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SAIL(6)                BSD Reference Manual               SAIL(6)


NAME
       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS
       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION
       Sail is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fight-
       ing sail originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old  fashioned  Man  of
       War and fight other players or the computer.  They may re-
       enact one of the many historical sea battles  recorded  in
       the game, or they can choose a fictional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete
       control over the workings of  his  ship.   He  must  order
       every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the
       right moment to let loose the terrible destruction of  his
       broadsides.   In  addition  to fighting the enemy, he must
       harness the powers of the wind and sea to make  them  work
       for  him.   The  outcome of many battles during the age of
       sail was decided by the ability of one captain to hold the
       `weather gage.'

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play  the first available ship instead of prompting
              for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION
       Sail is really two programs in one.  Each player starts up
       a  process which runs his own ship.  In addition, a driver
       process is forked (by the first player) to  run  the  com-
       puter ships and take care of global bookkeeping.

       Because  the  driver must calculate moves for each ship it
       controls, the more ships  the  computer  is  playing,  the
       slower the game will appear.

       If  a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize
       with the other players (a rather slow process  for  every-
       one), and then he may play along with the rest.

       To  implement  a  multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which



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       was the operating system Sail was first written under, the
       communicating  processes  must use a common temporary file
       as a place to read and write  messages.   In  addition,  a
       locking  mechanism  must  be  provided to ensure exclusive
       access to the shared file.  For example, Sail uses a  tem-
       porary  file  named /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21, and
       corresponding file names for the other scenarios.  To pro-
       vide  exclusive  access to the temporary file, Sail uses a
       technique stolen from an old  game  called  "pubcaves"  by
       Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop

            for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30;
                                  n++)
                                    sleep(2);

       until they are able to create  a  link  to  a  file  named
       "/tmp/#saillock.??".   The "??" correspond to the scenario
       number of the game.  Since UNIX  guarantees  that  a  link
       will  point to only one file, the process that succeeds in
       linking will have exclusive access to the temporary  file.

       Whether  or  not this really works is open to speculation.
       When ucbmiro was rebooted after a crash, the  file  system
       check  program  found  3  links between the Sail temporary
       file and its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
       When players do something of global interest, such as mov-
       ing  or firing, the driver must coordinate the action with
       the other ships in the game.  For  example,  if  a  player
       wants  to move in a certain direction, he writes a message
       into the temporary file requesting the driver to move  his
       ship.   Each  ``turn,''  the driver reads all the messages
       sent from the players and decides what happened.  It  then
       writes  back  into  the temporary file new values of vari-
       ables, etc.

       The most noticeable effect this communication has  on  the
       game  is  the  delay  in moving.  Suppose a player types a
       move for his ship and hits  return.   What  happens  then?
       The  player process saves up messages to be written to the
       temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds  or  so,  the
       player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file
       and writes out its buffer to the file.  The  driver,  run-
       ning  asynchronously,  must  read in the movement command,
       process it, and write out the  results.   This  takes  two
       exclusive  accesses  to the temporary file.  Finally, when
       the player process gets around to doing another  7  second
       update,  the  results  of  the  move  are displayed on the
       screen.  Hence, every  movement  requires  four  exclusive
       accesses  to  the  temporary  file  (anywhere from 7 to 21



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       seconds depending upon asynchrony) before the player  sees
       the results of his moves.

       In  practice, the delays are not as annoying as they would
       appear.  There is room for "pipelining" in  the  movement.
       After  the  player  writes out a first movement message, a
       second movement command can then  be  issued.   The  first
       message  will  be  in  the  temporary file waiting for the
       driver, and the second will be in the file buffer  waiting
       to be written to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a
       turn ahead of the time, the player can sail  around  quite
       quickly.

