unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (NetBSD-6.1.5)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

SAIL(6)                          Games Manual                          SAIL(6)

NAME
     sail -- multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS
     sail [-bx] [-s [-l]] [num]

DESCRIPTION
     sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail
     originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

     Players of sail take command of an old-fashioned Man of War and fight
     other players or the computer.  They may re-enact one of the many
     historical sea battles recorded in the game, or they can choose a
     fictional battle.

     As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over
     the workings of his ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set
     of his sails, and judge the right moment to let loose the terrible
     destruction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the enemy, he
     must harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.
     The outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided by the
     ability of one captain to hold the `weather gage'.

     The flags are:
     -b    No bells.
     -l    Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.
     -s    Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.
     -x    Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

IMPLEMENTATION
     sail is a multiplayer game.  Each player runs sail to either connect to
     an existing game or start a new one.  The game server (or ``driver'') is
     an extra fork of the sail program created when a game is started.  The
     driver coordinates the game and runs the computer ships.

     If a player joins a game in progress, a synchronization process occurs (a
     rather slow process for everyone), and then the game continues.

     Note that while each scenario can be running independently with different
     players, each scenario can also only be running once at any given time.

   COMMUNICATION
     To implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operating
     system sail was first written under, the communicating processes must use
     a common temporary file as a place to read and write messages.  For e.g.
     scenario 21, this file is /var/games/sail/#sailsink.21.  Corresponding
     file names are used for the other scenarios.

     In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to ensure exclusive
     access to the shared file.  sail uses a technique stolen from an old game
     called ``pubcaves'' by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop

           for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
                   sleep(2);

     until they are able to create a hard link named e.g.
     /var/games/sail/#saillock.21.  where 21 is again the scenario number.
     Since creating a hard link is atomic, a process where this succeeds will
     have exclusive access to the temporary file.

   CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
     When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
     the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
     For example, if a player wants to move in a certain direction, he writes
     a message into the temporary file requesting the driver to move his ship.
     Each ``turn'', the driver reads all the messages sent from the players
     and decides what happened.  It then writes back into the temporary file
     new values of variables, etc.

     The most noticeable effect this communication has on the game is the
     delay in moving.  Suppose a player types a move for his ship and hits
     return.  What happens then?  The player process saves up messages to be
     written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so, the
     player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes out
     its buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must read in
     the movement command, process it, and write out the results.  This takes
     two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.  Finally, when the player
     process gets around to doing another 7-second update, the results of the
     move are displayed on the screen.  Hence, every movement requires four
     exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
     depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the results of his
     moves.

     In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they would appear.  There
     is room for ``pipelining'' in the movement.  After the player writes out
     a first movement message, a second movement command can then be issued.
     The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for the driver,
     and the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be written to the
     file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the time, the player
     can sail around quite quickly.

     If the player types several movement commands between two 7-second
     updates, only the last movement command typed will be seen by the driver.
     Movement commands within the same update ``overwrite'' each other, in a
     sense.

   DEFECTS OF THIS SYSTEM IN THE MODERN WORLD
     Quite a few.

     It should be thrown out and replaced with something socket-based.

HISTORICAL INFO
     Old square-riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate
     sailing.  Their only disadvantage was an inability to sail very close to
     the wind.  The design of a wooden ship allowed for the guns to bear only
     to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect (usually 6 or 9
     pounders) could point forward, but their effect was small compared to a
     68 gun broadside of 24- or 32-pounders.  The guns bear approximately like
     so:


                  \
                   b----------------
               ---0
                   \
                    \
                     \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                      \
                       \
                        \

     Firing a broadside into a ship lengthwise, from bow to stern or stern to
     bow, is called raking.  This did a great deal more damage, because the
     shot tended to bounce along the deck.  Because the bows of a ship are
     very strong and present a smaller target than the stern, a stern rake
     (firing from the stern to the bow) causes more damage than a bow rake.


                                   b
                                  00   ----  Stern rake!
                                    a

     Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close
     range cannons.  American ships from the revolution until the War of 1812
     were almost entirely armed with carronades.

     The period of history covered in sail is approximately from the 1770's
     until the end of Napoleonic France in 1815.  There are many excellent
     books about the age of sail.  (See REFERENCES).

     Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament.  The mainstays
     of any fleet were its ships of the line, or line of battle ships.  These
     were so named because in fleet actions they would sail in lines so as to
     present all broadsides to the enemy at once.  The modern terms ``ocean
     liner'', and ``battleship'' are derived from ``ship of the line''.

     The pride of the fleet were the ``first-rates''.  These were huge three
     decked ships of the line mounting 80 to 136 guns.  The guns in the three
     tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top to
     bottom.

     Lesser ships were known as ``second-rates'', ``third-rates'', and even
     ``fourth-rates''.  The most common size was the 74 gun two-decked ship of
     the line.  The two gun decks usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.

     Razees were ships of the line with one deck sawed off.  These mounted
     40-64 guns and were a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle
     ship.  They neither had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the
     latter.

     The next class was the frigate.  Often called the ``eyes of the fleet'',
     frigates came in many sizes mounting anywhere from 32 to 44 guns.  These
     were very handy vessels.  They could outsail anything bigger and outshoot
     anything smaller.  Frigates did not generally fight in lines of battle as
     the much bigger 74s did.  Instead, they were sent on individual missions
     or in small groups to harass the enemy's rear or capture crippled ships.
     They were much more useful this way, in missions away from the fleet.
     They could hit hard and get away fast.

     Lastly, there were the corvettes, sloops, and brigs.  These were smaller
     ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was only
     slightly smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns.  Sloops
     were used for carrying despatches or passengers.  Brigs were small
     vessels typically built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS
     Ships in sail are represented on the screen by two characters.  One
     character represents the bow of the ship, and the other represents the
     stern.  Ships have nationalities and numbers.  The first ship of a
     nationality is number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first
     British ship in a game would be printed as ``b0''.  The second Brit would
     be ``b1'', and the fifth Don would be ``s4''.

     Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas
     called Full Sails.  A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed,
     and it can move much faster than a ship under battle sails.  The only
     trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on sail and
     rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into ribbons where
     it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For this reason,
     rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set.  This does not
     mean that full sails should never be used; the author recommends keeping
     them up right into the heat of battle.  When a ship has full sails set,
     the letter for its nationality is capitalized.  E.g., a Frog, ``f0'',
     with full sails set would be printed as ``F0''.

     When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard strikes
     the colors.  This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.  The
     nationality character of a surrendered ship is printed as `!'.  E.g., the
     Frog of our last example would soon be ``!0''.

     A ship that reaches this point has a chance of catching fire or sinking.
     A sinking ship has a `~' printed for its nationality, and a ship on fire
     and about to explode has a `#' printed.

     Ships that have struck can be captured; captured ships become the
     nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if an American ship captures a
     British ship, the British ship will thenceforth have an `a' printed for
     its nationality.  In addition, the ship number is changed to one of the
     characters `&'()*+' corresponding to its original number `012345'.  E.g.,
     the ``b0'' captured by an American becomes the ``a&''.  The ``s4''
     captured by a Frog becomes the ``f*''.

     The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an
     American: ``#&''.

MOVEMENT
     Movement is the most confusing part of sail to many.  Ships can head in 8
     directions:

                                    0      0      0
           b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
           0        0                                             0

     The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.
     Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind (unless they are becalmed).
     All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship doesn't move forward
     at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship has begun to
     drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it plans to do more
     than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.

     Movement commands to sail are a string of forward moves and turns.  An
     example is ``l3''.  It will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3
     spaces.  In the drawing above, the ``b0'' made 7 successive left turns.
     When sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import.
     E.g.,
           move (7, 4):
     The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
     turns.  The second number is the maximum number of turns you can make.
     Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote (').  If the quote is
     present, it means that your ship has been drifting, and you must move
     ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of the
     possible moves for the example above are as follows:

           move (7, 4): 7
           move (7, 4): 1
           move (7, 4): d          /* drift, or do nothing */
           move (7, 4): 6r
           move (7, 4): 5r1
           move (7, 4): 4r1r
           move (7, 4): l1r1r2
           move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

     Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
     any point in a movement command you turn into the wind, the movement
     stops there.  E.g.,

           move (7, 4): l1l4
           Movement Error;
           Helm: l1l

     Moreover, upon making a turn, the movement allowance drops to the lesser
     of what remains this turn and what would be available when going in the
     new direction.  Thus, any turn closer to the wind will generally preclude
     sailing the full distance printed in the ``move'' prompt.

     Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind.  Captains
     in sail are no different.  A ship's ability to move depends on its
     attitude to the wind.  The best angle possible is to have the wind off
     your quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction rose on the
     side of the screen gives the possible movements for your ship at all
     positions to the wind.  Battle sail speeds are given first, and full sail
     speeds are given in parenthesis.


                                      0 1(2)
                                     \|/
                                     -^-3(6)
                                     /|\
                                      | 4(7)
                                     3(6)

     Pretend the bow of your ship (the ``^'') is pointing upward and the wind
     is blowing from the bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at the
     bottom ``3(6)'' will be your speed under battle or full sails in such a
     situation.  If the wind is off your quarter, then you can move ``4(7)''.
     If the wind is off your beam, ``3(6)''.  If the wind is off your bow,
     then you can only move ``1(2)''.  Facing into the wind, you cannot move
     at all.  Ships facing into the wind are said to be in irons.

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
     The windspeed and direction is displayed as a weather vane on the side of
     the screen.  The number in the middle of the vane indicates the wind
     speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction.  The wind blows from
     the + sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).  E.g.,

                                     |
                                     3
                                     +

     The wind speeds are:
           0    becalmed
           1    light breeze
           2    moderate breeze
           3    fresh breeze
           4    strong breeze
           5    gale
           6    full gale
           7    hurricane
     If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING
     If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tangled together.
     This is called fouling.  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither can
     move.  They can unfoul each other if they want to.  Boarding parties can
     only be sent across to ships when the antagonists are either fouled or
     grappled.

     Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of the
     other.

     The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
     right of the screen.

BOARDING
     Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.  Boarding
     parties may be formed in sail to either board an enemy ship or to defend
     your own ship against attack.  Men organized as Defensive Boarding
     Parties fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left unorganized.

     The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the
     number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY
     The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities.
     American sailors, however, were actually the best seamen in the world.
     Because the American Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy,
     British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

     In sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  Elite crews can
     outshoot and outfight all other sailors.  Crack crews are next.  Mundane
     crews are average, and Green and Mutinous crews are below average.  A
     good rule of thumb is that Crack or Elite crews get one extra hit per
     broadside compared to Mundane crews.  Don't expect too much from Green
     crews.

BROADSIDES
     Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot: grape, chain,
     round, and double.  You have guns and carronades in both the port and
     starboard batteries.  Carronades only have a range of two, so you have to
     get in close to be able to fire them.  You have the choice of firing at
     the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the ship is greater
     than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

     The types of shot and their advantages are:

     ROUND    Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

     DOUBLE   Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.  Double takes
              two turns to load.

     CHAIN    Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot damage
              hull or guns, though.

     GRAPE    Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

     On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your
     ship:

           Load  D! R!
           Hull  9
           Crew  4  4  2
           Guns  4  4
           Carr  2  2
           Rigg  5 5 5 5

     ``Load'' shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
     loaded with.  A `!' after the type of shot indicates that it is an
     initial broadside.  Initial broadside were loaded with care before battle
     and before the decks ran red with blood.  As a consequence, initial
     broadsides are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later.  A
     `*' after the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still loading
     it, and you cannot fire yet.  ``Hull'' shows how much hull you have left.
     ``Crew'' shows your three sections of crew.  As your crew dies off, your
     ability to fire decreases.  ``Guns'' and ``Carr'' show your port and
     starboard guns.  As you lose guns, your ability to fire decreases.
     ``Rigg'' shows how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As
     rigging is shot away, you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
     It is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the
     mere opportunity to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many factors
     influence the destructive force of a broadside.  First of all, and the
     chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range ten than
     it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.  Raking fire, as
     mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.  Next, crew
     size and quality affects the damage done by a broadside.  The number of
     guns firing also bears on the point, so to speak.  Lastly, weather
     affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the seas are high (5 or 6), then
     the lower gunports of ships of the line can't even be opened to run out
     the guns.  This gives frigates and other flush decked vessels an
     advantage in a storm.  The scenario Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme
     takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS
     Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
     two points per three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be
     printed if no more repairs can be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
     Computer ships in sail follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.
     Computer ships never repair damage.  If they did, the players could never
     beat them.  They play well enough as it is.  As a consolation, the
     computer ships can fire double shot every turn.  That fluke is a good
     reason to keep your distance.  The driver figures out the moves of the
     computer ships.  It computes them with a typical A.I. distance function
     and a depth first search to find the maximum ``score''.  It seems to work
     fairly well, although I'll be the first to admit it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY
     Commands are given to sail by typing a single character.  You will then
     be prompted for further input.  A brief summary of the commands follows.

