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 ddfa(7)							     ddfa(7)

      ddfa - Data Communications and Terminal Controller (DTC) Device File
      Access (DDFA) software

      The Data Communications and Terminal Controller (DTC) Device File
      Access (DDFA) software allows access from HP-UX system utilities and
      user applications to terminal servers using standard HP-UX structures.
      DDFA provides an interface to remote LAN-connected terminal server
      ports that is similar to the interface for local directly-connected

      The basic principle is that a daemon is created for each configured
      terminal server port based on information in a configuration file (a
      Dedicated Ports file).  When the daemon is spawned, it takes a pty
      from the pool and creates a device file with the same major and minor
      number as the pty slave.	The device file is known as the "pseudonym"
      and utilities and applications use the pseudonym to access the
      terminal server port by exercising standard HP-UX system functions
      (open(), close(), read(), write(), and ioctl()).	The daemon listens
      on the pty until an application does an open() on the pseudonym.	It
      then sets up and manages the connection to the terminal server port
      until the application does a close() on the pseudonym.  The end result
      is that the terminal server port is addressed via a device file, but
      the mechanism that makes it happen is transparent to the user.  A
      second configuration file (a port configuration file) contains
      information to profile the terminal server port.

      DDFA consists of the following items:

	   dp		  Dedicated Ports file.	 This text file contains the
			  information that DDFA needs to set up and manage a
			  connection between a pseudonym and a terminal
			  server port.

			  The dp file is parsed by the Dedicated Port Parser
			  (dpp) which spawns an Outbound Connection Daemon
			  (ocd) for each outbound connection specified in
			  the file.  The dp file is also used by the HP-UX
			  Telnet daemon (telnetd) to identify incoming
			  connections from a DTC and map them to a pseudonym
			  (the Telnet port identification feature).

	   pcf		  Port Configuration File.  This text file is used
			  by DDFA to profile the terminal server port.	The
			  generic name of the template file is pcf.  A port
			  configuration file is referenced by an entry in
			  the Dedicated Ports file (dp).

	   dpp		  Dedicated Port Parser.  This command parses the
			  Dedicated Ports file (dp) and spawns an Outbound

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 ddfa(7)							     ddfa(7)

			  Connection Daemon (ocd) for each valid entry in
			  the dp file.	It can be run from the shell or it
			  can be included in a system initialization script
			  to automatically run the DDFA software each time
			  the system is booted.

	   ocd		  Outbound Connection Daemon.  This daemon manages
			  the connection and data transfer to the remote
			  terminal server port.	 Normally, it is spawned by
			  the Dedicated Ports Parser (dpp), but it can be
			  run directly from the shell.

			  As it starts, it creates its pseudonym for the
			  connection.  As it terminates normally, it removes
			  the pseudonym.  If the pseudonym is removed while
			  it is running, ocd will terminate with an error

	   ocdebug	  Outbound Connection Daemon debug mode.  This is a
			  special version of ocd that contains debugging
			  code.	 It must be run from the shell.

      There are two basic steps to configuring the DDFA software:

	+  Enter information in the dp file.

	+  Enter information in the port configuration files.

    Configuring the dp File
      The dp file contains one line for each outbound connection that is to
      be established and one line for each incoming connection request.	 A
      default file /usr/examples/ddfa/dp should be copied to a new file and
      the copy edited as needed.  It is recommended that a directory be
      created to hold the dp file and the port configuration files.

      Each line of the dp file must contain the location of the terminal
      server port and the location of the pseudonym.  In addition, for an
      outbound connection, the port configuration file must be specified and
      a logging level may be specified.

    Configuring the Port Configuration Files
      A port configuration file is used to configure individual terminal
      server ports.  A master port configuration file is
      /usr/examples/ddfa/pcf.  In practice, it is renamed for each port that
      needs different configuration values and the values are altered
      appropriately for the device attached to the port.  It is recommended
      that a directory be created to hold the port configuration files and
      the dp file.

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 ddfa(7)							     ddfa(7)

      Each line of a port configuration file must consist of a name of a
      variable and its value.  The variable-value pairs contain information
      on how to open a connection to a terminal server port, how to close a
      connection to a terminal server port, and how to manage the data
      transfer to a terminal server port.

    Configuring a System Initialization Script
      DDFA can be run at boot time by including a reference to dpp in a
      system initialization script.  It is recommended that the -k option be
      used when running dpp in this environment.

      Note that ocd should be killed using kill -15.  Do not use kill -9 for
      this purpose as it does not remove the device file.  ocd verifies the
      validity of an existing pseudonym before trying to use it.  dpp and
      ocd use data stored in the file /var/adm/utmp.dfa to verify whether a
      process still owns a pseudonym before taking it over.  If ocd finds an
      unowned pseudonym, it uses it.