       If  the player types several movement commands between two
       7 second updates, only the  last  movement  command  typed
       will  be seen by the driver.  Movement commands within the
       same update "overwrite" each other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL
       I wrote the first version of Sail on a PDP  11/70  in  the
       fall  of  1980.  Needless to say, the code was horrendous,
       not portable in any sense of the word,  and  didn't  work.
       The  program  was  not  very  modular and had fseeks() and
       fwrites() every few lines.   After  a  tremendous  rewrite
       from  the  top down, I got the first working version up by
       1981.  There were several annoying bugs concerning  firing
       broadsides  and  finding  angles.   Sail  uses no floating
       point, by the way, so the direction  routines  are  rather
       tricky.   Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981 to be
       more correct (although it still doesn't  work  perfectly),
       and  he  added  code  to let a player select which ship he
       wanted at the start of the game (instead of the first  one
       available).

       Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making Sail
       portable for the first time.  This was no  easy  task,  by
       the  way.   Constants  like 2 and 10 were very frequent in
       the code.  I also became famous for using "Riggle Memorial
       Structures"  in Sail.  Many of my structure references are
       so long that they run off the line printer page.  Here  is
       an example, if you promise not to laugh.

       specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts


       Sail  received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in the
       summer and fall of 1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and  modularized
       the   code   (a  monumental  feat)  almost  from  scratch.
       Although he introduced many new bugs, the final result was
       very  much  cleaner and (?) faster.  He added window move-
       ment commands and find ship commands.



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HISTORICAL INFO
       Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of
       intricate sailing.  Their only disadvantage was an inabil-
       ity to sail very close to  the  wind.   The  design  of  a
       wooden  ship allowed only for the guns to bear to the left
       and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect (usually 6 or
       9  pounders)  could  point  forward,  but their effect was
       small compared to a 68 gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.
       The guns bear approximately like so:

              \
               b----------------
           ---0
               \
                \
                 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                  \
                   \
                    \

       An  interesting  phenomenon  occurred when a broadside was
       fired down the length of an enemy ship.  The  shot  tended
       to  bounce  along the deck and did several times more dam-
       age.  This phenomenon was called a rake.  Because the bows
       of  a  ship  are  very strong and present a smaller target
       than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the
       bow) causes more damage than a bow rake.

                               b
                              00   ----  Stern rake!
                                a

       Most  ships were equipped with carronades, which were very
       large, close range cannons.  American ships from the revo-
       lution  until  the  War of 1812 were almost entirely armed
       with carronades.

       The period of history covered  in  Sail  is  approximately
       from  the  1770's  until  the  end of Napoleonic France in
       1815.  There are many excellent books  about  the  age  of
       sail.   My  favorite  author is Captain Frederick Marryat.
       More  contemporary  authors  include  C.S.  Forester   and
       Alexander Kent.

       Fighting  ships came in several sizes classed by armament.
       The mainstays of any fleet were its "Ships of  the  Line",
       or  "Line  of  Battle  Ships".  They were so named because
       these ships fought together in  great  lines.   They  were
       close enough for mutual support, yet every ship could fire
       both its broadsides.   We  get  the  modern  words  "ocean
       liner,"  or  "liner,"  and  "battleship" from "ship of the



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       line."  The most common size was the the 74 gun two decked
       ship  of  the  line.  The two gun decks usually mounted 18
       and 24 pounder guns.

       The pride of the fleet were the first rates.   These  were
       huge  three  decked  ships  of the line mounting 80 to 136
       guns.  The guns in the three tiers were  usually  18,  24,
       and 32 pounders in that order from top to bottom.

       Various  other  ships  came  next.   They  were almost all
       "razees," or ships of the line with one  deck  sawed  off.
       They  mounted  40-64  guns and were a poor cross between a
       frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither  had  the
       speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

       Next  came the "eyes of the fleet."  Frigates came in many
       sizes mounting anywhere from 32 to  44  guns.   They  were
       very  handy  vessels.   They could outsail anything bigger
       and outshoot anything smaller.  Frigates didn't  fight  in
       lines  of  battle  as  the much bigger 74's did.  Instead,
       they harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships.
       They  were  much  more  useful  in  missions away from the
       fleet, such as cutting out expeditions  or  boat  actions.
       They could hit hard and get away fast.

