see PORTSDIR below) offers a few useful targets.

     index      rebuild the ports complete index, /usr/ports/INDEX

                see mirroring-ports(7),

                display the contents of the index in a user-friendly way,

     search     invoked with a key, e.g., make search key=foo, retrieve infor-
                mation relevant to a given port (obsolescent).

     If /usr/ports/INDEX is up to date, it is possible to select subsets by
     setting the following variables on the command line:

     key       package name matching the given key,

     category  port belonging to category,

               port maintained by a given person.

     For instance, to invoke clean on all ports in the x11 category, one can

                   $ make category=x11 clean

     The index search is done by a perl script, so all regular expressions
     from perlre(1) apply.

     Individual ports are controlled through a few documented targets.  Some
     of these targets work recursively through subdirectories, so that someone
     can, for examples, install all of the net ports.

     The variable SKIPDIR can hold a set of package directories to avoid dur-
     ing recursion.  These are always specified relative to the root of the
     ports tree, and can contain a flavor or subpackage part (see

     In case of failure in a subdirectory, the shell fragment held in
     REPORT_PROBLEM is executed.  Default behavior is to call exit, but this
     can be overridden on the command line, e.g., to avoid stopping after each

           $ make REPORT_PROBLEM=true

     The targets that do this are all, build, checksum, clean, configure,
     extract, fake, fetch, install, distclean, deinstall, reinstall, package,
     link-categories, unlink-categories, describe, show, regress, lib-depends-
     check, homepage-links, manpages-check, license-check, all-dir-depends,
     build-dir-depends, run-dir-depends and readmes.

     Target names starting with _ are private to the ports infrastructure,
     should not be invoked directly, and are liable to change without notice.

     In the following list, each target will run the preceding targets in or-
     der automatically.  That is, build will be run (if necessary) by install,
     and so on all the way to fetch.  Typical use only runs install explicitly
     (if root or SUDO is defined in /etc/mk.conf), or build (as user), then
     install (as root).

     fetch      Fetch all of the files needed to build this port from the
                site(s) listed in MASTER_SITES and PATCH_SITES.  See FETCH_CMD
                and MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE.

     checksum   Verify that the fetched distfile matches the one the port was
                tested against.  Defining NO_CHECKSUM to Yes will skip this
                step.  Sometimes, distfiles change without warning.  The main
                OpenBSD mirror should still hold a copy of old distfiles, in-
                dexed by checksum.  Using

                      $ make checksum REFETCH=true

                will try to get a set of distfiles that match the recorded

     depends    Install (or package if only compilation is necessary) any de-
                pendencies of the current port.  When called by the extract,
                install or fetch targets, this is run in scattered pieces as
                lib-depends, build-depends and run-depends.  Defining
                NO_DEPENDS to Yes will skip this step.

     extract    Expand the distfile into a work directory.

     patch      Apply any patches that are necessary for the port.

     configure  Configure the port.  Some ports will ask questions during this
                stage.  See INTERACTIVE and BATCH.

     build      Build the port.  This is the same as calling the all target.

     fake       Pretend to install the port under a subdirectory of the work

     package    Create a binary package from the fake installation.  The pack-
                age is a .tgz file that can be used to install the port on
                several machines with pkg_add(1).

     install    Install the resulting package.

     The following targets are not run during the normal install process.

     print-build-depends print-run-depends
                 Print an ordered list of all the compile and run dependen-

     clean       Remove the expanded source code.  This does not recurse to
                 dependencies unless CLEANDEPENDS is defined to Yes.

     distclean   Remove the port's distfile(s) and perform the clean opera-
                 tion.  This does not recurse to dependencies.

     reinstall   Use this to restore a port after using pkg_delete(1).

                 Populate the ports tree with symbolic links for each category
                 the port belongs to.

                 Remove the symbolic links created by link-categories.

     The ports tree can be used concurrently for building several ports at the
     same time, thanks to a locking mechanism.  By default, this mechanism is
     disabled.  Defining LOCKDIR, LOCK_CMD, and UNLOCK_CMD to proper values
     will activate it.

