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UTF(6)                           Games Manual                           UTF(6)

       UTF, Unicode, ASCII, rune - character set and format

       The  Plan  9  character set and representation are based on the Unicode
       Standard and on the ISO multibyte UTF-8 encoding  (Universal  Character
       Set  Transformation  Format, 8 bits wide).  The Unicode Standard repre-
       sents its characters in 16 bits; UTF-8 represents  such  values  in  an
       8-bit byte stream.  Throughout this manual, UTF-8 is shortened to UTF.

       In  Plan  9, a rune is a 16-bit quantity representing a Unicode charac-
       ter.  Internally, programs may store characters as runes.  However, any
       external  manifestation  of  textual  information,  in  files or at the
       interface between programs,  uses  a  machine-independent,  byte-stream
       encoding called UTF.

       UTF  is  designed so the 7-bit ASCII set (values hexadecimal 00 to 7F),
       appear only as themselves in the encoding.  Runes with values above  7F
       appear  as  sequences  of two or more bytes with values only from 80 to

       The UTF encoding of the Unicode Standard is  backward  compatible  with
       ASCII:  programs  presented  only with ASCII work on Plan 9 even if not
       written to deal with UTF, as do programs that deal  with  uninterpreted
       byte  streams.   However,  programs that perform semantic processing on
       ASCII graphic characters must convert from UTF to  runes  in  order  to
       work properly with non-ASCII input.  See rune(2).

       Letting  numbers  be  binary,  a rune x is converted to a multibyte UTF
       sequence as follows:

       01.   x in [00000000.0bbbbbbb]  0bbbbbbb
       10.   x in [00000bbb.bbbbbbbb]  110bbbbb, 10bbbbbb
       11.   x in [bbbbbbbb.bbbbbbbb]  1110bbbb, 10bbbbbb, 10bbbbbb

       Conversion 01 provides a one-byte sequence that spans the ASCII charac-
       ter  set  in a compatible way.  Conversions 10 and 11 represent higher-
       valued characters as sequences of two or three bytes with the high  bit
       set.   Plan  9 does not support the 4, 5, and 6 byte sequences proposed
       by X-Open.  When there are multiple ways to encode a value, for example
       rune 0, the shortest encoding is used.

       In  the  inverse  mapping, any sequence except those described above is
       incorrect and is converted to rune hexadecimal 0080.

              table of characters and descriptions, suitable for look(1).

       ascii(1), tcs(1), rune(2), keyboard(6), The Unicode Standard.