       Lastly,  there  were  the  corvettes,  sloops,  and brigs.
       These were smaller ships mounting typically fewer than  20
       guns.   A  corvette  was  only  slightly  smaller  than  a
       frigate, so one might have up to  30  guns.   Sloops  were
       used  for  carrying  dispatches or passengers.  Brigs were
       something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS
       Ships in Sail are  represented  by  two  characters.   One
       character  represents  the  bow of the ship, and the other
       represents the stern.  Ships have nationalities  and  num-
       bers.   The  first  ship of a nationality is number 0, the
       second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first  British  ship
       in a game would be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would
       be "b1", and the fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails,  or  bend
       on extra canvas called Full Sails.  A ship under full sail
       is a beautiful sight indeed, and it can move  much  faster
       than a ship under Battle Sails.  The only trouble is, with
       full sails set, there is so much tension on sail and  rig-
       ging  that  a  well aimed round shot can burst a sail into
       ribbons where it would only cause a little hole in a loose
       sail.   For  this  reason,  rigging damage is doubled on a
       ship with full sails set.  Don't let that  discourage  you
       from  using full sails.  I like to keep them up right into



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       the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set has a cap-
       ital letter for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, "f0", with
       full sails set would be printed as "F0".

       When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last  man
       aboard  "strikes the colors."  This ceremony is the ship's
       formal surrender.  The nationality character of a  surren-
       dered  ship is printed as "!".  E.g., the Frog of our last
       example would soon be "!0".

       A ship has a random chance of  catching  fire  or  sinking
       when it reaches the stage of listing hulk.  A sinking ship
       has a "~" printed for its nationality, and a ship on  fire
       and about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured  ships  become the nationality of the prize crew.
       Therefore, if an American ship captures  a  British  ship,
       the  British ship will have an "a" printed for its nation-
       ality.   In  addition,  the  ship  number  is  changed  to
       "&","'",  "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon the origi-
       nal number, be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.  E.g.,  the  "b0"  cap-
       tured  by an American becomes the "a&".  The "s4" captured
       by a Frog becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit cap-
       tured by an American: "#&".

MOVEMENT
       Movement  is  the  most  confusing  part  of Sail to many.
       Ships can head in 8 directions:

                                        0      0      0
               b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
               0        0                                             0

       The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow  remains
       stationary.  Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind
       (unless they are becalmed).  All  ships  drift  when  they
       lose  headway.   If a ship doesn't move forward at all for
       two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship has begun to
       drift,  then  it  must move forward before it turns, if it
       plans to do more than make a right or left turn, which  is
       always possible.

       Movement  commands  to  Sail are a string of forward moves
       and turns.  An example is "l3".  It will turn a ship  left
       and  then  move  it ahead 3 spaces.  In the drawing above,
       the "b0" made 7 successive left turns.  When Sail  prompts
       you  for  a  move,  it  prints three characters of import.
       E.g.,
            move (7, 4):



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       The first number is the maximum number of  moves  you  can
       make,  including  turns.  The second number is the maximum
       number of turns you can  make.   Between  the  numbers  is
       sometimes  printed  a quote "'".  If the quote is present,
       it means that your ship has been drifting,  and  you  must
       move  ahead  to  regain  headway before you turn (see note
       above).  Some of the possible moves for the example  above
       are as follows:

            move (7, 4): 7
            move (7, 4): 1
            move (7, 4): d      /* drift, or do nothing */
            move (7, 4): 6r
            move (7, 4): 5r1
            move (7, 4): 4r1r
            move (7, 4): l1r1r2
            move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because  square  riggers  performed so poorly sailing into
       the wind, if at any point in a movement command  you  turn
       into the wind, the movement stops there.  E.g.,

