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MS(7)                  Miscellaneous Information Manual                  MS(7)

       ms - text formatting macros

       nroff  -ms  [ options ]  file  ...
       troff  -ms  [ options ]  file  ...

       This package of nroff and troff macro definitions provides a formatting
       facility for various styles of articles, theses, and books.  When  pro-
       ducing  2-column  output  on a terminal or lineprinter, or when reverse
       line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1).  All  exter-
       nal  -ms  macros  are defined below.  Many nroff and troff requests are
       unsafe in conjunction with  this  package.   However,  the  first  four
       requests  below may be used with impunity after initialization, and the
       last two may be used even before initialization:
            .bp    begin new page
            .br    break output line
            .sp n  insert n spacing lines
            .ce n  center next n lines
            .ls n  line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space
            .na    no alignment of right margin
       Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for  exam-
       ple,  ``\fIword\fR''  will italicize word.  Output of the tbl, eqn, and
       refer(1) preprocessors for equations, tables, and references is accept-
       able as input.


       eqn(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1)

Macro   Initial   Break?   Explanation
Name    Value     Reset?
.AB x   -         y      begin abstract; if x=no don't label abstract
.AE     -         y      end abstract
.AI     -         y      author's institution
.AM     -         n      better accent mark definitions
.AU     -         y      author's name
.B x    -         n      embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface
.B1     -         y      begin text to be enclosed in a box
.B2     -         y      end boxed text and print it
.BT     date      n      bottom title, printed at foot of page
.BX x   -         n      print word x in a box
.CM     if t      n      cut mark between pages
.CT     -         y,y    chapter title: page number moved to CF (TM only)
.DA x   if n      n      force date x at bottom of page; today if no x
.DE     -         y      end display (unfilled text) of any kind
.DS x y I         y      begin display with keep; x=I,L,C,B; y=indent
.ID y   8n,.5i    y      indented display with no keep; y=indent
.LD     -         y      left display with no keep
.CD     -         y      centered display with no keep
.BD     -         y      block display; center entire block
.EF x   -         n      even page footer x (3 part as for .tl)
.EH x   -         n      even page header x (3 part as for .tl)
.EN     -         y      end displayed equation produced by eqn
.EQ x y -         y      break out equation; x=L,I,C; y=equation number
.FE     -         n      end footnote to be placed at bottom of page
.FP     -         n      numbered footnote paragraph; may be redefined
.FS x   -         n      start footnote; x is optional footnote label
.HD     undef     n      optional page header below header margin
.I x    -         n      italicize x; if no x, switch to italics
.IP x y -         y,y    indented paragraph, with hanging tag x; y=indent
.IX x y -         y      index words x y and so on (up to 5 levels)
.KE     -         n      end keep of any kind
.KF     -         n      begin floating keep; text fills remainder of page
.KS     -         y      begin keep; unit kept together on a single page
.LG     -         n      larger; increase point size by 2
.LP     -         y,y    left (block) paragraph.
.MC x   -         y,y    multiple columns; x=column width
.ND x   if t      n      no date in page footer; x is date on cover
.NH x y -         y,y    numbered header; x=level, x=0 resets, x=S sets to y
.NL     10p       n      set point size back to normal
.OF x   -         n      odd page footer x (3 part as for .tl)
.OH x   -         n      odd page header x (3 part as for .tl)
.P1     if TM     n      print header on 1st page
.PP     -         y,y    paragraph with first line indented
.PT     - % -     n      page title, printed at head of page
.PX x   -         y      print index (table of contents); x=no suppresses title
.QP     -         y,y    quote paragraph (indented and shorter)
.R      on        n      return to Roman font
.RE     5n        y,y    retreat: end level of relative indentation
.RP x   -         n      released paper format; x=no stops title on 1st page
.RS     5n        y,y    right shift: start level of relative indentation
.SH     -         y,y    section header, in boldface
.SM     -         n      smaller; decrease point size by 2
.TA     8n,5n     n      set tabs to 8n 16n ... (nroff) 5n 10n ... (troff)
.TC x   -         y      print table of contents at end; x=no suppresses title
.TE     -         y      end of table processed by tbl
.TH     -         y      end multi-page header of table
.TL     -         y      title in boldface and two points larger
.TM     off       n      UC Berkeley thesis mode
.TS x   -         y,y    begin table; if x=H table has multi-page header
.UL x   -         n      underline x, even in troff
.UX x   -         n      UNIX; trademark message first time; x appended
.XA x y -         y      another index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent
.XE     -         y      end index entry (or series of .IX entries)
.XP     -         y,y    paragraph with first line exdented, others indented
.XS x y -         y      begin index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent
.1C     on        y,y    one column format, on a new page
.2C     -         y,y    begin two column format
.]-     -         n      beginning of refer reference
.[0     -         n      end of unclassifiable type of reference
.[N     -         n      N= 1:journal-article, 2:book, 3:book-article, 4:report

       Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms by means of built-in num-
       ber registers.  For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:
            .nr  LL  6.5i
       Here is a table of number registers and their default values:
            Name Register Controls  Takes Effect Default
            PS   point size         paragraph    10
            VS   vertical spacing   paragraph    12
            LL   line length        paragraph    6i
            LT   title length       next page    same as LL
            FL   footnote length    next .FS     5.5i
            PD   paragraph distance paragraph    1v (if n), .3v (if t)
            DD   display distance   displays     1v (if n), .5v (if t)
            PI   paragraph indent   paragraph    5n
            QI   quote indent       next .QP     5n
            FI   footnote indent    next .FS     2n
            PO   page offset        next page    0 (if n), ~1i (if t)
            HM   header margin      next page    1i
            FM   footer margin      next page    1i
            FF   footnote format    next .FS     0 (1, 2, 3 available)
       When resetting these values,  make  sure  to  specify  the  appropriate
       units.   Setting the line length to 7, for example, will result in out-
       put with one character per line.  Setting FF to 1  suppresses  footnote
       superscripting;  setting  it  to  2  also suppresses indentation of the
       first line; and setting it to 3 produces  an  .IP-like  footnote  para-

       Here  is  a list of string registers available in -ms; they may be used
       anywhere in the text:
            Name  String's Function
            \*Q   quote (" in nroff, `` in troff )
            \*U   unquote (" in nroff, '' in troff )
            \*-   dash (-- in nroff, -- in troff )
            \*(MO month (month of the year)
            \*(DY day (current date)
            \**   automatically numbered footnote
            \*'   acute accent (before letter)
            \*`   grave accent (before letter)
            \*^   circumflex (before letter)
            \*,   cedilla (before letter)
            \*:   umlaut (before letter)
            \*~   tilde (before letter)
       When using the extended accent mark  definitions  available  with  .AM,
       these  strings  should come after, rather than before, the letter to be

       Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to  the  same  space,  so
       they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.

4th Berkeley Distribution        18 July 1983                            MS(7)