     All locks will be stored in ${LOCKDIR}.  LOCK_CMD should be used to ac-
     quire a lock, and UNLOCK_CMD should be used to release it.

     Locks are named ${LOCKDIR}/${FULLPKGNAME}.lock, or ${LOCKDIR}/${DIST-
     FILE}.lock for distfiles fetching.

     The locking protocol follows a big-lock model: each top-level target in a
     port directory will acquire the corresponding lock, complete its job,
     then release the lock, e.g., running

           $ make build

     will acquire the lock, run the port through fetch, checksum, extract,
     patch, configure, build, then release the lock.  If dependencies are in-
     volved, they will invoke top-level targets in other directories, and thus
     acquire some other locks as well.

     At no moment should a given invocation of make(1) acquire the same lock
     twice, thus recursive locking is not needed for LOCK_CMD.

     The ports tree contains some mechanisms to save space when building large
     collections of packages.  If BIN_PACKAGES, TRUST_PACKAGES, and BULK are
     set to `Yes' for a package build, some shortcuts are taken to allow
     cleaning up working directories on the fly.

     Some important caveats apply: the packages already built in the package
     repository are assumed to be up-to-date (BIN_PACKAGES), the database of
     installed packages is assumed to be accurate (TRUST_PACKAGES), and the
     bulk cookies are assumed to be up-to-date (BULK).

     This means that newer iterations of package buildings should make sure
     those conditions are met, which entails erasing old package repository,
     removing packages that need to be rebuilt from the base of installed
     packages, and cleaning up old bulk cookies.

     If any of these conditions is not met, the package build may run into
     weird problems.

     The variables pertaining to network access have been marshalled into

     To customize that setup, copy that file into
     ${PORTSDIR}/infrastructure/db/network.conf and edit it.

                   If set to Yes, include the master OpenBSD site when fetch-
                   ing files.

                   If set to Yes, include the master FreeBSD site when fetch-
                   ing files.

                   Go to this site first for all files.

     The OpenBSD ports tree comes with a mechanism called FLAVORS.  Thanks to
     this mechanism, users can select specific options provided by a given

     If a port is "flavored", there should be a terse description of available
     flavors in the pkg/DESCR file.

     For example, the shells/bash port comes with a flavor called static.
     This changes the building process so a statically compiled version of the
     program will be built.  To avoid confusion with other packages or fla-
     vors, the package name will be extended with a dash-separated list of the
     selected flavors.

     In this instance, the corresponding package will be called

     To build a port with a specific flavor, just pass FLAVOR in the environ-
     ment of the make(1) command:

           $ env FLAVOR="static" make package

     and of course, use the same settings for the subsequent invocations of

           $ env FLAVOR="static" make package
           $ env FLAVOR="static" make clean

     More than one flavor may be specified:

           $ cd /usr/ports/mail/exim
           $ env FLAVOR="mysql ldap" make package

     Specifying a flavor that does not exist is an error.  Additionally, some
     ports impose some further restrictions on flavor combinations, when such
     combinations do not make sense.

     Lots of ports can be built without X11 requirement and accordingly have a
     no_x11 flavor.

     Flavor settings are not propagated to dependencies.  If a specific combi-
     nation is needed, careful hand-building of the required set of packages
     is still necessary.

     The OpenBSD ports tree comes with a mechanism called MULTI_PACKAGES.
     This mechanism is used when a larger package is broken down into several
     smaller components referred to as subpackages.

     If a port is "subpackaged", in addition to the main package, each sub-
     package will have a corresponding description in the pkg/DESCR-subpackage

     For example, the database/mysql port comes with subpackages called tests
     and server.

     In this instance, the build will yield multiple packages, one correspond-
     ing to each subpackage.  In the case of our mysql example, the subpack-
     ages will be called mysql-tests-<&lt;version>&gt; and mysql-server-<&lt;version>&gt;.