   COMMAND SUMMARY
     `f'      Fire broadsides if they bear
     `l'      Reload
     `L'      Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
     `m'      Move
     `i'      Print the closest ship
     `I'      Print all ships
     `F'      Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
     `s'      Send a message around the fleet
     `b'      Attempt to board an enemy ship
     `B'      Recall boarding parties
     `c'      Change set of sail
     `r'      Repair
     `u'      Attempt to unfoul
     `g'      Grapple/ungrapple
     `v'      Print version number of game
     `^L'     Redraw screen
     `Q'      Quit

     `C'      Center your ship in the window
     `U'      Move window up
     `D, N'   Move window down
     `H'      Move window left
     `J'      Move window right
     `S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS
     Here is a summary of the scenarios in sail:

   Ranger vs. Drake:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
     (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

   The Battle of Flamborough Head:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme
     Richard, he was able to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by
     quickly boarding her.

     (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

   Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
     Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

     (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

   Suffren and Hughes:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

   Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

   Mars vs. Hercule:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

   Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

   Constellation vs. Insurgent:
     Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

   Constellation vs. Vengeance:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

   The Battle of Lissa:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
     (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
     (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

   Constitution vs. Guerriere:
     Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

   United States vs. Macedonian:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

   Constitution vs. Java:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

   Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

   The Battle of Lake Erie:
     Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

     (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
     (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
     (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
     (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

   Wasp vs. Reindeer:
     Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

     (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

   Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
     Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Cyane             24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Levant            20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)

   Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
     Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

     (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

   Algeciras:
     Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
     (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
     (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
     (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

   Lake Champlain:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
     (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
     (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
     (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
     (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

   Last Voyage of the USS President:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

   Hornblower and the Natividad:
     Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

     A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against
     heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad; her crew
     is much bigger, albeit green.

     (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

   Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

     (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

   The South Pacific:
     Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

     (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
     (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

   Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
     Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

     The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one ship
     and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

     (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
     (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

   Cape Horn:
     Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

     (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
     (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

   New Orleans:
     Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Watch that little Cypress go!

     (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
     (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

   Botany Bay:
     Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

   Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
     Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

     (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
     (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
     (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

   Frigate Action:
     Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

   The Battle of Midway:
     Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
     (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
     (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

   Star Trek:
     Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

     (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

HISTORY
     Dave Riggle wrote the first version of sail on a PDP-11/70 in the fall of
     1980.  Needless to say, the code was horrendous, not portable in any
     sense of the word, and didn't work.  The program was not very modular and
     had fseek(3) and fwrite(3) calls every few lines.  After a tremendous
     rewrite from the top down, the first working version was up and running
     by 1981.  There were several annoying bugs concerning firing broadsides
     and finding angles.

     Ed Wang rewrote the angle() routine in 1981 to be more correct.  He also
     added code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the start of
     the game, instead of always taking the first one available.

     Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making sail portable for
     the first time.  This was no easy task.  Constants like 2 and 10 were
     very frequent in the code.  The sail code was also notorious for the use
     of ``Riggle Memorial Structures''.  Many structure references were so
     long that they ran off the line printer page.  Here is an example, if you
     promise not to laugh:

           specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

     sail received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall
     of 1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat)
     almost from scratch.  Although he introduced many new bugs, the final
     result was very much cleaner and (?) faster.  He added window movement
     commands and find ship commands.

     At some currently unknown time, sail was imported into BSD.

AUTHORS
     sail has been a group effort.

   AUTHOR
     Dave Riggle

   CO-AUTHOR
     Ed Wang

   REFITTING
     Craig Leres

   CONSULTANTS
     Chris Guthrie
     Captain Happy
     Horatio Nelson
     and many valiant others...

REFERENCES
     Avalon Hill, Wooden Ships &amp; Iron Men.

     Patrick O'Brian, Master and Commander, and 20 more volumes.

     C.S. Forester, Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them).

     Alexander Kent, Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them).

     The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20).

     Of these, consider especially
           Mr. Midshipman Easy
           Peter Simple
           Jacob Faithful
           Japhet in Search of a Father
           Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
           Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

NetBSD 6.1.5                     March 2, 2009                    NetBSD 6.1.5