            move (7, 4): l1l4
            Movement Error;
            Helm: l1l

       Moreover,   whenever   you  make  a  turn,  your  movement
       allowance drops to min(what's left, what you would have at
       the  new  attitude).   In short, if you turn closer to the
       wind, you most likely won't  be  able  to  sail  the  full
       allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old  sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the
       wind.  Captains in Sail are no different.  A ship's  abil-
       ity to move depends on its attitude to the wind.  The best
       angle possible is to have the wind off your quarter,  that
       is, just off the stern.  The direction rose on the side of
       the screen gives the possible movements for your  ship  at
       all  positions  to the wind.  Battle sail speeds are given
       first, and full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.

                            0 1(2)
                           \|/
                           -^-3(6)
                           /|\
                            | 4(7)
                           3(6)

       Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing  upward
       and  the wind is blowing from the bottom to the top of the
       page.  The numbers at the bottom "3(6)" will be your speed



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       under  battle  or  full sails in such a situation.  If the
       wind is off your quarter, then you can  move  "4(7)".   If
       the  wind  is  off  your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind is off
       your bow, then you can only move "1(2)".  Facing into  the
       wind,  you  can't move at all.  Ships facing into the wind
       were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
       The windspeed and  direction  is  displayed  as  a  little
       weather vane on the side of the screen.  The number in the
       middle of the vane indicates the wind speed, and the +  to
       - indicates the wind direction.  The wind blows from the +
       sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).  E.g.,

                           |
                           3
                           +

       The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light  breeze,  2  =
       moderate  breeze, 3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 =
       gale, 6 = full gale, 7 = hurricane.  If a hurricane  shows
       up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING
       If  two  ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tan-
       gled together.  This is called  "fouling."   Fouled  ships
       are stuck together, and neither can move.  They can unfoul
       each other if they want to.  Boarding parties can only  be
       sent  across  to  ships  when  the  antagonists are either
       fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the
       rigging of the other.

       The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on
       the upper right of the screen.

BOARDING
       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.
       Boarding  parties may be formed in Sail to either board an
       enemy ship or to defend your own ship against attack.  Men
       organized  as  Defensive  Boarding  Parties fight twice as
       hard to save their ship as men left unorganized.

       The boarding strength of a crew depends upon  its  quality
       and upon the number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY
       The  British  seaman  was  world  renowned for his sailing
       abilities.  American sailors, however, were  actually  the
       best  seamen  in  the  world.   Because  the American Navy



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       offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy, British  seamen
       who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

       In  Sail,  crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.
       "Elite" crews can outshoot and outfight all other sailors.
       "Crack"  crews are next.  "Mundane" crews are average, and
       "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below  average.   A  good
       rule  of  thumb  is  that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one
       extra hit  per  broadside  compared  to  "Mundane"  crews.
       Don't expect too much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES
       Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot:
       grape, chain, round, and double.  You have guns  and  car-
       ronades  in  both  the port and starboard batteries.  Car-
       ronades only have a range of two, so you have  to  get  in
       close  to  be  able  to fire them.  You have the choice of
       firing at the hull or rigging of  another  ship.   If  the
       range  of  the  ship  is greater than 6, then you may only
       shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND
       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE
       Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.   Double
       takes two turns to load.

CHAIN
       Range  of  3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot
       damage hull or guns, though.

GRAPE
       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On the side of the screen is displayed some vital informa-
       tion about your ship:

                      Load  D! R!
                      Hull  9
                      Crew  4  4  2
                      Guns  4  4
                      Carr  2  2
                      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load"  shows  what your port (left) and starboard (right)
       broadsides are loaded with.  A "!" after the type of  shot
       indicates  that  it  is  an  initial  broadside.   Initial