      When ocd receives a serious error condition, such as when the LAN goes
      down, it transmits the error condition to the application by closing
      the pty.	Any open(), close(), read(), or write() to the pseudonym
      returns the error condition 0 bytes read.	 If the pseudonym is the
      controlling terminal for the group to which the application belongs,
      SIGHUP is sent to all the processes in the group, including the

      Not all ioctl() functionality is available, due to the lack of a
      protocol that allows the transmission of such commands over the LAN to
      the remote port.

    termio Attribute Limitations
      The main restrictions on termio attributes (see termio(7)) include
      modem signal control and parity checking.	 The following are not


    ioctl() Request Limitations
      The following ioctl() request limitations apply:

	   CSTOPB flag	       DTC only supports one stop bit.

	   CSIZE	       DTC only supports 8 bits per character.
			       Value cannot be modified.

	   PARODD flag	       DTC offers static configuration to handle
			       even or odd parity.  It also handles auto
			       parity detection for even or odd parity.

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	   PARENB flags	       Enabling/disabling done via static
			       configuration.  No programmatic interface

	   INPCK flag	       No way to separate input from output parity

	   IGNPAR flag	       Cannot be configured on DTC.

	   PARMRK	       Bad characters are forwarded to the system
			       without marking them with OFFH or OH.

	   CBAUD	       Speed is part of static configuration.

	   IXOFF flag	       Flow control is enabled if the DTC static
			       configuration specifies an ASCII access mode.
			       If binary is selected, no flow control is

	   IXON flags	       Pacing of output to a terminal via a
			       programmatic interface is enabled when ASCII
			       mode is selected in static port configuration
			       and disabled when binary mode is selected.

	   IXANY flag	       DTC does not offer the ability to restart
			       output on any character received if XOFF was
			       previously received.

	   HUPCL flag	       DDFA does not support the hanging up of modem
			       signals on the last close of the device file.
			       If the modem signals used on the DTC drop,
			       the connection is closed.

	   CLOCAL flag	       Not supported.

	   c_flags	       IENQACK not supported.

			       FFDLY not supported by Telnet port
			       identification software.

	   BINARY mode flags   Part of static configuration is done in DTC
			       Manager by selecting binary mode.  If
			       switching is enabled, binary can be selected
			       at user interface level.	 There is no way to
			       automatically negotiate binary mode when
			       proper termio flags are reset when using
			       telnetd.	 Binary/ASCII switching is possible
			       with DDFA.  The DTC cannot support large
			       reads in pure binary mode, so transferred
			       blocks of data should not be more than 256

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 ddfa(7)							     ddfa(7)

			       bytes.  If half-duplex with remote
			       acknowledgement is implemented, binary
			       applications can be supported.

    ioctl() System Call Requests
      The following ioctl() system call limitations apply:

	   TCSBRK	       The ability to send a break without waiting
			       for previous data to be sent is not provided
			       at the system level in telnetd or DDFA.
			       Receiving a Telnet break command in the DTC
			       allows it to generate a break on asynchronous

	   TCFLSH	       The DTC output queue cannot be flushed.

	   Hardware handshake request
			       Not supported on DTC.

	   TCXONC	       Local handshake cannot be disabled on DTC.

	   MCGETA	       Not supported.

			       There is no way to separately set modem lines
			       of a DTC port.

	   MCGETT	       Modem timers, CD timer, connect timer, and
			       disconnect cannot be configured.

	   CCITT simple, and direct call-in/call-out modes
			       DTC cannot handle simple mode because there
			       is programmatic interface for modem signals.
			       Call-in mode cannot be simulated if the port
			       is opened, because modem signals (or the
			       call) must be present within 2 minutes or the
			       connection is cleared.

	   DACIDY get device adapter info
			       No way to get device adapter information.

			       No programmatic call to download the DTC.

			       No programmatic interface to get such info.


      In order to ensure that commands (such as ps) display the correct

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 ddfa(7)							     ddfa(7)

      device file name (that is, the pseudonym), all pseudonyms should be
      placed into the directory /dev/telnet.  If pseudonyms are not
      specified for placement in this directory, the correct display of
      device file names with many commands is not guaranteed.

      In addition, in order to ensure that commands (such as w, passwd,
      finger, and wall) work correctly, each pseudonym must be unique in its
      first 17 characters (including the directory prefix /dev/telnet/).  If
      pseudonyms are not unique in their first 17 characters, the correct
      functioning of many commands is not guaranteed.

      Also, in order to reliably handle timing mark negotiations (and ensure
      that files printing on a printer attached to a terminal server have
      been completely flushed to that printer), the following line must be
      added near the end of each printer interface script for printers
      attached to a terminal server:

	   stty exta <&lt&lt&lt;&&amp&amp&amp;1 2>&gt&gt&gt;/dev/null

      The printer interface scripts reside in the directory
      /etc/lp/interface.  The line must be added just prior to the final
      exit command in each printer interface script.

      If this line is not added as specified, the printing reliability of
      printers attached to a terminal server is not guaranteed.


      dpp(1M), ocd(1M), ocdebug(1M), ioctl(2), dp(4), pcf(4), ioctl(5),

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