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HIER(7)                      BSD Reference Manual                      HIER(7)

     hier - layout of filesystems

     An outline of the filesystem hierarchy.

     /          root directory of the system

                system copyright notice

     /[a-z]     user filesystems

     /altroot/  alternate root filesystem, in case of disaster

     /amd/      home directories mount point; see amd(8)

     /bin/      utilities used in both single and multi-user environments

     /dev/      block, character and other special device files

                MAKEDEV  script for creating device files; see makedev(8)
                console  the computer's console device
                fd/      file descriptor files; see fd(4)
                drum     system swap space; see drum(4)
                klog     kernel logging device; see syslog(3)
                kmem     kernel virtual memory device; see mem(4)
                log      UNIX domain datagram log socket; see syslogd(8)
                mem      kernel physical memory device; see mem(4)
                stdout   file descriptor files; see fd(4)
                null     the null device; see null(4)
                tty      process' controlling terminal device; see tty(4)

     /dump/     online dump(8) repository

     /etc/      system configuration files and scripts

                aliases*       name alias files for sendmail(8)
                amd*           configuration files for amd(8)
                changelist     files backed up by the security script
                crontab        schedule used by the cron(8) daemon
                csh.logout     system-wide scripts for csh(1)
                daily          script run each day by cron(8)
                disklabels/    backup disklabels; see disklabel(8)
                disktab        disk description file, see disktab(5)
                dm.conf        dungeon master configuration; see dm.conf(5)
                dumpdates      dump history; see dump(8)
                exports        filesystem export information; see mountd(8)
                fstab          filesystem information; see fstab(5) and
                ftpusers       users denied ftp(1) access; see ftpd(8)
                ftpwelcome     ftp(1) initial message; see ftpd(8)
                gettytab       terminal configuration database; see get-
                group          group permissions file; see group(5)
                hosts          host name database backup for named(8);  see

                hosts.equiv    trusted machines with equivalent user ID's
                hosts.lpd      trusted machines with printing privileges
                inetd.conf     Internet server configuration file; see in-
                kerberosIV/    configuration files for the kerberos version
                               IV; see kerberos(1)
                localtime      local timezone information; see ctime(3)
                mail.rc        system-wide initialization script for mail(1)
                man.conf       configuration file for man(1);  see man.conf(5)
                spwd.db        password files and their databases; see
                monthly        script run each month by cron(8)
                motd           system message of the day
                mtree/         mtree configuration files; see mtree(1)
                namedb/        named configuration files and databases; see
                netgroup       network groups; see netgroup(5)
                netstart       network startup script
                networks       network name data base; see networks(5)
                phones         remote host phone number data base; see
                printcap       system printer configuration; see printcap(5)
                protocols      protocol name database; see protocols(5)
                rc.local       system startup files; see rc(8)
                remote         remote host description file; see remote(5)
                security       daily (in)security script run by cron(8)
                sendmail.*     sendmail(8) configuration information
                services       service name data base; see services(5)
                shells         list of permitted shells; see shells(5)
                sliphome       slip login/logout scripts; see slattach(8)
                syslog.conf    syslogd(8) configuration file; see sys-
                termcap        terminal type database; see termcap(3)
                ttys           terminal initialization information; see
                weekly         script run each week by cron(8)

     /home/     mount point for the automounter; see amd(8)

     /mnt/      empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
                temporary mount point

     /root/     home directory for the super-user

                .rhosts   super-user id mapping between machines
                .cshrc    super-user start-up file
                .login    super-user start-up file
                .profile  super-user start-up file

     /sbin/     system programs and administration utilities used in both sin-
                gle-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/    programs used in a standalone environment

     /sys       symbolic link to the operating system source

     /tmp/      temporary files, usually a mfs(8) memory-based filesystem (the
                contents of /tmp are usually NOT preserved across a system re-