     To install/deinstall a specific subpackage of a port, you may pkg_add(1)
     them manually, or alternatively, you may set SUBPACKAGE in the environ-
     ment of the make(1) command during the install/deinstall phase:

           $ env SUBPACKAGE="-server" make install
           $ env SUBPACKAGE="-server" make deinstall

     These can be changed in the environment, or in /etc/mk.conf for persis-
     tence.  They can also be set on make's command line, e.g., make

     Boolean variables should be set to Yes instead of simply being defined,
     for uniformity and future compatibility.

     Variable names starting with _ are private to the ports infrastructure,
     should not be changed by the user, and are liable to change without no-

     PORTSDIR      Location of the ports tree (usually /usr/ports)

     DISTDIR       Where to find/put distfiles, normally distfiles/ in

                   Used only for the package target; the base directory for
                   the packages tree, normally packages/${MACHINE_ARCH} in
                   PORTSDIR.  If this directory exists, the package tree will
                   be (partially) constructed.  This directory does not have
                   to exist; if it doesn't, packages will be placed into the
                   current directory, or define one of

                   PKGREPOSITORY  Directory to put the package in.

                   PKGFILE        The full path to the package.

                   During bulk package building, used to store cookies for al-
                   ready built packages to avoid rebuilding them, since the
                   actual working directory will already have been cleaned
                   out.  Defaults to bulk/${MACHINE_ARCH} under PORTSDIR.

     LOCALBASE     Where to install things in general (usually /usr/local)

     MASTER_SITES  Primary sites for distribution files if not found locally.

     PATCH_SITES   Primary location(s) for distribution patch files if not
                   found locally.

     CLEANDEPENDS  If set to Yes, let `clean' recurse to dependencies.

     FETCH_CMD     Command to use to fetch files.  Normally ftp(1).

     PATCH_DEBUG   If defined, display verbose output when applying each

     INTERACTIVE   If defined, only operate on a port if it requires interac-

     BATCH         If defined, only operate on a port if it can be installed
                   100% automatically.

     USE_SYSTRACE  Set to `Yes' to protect the configure, build, and fake tar-
                   gets with systrace(1).  This way it is ensured that ports
                   do not make any network connections during build or write
                   outside some well defined directories.  The filter list is
                   stored in ${PORTSDIR}/infrastructure/db/systrace.filter.

     Select read-write partition(s) that can accommodate working directories,
     the distfiles repository, and the built packages.  Set WRKOBJDIR,
     PACKAGES, BULK_COOKIES_DIR and DISTDIR in /etc/mk.conf accordingly.

     /usr/ports           The default ports directory.
     /usr/ports/Makefile  Ports master Makefile.
     /usr/ports/INDEX     Ports index.
                          The ports main engine.
                          Network configuration defaults.
                          Local network configuration.
                          Filter list for systrace.
                          List of users and groups created by ports.

     make(1), pkg_add(1), pkg_create(1), pkg_delete(1), pkg_info(1),
     bsd.port.mk(5), packages(7)

     The OpenBSD Ports Mechanism: http://www.openbsd.org/ports.html

     The OpenBSD Porting Checklist: http://www.openbsd.org/checklist.html

     The Ports Collection appeared in FreeBSD 1.0.  It was introduced in
     OpenBSD by Ejovi Nuwere, with much initial effort by Angelos D.
     Keromytis.  Maintenance passed then to Marco S. Hyman, and then to
     Christopher Turan.  It is currently managed by Marc Espie, Brad Smith,
     and Christian Weisgerber, along with a host of others found at

     This man page was originated by David O'Brien, from the FreeBSD project.

     Ports documentation is split over several places --- bsd.port.mk(5), the
     ``Ports Collection'' section of the FreeBSD handbook, the ``Porting
     Existing Software'' section of the FreeBSD handbook, and some man pages.
     OpenBSD adds a few web pages to further confuse the issue.

OpenBSD 3.6                    January 25, 1998                              6