unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (Darwin-7.0.1-ppc)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

GROFF_CHAR(7)          Miscellaneous Information Manual          GROFF_CHAR(7)



NAME
       groff_char - groff character names

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page lists the standard groff input characters.  The output
       characters in this document will look different depending on which out-
       put  device  was  chosen  (with option -T for the man(1) program or the
       roff formatter).  Only the characters that are available for the device
       that  is being used to print or view this manual page will be displayed
       (the device currently used is `ascii').

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for  direct
       input  and  named  characters  for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms,
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)  represent  the  usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1)  code  set.
       On EBCDIC platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which con-
       tains the same characters as Latin-1).  It  is  rather  straightforward
       (for the experienced user) to set up other 8bit encodings like Latin-2;
       since groff will use Unicode in the next major version,  no  additional
       encodings are provided.

       All  roff  systems  provide the concept of named characters.  In tradi-
       tional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also
       provides  support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named characters are used for all characters outside of the 7-bit ASCII
       range.

       Some  of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single characters; these exist for historical  reasons  or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include \\, \',
       \`, \-, \., and \e; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters can be tested pos-
       itively with the .if c conditional.

REFERENCE
       In this section, the characters in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the character  is  printed  for  the  current  device;
              although this can have quite a different shape on other devices,
              it always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
              specifies how the character is input either directly by a key on
              the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
              applies  to  characters which can be input with a single charac-
              ter, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input  char-
              acter.  Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Uni-
              code characters; (including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127).

       PostScript name
              gives the usual PostScript name of the output character.

   ASCII Characters
       These are the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code  values.   These
       are  identical  to  the first 127 characters of the character standards
       ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C0 Controls and  Basic  Latin).
       To save space, not every code has an entry in the following because the
       following code ranges are well known.

       0-32   Control characters (print as themselves).

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       127    Control character (prints as itself).

       The remaining ranges constitute the printable,  non-alphanumeric  ASCII
       characters;  only  these are listed below.  As can be seen in the table
       below, most of these characters print as themselves;  the  only  excep-
       tions are the following characters:

       `      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Grave  Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left
              single quotation mark,

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin-
              gle quotation mark; the corresponding ISO Latin-1 characters can
              be obtained with \` and \(aq.

       -      the ISO Latin-1 `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45)  prints  as  a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with \-.

       ~      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Tilde'  (code 126);  a  larger  glyph can be
              obtained with \(ti.

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94);  a  larger  glyph
              can be obtained with \(ha.

       Output   Input   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    code    name

       !        !       33      exclam
       "        "       34      quotedbl
       #        #       35      numbersign
       $        $       36      dollar
       %        %       37      percent
       &        &       38      ampersand
       '        '       39      quoteright
       (        (       40      parenleft
       )        )       41      parenright
       *        *       42      asterisk
       +        +       43      plus
       ,        ,       44      comma
       -        -       45      hyphen
       .        .       46      period
       /        /       47      slash
       :        :       58      colon
       ;        ;       59      semicolon
       <        <       60      less
       =        =       61      equal
       >        >       62      greater
       ?        ?       63      question
       @        @       64      at
       [        [       91      bracketleft
       \        \       92      backslash
       ]        ]       93      bracketright
       ^        ^       94      circumflex       circumflex accent
       _        _       95      underscore
       `        `       96      quoteleft
       {        {       123     braceleft
       |        |       124     bar
       }        }       125     braceright
       ~        ~       126     tilde            tilde accent

   Latin-1 Special Characters
       These  characters  have  character codes between 128 and 255.  They are
       interpreted as characters according to the  Latin-1  (iso-8859-1)  code
       set,  being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Sup-
       plement.

       128-159
              the C1 Controls; they print as themselves,  but  the  effect  is
              mostly undefined.

       160    the  ISO  Latin-1  no-break space is mapped to `\ ', the escaped
              space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character  (prints  as  itself).   groff
              never  use  this character for output (thus it is omitted in the
              table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto \%.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255), called the Latin-1  Supplement
       in   Unicode,  are  printable  characters  that  print  as  themselves.
       Although they can be specified directly with the  keyboard  on  systems
       with  a  Latin-1  code  page, it is better to use their named character
       equivalent; see next section.

       Output   Input   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    code    name

   Named Characters
       The named character idiom is the standard way to specify special  char-
       acters in roff systems.  They can be embedded into the document text by
       using escape sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape  sequences
       look.   The  character  names can consist of quite arbitrary characters
       from the ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only  alphanumeric  characters.
       Here some examples:

       \c     named  character  having  the name c, which consists of a single
              character (length 1).

       \(ch   named character having the 2-character name ch.

       \[char_name]
              named character having the name char_name (having length  1,  2,
              3, ...).

       In  groff,  each  8bit input character can also referred to by the con-
       struct \n[charn] where n is the decimal code of the character, a number
       between  0  and 255  without leading zeros.  They are mapped onto glyph
       entities using the .trin request.  Moreover, new character names can be
       created by the .char request; see groff(7).