     /usr/      contains the majority of the system utilities and files

                X11       X11 files

                          bin/      X11 binaries
                          include/  X11 include files
                          lib/      X11 libraries
                bin/      common utilities, programming tools, and applica-
                contrib/  packages maintained by groups other than Berkeley

                          bin/      contributed binaries
                          include/  contributed include files
                          libexec/  contributed daemons
                          libdata/  contributed data files
                games/    the important stuff
                include/  standard C include files

                          X11/         include files for X11 window system
                          arpa/        include files for Internet service pro-
                          g++/         include files for the C++ compiler
                          kerberosIV/  include files for kerberos authentica-
                                       tion package; see kerberos(1)
                          machine/     machine specific include files
                          net/         miscellaneous network include files
                          netccitt/    CCITT networking include files
                          netinet/     include files for Internet standard
                                       protocols; see inet(4)
                          netiso/      include files for ISO standard proto-
                                       cols; see iso(4)
                          netns/       include files for XNS standard proto-
                                       cols; see ns(4)
                          nfs/         include files for NFS (Network File
                          pascal/      include files for pc(1)
                          protocols/   include files for Berkeley service pro-
                          rpc/         include files for Sun Microsystem's RPC
                          sys/         kernel include files
                          ufs/         include files for UFS
                          xnscourier/  include files for XNS package

                lib/      system C library archives; see ar(1)

                          uucp/  UUCP binaries and scripts (historically
                                 placed; to be moved)

                libdata/  miscellaneous utility data files
                libexec/  system daemons and system utilities (executed by
                          other programs)
                local/    local executables, libraries, etc.

                          bin/      local binaries
                          include/  local include files
                          libexec/  local daemons
                          libdata/  local data files
                obj/      architecture-specific target tree produced by build-
                          ing the /usr/src tree; normally a symbolic link or
                          mounted filesystem
                old/      programs from past lives of 4BSD which may disappear
                          in future releases

                          bin/      old binaries

                          include/  old include files
                          libexec/  old daemons
                          libdata/  old data files
                sbin/     system daemons and system utilities (normally exe-
                          cuted by the super-user)
                share/    architecture-independent text files

                          calendar/  a variety of calendar files; see calen-
                          dict/      word lists; see look(1) and spell(1)

                                     words     common words
                                     web2      words of Webster's 2nd Interna-
                                     papers/   reference databases; see re-
                                     special/  custom word lists; see spell(1)

                          doc/       miscellaneous documentation; source for
                                     most of the printed 4BSD manuals (avail-
                                     able from the USENIX association)
                          games/     text files used by various games
                          man/       formatted manual pages
                          me/        macros for use with the me(7) macro pack-
                          misc/      miscellaneous system-wide text files

                                     termcap  terminal characteristics
                                              database; see termcap(5)

                          mk/        include files for make(1)
                          ms/        macros for use with the ms(7) macro pack-
                          skel/      sample initialization files for new user
                          tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
                                     terminals, used in the termcap file; see
                          tmac/      text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
                          zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
                usr.bin/  source for utilities/files in /usr/bin
                          source for utilities/files in /usr/sbin

     /usr/src/  4BSD and local source files

                bin/         source for utilities/files in /bin
                contrib/     source for utilities/files in /usr/contrib
                etc/         source (usually example files) for files in /etc
                games/       source for utilities/files in /usr/games
                include/     source for files in /usr/include
                kerberosIV/  source for Kerberos version IV utilities and li-
                lib/         source for libraries in /usr/lib
                libexec/     source for utilities/files in /usr/libexec
                local/       source for utilities/files in /usr/local
                old/         source for utilities/files in /usr/old
                sbin/        source for utilities/files in /sbin
                share/       source for files in /usr/share


                                   papers/  source for various Berkeley tech-
                                            nical papers
                                   psd/     source for Programmer's Supplemen-
                                            tary Documents
                                   smm/     source for System Manager's Manual
                                   usd/     source for User's Supplementary
                sys/         kernel source files