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       broadside were loaded with care before battle  and  before
       the  decks  ran red with blood.  As a consequence, initial
       broadsides are a little  more  effective  than  broadsides
       loaded later.  A "*" after the type of shot indicates that
       the gun crews are still loading it, and  you  cannot  fire
       yet.   "Hull"  shows  how much hull you have left.  "Crew"
       shows your three sections of crew.  As your crew dies off,
       your  ability  to  fire decreases.  "Guns" and "Carr" show
       your port and starboard guns.   As  you  lose  guns,  your
       ability  to fire decreases.  "Rigg" shows how much rigging
       you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rigging is  shot  away,
       you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
       It  is  very  dramatic  when  a  ship fires its thunderous
       broadsides, but the mere opportunity to fire them does not
       guarantee  any  hits.  Many factors influence the destruc-
       tive force of a broadside.  First of all,  and  the  chief
       factor,  is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range
       ten than it is to hit one  sloshing  alongside.   Next  is
       raking.   Raking  fire, as mentioned before, can sometimes
       dismast a ship at range ten.  Next, crew size and  quality
       affects  the  damage  done by a broadside.   The number of
       guns firing also bears on the point, so to speak.  Lastly,
       weather  affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the seas
       are high (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the
       line can't even be opened to run out the guns.  This gives
       frigates and other flush decked vessels an advantage in  a
       storm.   The  scenario  Pellew  vs.  The Droits de L'Homme
       takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS
       Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the
       slow  rate  of  two  points  per three turns.  The message
       "Repairs Completed" will be printed if no more repairs can
       be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
       Computer  ships  in Sail follow all the rules above with a
       few exceptions.  Computer ships never repair  damage.   If
       they  did,  the  players could never beat them.  They play
       well enough as it is.   As  a  consolation,  the  computer
       ships  can  fire  double shot every turn.  That fluke is a
       good reason to keep your distance.  The Driver figures out
       the moves of the computer ships.   It computes them with a
       typical A.I. distance function and a depth first search to
       find  the  maximum "score."  It seems to work fairly well,
       although I'll be the first to admit it isn't perfect.





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HOW TO PLAY
       Commands are given to Sail by typing a  single  character.
       You will then be prompted for further input.  A brief sum-
       mary of the commands follows.

COMMAND SUMMARY
           'f'  Fire broadsides if they bear
           'l'  Reload
           'L'  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
           'm'  Move
           'i'  Print the closest ship
           'I'  Print all ships
           'F'  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
           's'  Send a message around the fleet
           'b'  Attempt to board an enemy ship
           'B'  Recall boarding parties
           'c'  Change set of sail
           'r'  Repair
           'u'  Attempt to unfoul
           'g'  Grapple/ungrapple
           'v'  Print version number of game
          '^L'  Redraw screen
           'Q'  Quit

           'C'      Center your ship in the window
           'U'        Move window up
           'D','N'  Move window down
           'H'        Move window left
           'J'        Move window right
           'S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is


SCENARIOS
       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:


Ranger vs. Drake:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard  the
       Bonhomme  Richard,  he  was able to overcome the Serapis's
       greater firepower by quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)



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       (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:
       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.




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       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.




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       (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:
       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun  Corvette  (elite  crew)  (24
       pts)  (b)  Cyane             24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11
       pts) (b) Levant            20 gun Sloop (crack  crew)  (10
       pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:
       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)



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       (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:
       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A  scenario  for  you  Horny  fans.  Remember, he sank the
       Natividad against heavy odds and winds.  Hint:  don't  try
       to  board  the  Natividad, her crew is much bigger, albeit
       green.

       (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:
       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one
       ship and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)





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Cape Horn:
       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:
       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:
       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:
       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:
       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)



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       (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)


Star Trek:
       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)


CONCLUSION
       Sail has been a group effort.


AUTHOR
       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR
       Ed Wang

REFITTING
       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS
       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
            and many valiant others...

REFERENCES
       Wooden Ships & Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
             Mr. Midshipman Easy
             Peter Simple
             Jacob Faithful
             Japhet in Search of a Father
             Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
             Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS
       Probably  a  few,  and  please  report   them   to   "rig-
       gleATernie.edu" and "edwardATucbarpa.edu"



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