       Output   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    name

       Ligatures
       ff       \[ff]   ff               ff ligature
       fi       \[fi]   fi               fi ligature
       fl       \[fl]   fl               fl ligature
       ffi      \[Fi]   ffi              ffi ligature
       ffl      \[Fl]   ffl              ffl ligature
       AE       \[AE]   AE
       ae       \[ae]   ae
       OE       \[OE]   OE
       oe       \[oe]   oe
       IJ       \[IJ]   IJ               Dutch IJ ligature
       ij       \[ij]   ij               Dutch ij ligature
       i        \[.i]   dotlessi         i without a dot (Turkish)

       Accented Characters

       Accents
       ^        \[a^]   circumflex       circumflex accent
       '        \[aa]   acute            acute accent
       `        \[ga]   grave            grave accent
       ~        \[a~]   tilde            tilde accent
       ^        \[ha]   asciicircum      ASCII circumflex, hat, caret
       ~        \[ti]   asciitilde       ASCII tilde, large tilde

       Quotes
       ,        \[bq]   quotesinglbase   low single comma quote
       "        \[lq]   quotedblleft
       "        \[rq]   quotedblright
       '        \[oq]   quoteleft        single open quote
       '        \[cq]   quoteright       single closing quote (ASCII 39)
       '        \[aq]   quotesingle      apostrophe quote
       "        \[dq]   quotedbl         double quote (ASCII 34)
       <        \[fo]   guilsinglleft
       >        \[fc]   guilsinglright

       Punctuation
       --       \[em]   emdash           em dash
       -        \[en]   endash           en dash
       -        \[hy]   hyphen

       Brackets
       [        \[lB]   bracketleft
       ]        \[rB]   bracketright
       {        \[lC]   braceleft
       }        \[rC]   braceright
       <        \[la]   angleleft        left angle bracket
       >        \[ra]   angleright       right angle bracket

       Arrows
       <-       \[<-]   arrowleft
       ->       \[->]   arrowright
       <->      \[<>]   arrowboth        horizontal double-headed arrow
       <=       \[lA]   arrowdblleft
       =>       \[rA]   arrowdblright
       <=>      \[hA]   arrowdblboth     horizontal double-headed double arrow
       -        \[an]   arrowhorizex     horizontal arrow extension

       Lines
       |        \[or]   bar
       |        \[ba]   bar
       |        \[br]   br               box rule with traditional troff metrics
       _        \[ru]   ru               baseline rule
       _        \[ul]   ul               underline with traditional troff metrics
       |        \[bv]   bv               bar vertical
       /        \[sl]   slash
       \        \[rs]   backslash

       Text markers
       O        \[ci]   circle
       o        \[bu]   bullet
       []       \[sq]   square
       <=       \[lh]   handleft
       =>       \[rh]   handright
       @        \[at]   at
       #        \[sh]   numbersign

       Legalize
       (C)      \[co]   copyright
       (R)      \[rg]   registered

       Currency symbols
       $        \[Do]   dollar
       EUR      \[eu]                    official Euro symbol
       EUR      \[Eu]   Euro             font-specific Euro glyph variant

       Units
       '        \[fm]   minute           footmark, prime

       Logical Symbols

       Mathematical Symbols
       1/2      \[12]   onehalf
       1/4      \[14]   onequarter
       3/4      \[34]   threequarters
       +        \[pl]   plusmath         plus sign in special font
       -        \-      minus            minus sign from current font
       -+       \[-+]   minusplus
       +-       \[+-]   plusminus
       +-       \[t+-]  plusminus        text variant of `+-'
       x        \[mu]   multiply
       x        \[tmu]  multiply         text variant of `mu'
       /        \[f/]   fraction         bar for fractions
       *        \[**]   asteriskmath
       <=       \[<=]   lessequal
       >=       \[>=]   greaterequal
       <<       \[<<]                    much less
       >>       \[>>]                    much greater
       !=       \[!=]   notequal
       =        \[eq]   equalmath        equals sign in special font
       ==       \[==]   equivalence
       ~        \[ap]   similar
       ~=       \[~=]   approxequal
       !==      \[ne]   notequivalence

       Greek characters
       A        \[*A]   Alpha
       B        \[*B]   Beta
       E        \[*E]   Epsilon
       I        \[*I]   Iota
       K        \[*K]   Kappa
       M        \[*M]   Mu
       N        \[*N]   Nu
       O        \[*O]   Omicron
       P        \[*R]   Rho
       T        \[*T]   Tau
       Y        \[*U]   Upsilon
       X        \[*X]   Chi
       H        \[*Y]   Eta
       Z        \[*Z]   Zeta
       o        \[*o]   omicron

       Card symbols

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989-2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>;.

       This document is part of groff, the  GNU  roff  distribution.   It  was
       written  by  James Clark <jjcATjclark.com> with additions by Werner Lem-
       berg <wlATgnu.org> and Bernd Warken <bwarkenATmayn.de>.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              the GNU roff formatter.

       groff(7)
              a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G.  Keizer,  K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <http://www.unicode.org>;



Groff Version 1.18.1               Nov  2002                     GROFF_CHAR(7)