                             compile/     kernel compilation directory
                             conf/        architecture independent configura-
                                          tion directory
                             deprecated/  deprecated kernel functionality
                             dev/         architecture independent device sup-
                             hp/          general support for Hewlett-Packard
                             hp300/       support for the Hewlett-Packard
                                          9000/300 68000-based workstations
                             i386/        support for the Intel 386/486 work-
                             isofs/       support for ISO filesystems

                                          cd9660/  support for the ISO-9660

                             kern/        support for the high kernel (system
                             libkern/     C library routines used in the ker-
                             luna68k/     Omron Luna 68000-based workstations
                             mips/        general support for MIPS architec-
                             miscfs/      miscellaneous file systems
                             net/         miscellaneous networking support
                             netccitt/    CCITT networking support
                             netinet/     TCP/IP networking support
                             netiso/      ISO networking support
                             netns/       XNS networking support
                             news3400/    Sony News MIPS-based workstations
                             nfs/         NFS support
                             pmax/        DECstation 3100 and 5000 MIPS-based
                             scripts/     kernel debugging scripts
                             sparc/       Sparcstation I & II SPARC-based
                             stand/       kernel standalone support
                             sys/         kernel (and system) include files
                             tahoe/       Computer Consoles Inc. Tahoe archi-
                                          tecture (obsolete)
                             tests/       kernel testing
                             ufs/         local filesystem support

                                          ffs/  the Berkeley Fast File System
                                          lfs/  the log-structured file system
                                          mfs/  the in-memory file system
                                          ufs/  shared UNIX file system sup-
                             vax/         Digital Equipment Corp. VAX archi-
                                          tecture (obsolete)
                             vm/          virtual memory support

     /var/      multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

                account/   system accounting files

                           acct  execution accounting file; see acct(5)

                at/        timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
                backups/   miscellaneous backup files, largely of files found
                           in /etc
                crash/     system crash dumps; see savecore(8)
                db/        miscellaneous automatically generated system-
                           specific database files
                games/     miscellaneous game status and log files
                log/       miscellaneous system log files

                           amd.*        amd(8) logs
                           daily.out    output of the last run of the
                                        /etc/daily script
                           ftp.*        ftp(1) logs
                           kerberos.*   kerberos(1) logs
                           lastlog      system last time logged in log; see
                           lpd-errs.*   printer daemon error logs; see lpd(8)
                           maillog.*    sendmail(8) log files
                           messages.*   general system information log
                           monthly.out  output of the last run of the
                                        /etc/monthly script
                           secure       sensitive security information log
                           sendmail.st  sendmail(8) statistics
                           timed.*      timed(8) logs
                           weekly.out   output of the last run of the
                                        /etc/weekly script
                           wtmp         login/logout log; see utmp(5)

                mail/      user system mailboxes
                msgs/      system messages; see msgs(1)
                preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an acciden-
                           tal death of ex(1) or vi(1)
                quotas/    filesystem quota information
                run/       system information files, rebuilt after each reboot

                           utmp  database of current users; see utmp(5)

                rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8),  rwho(1),  and rup-
                spool/     miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling di-

                           ftp/         commonly ``~ftp'', the anonymous ftp
                                        root directory; see ftpd(8)
                           mqueue/      undelivered mail queue; see send-
                           news/        Network news archival and spooling di-
                           output/      printer spooling directories
                           secretmail/  secretmail spool directory; see
                           uucp/        uucp spool directory
                           uucppublic/  commonly ``~uucp'', the uucp public
                                        temporary directory; see uucp(1)

                tmp/       temporary files that are not discarded between sys-
                           tem reboots

                           vi.recover/  recovery directory for nvi(1)

     /vmunix    the executable for the operating system

     apropos(1),  ls(1),  whatis(1),  whereis(1),  which(1),

     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

4.4BSD                           June 1, 1994                                7