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terminfo(5)                      File Formats                      terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs   such   as   nvi(1),   rogue(1)   and   libraries   such   as
       ncurses(3NCURSES).   Terminfo  describes  terminals  by giving a set of
       capabilities which they have, by specifying how to perform screen oper-
       ations,  and  by  specifying  padding  requirements  and initialization
       sequences.  This describes ncurses version 5.7 (patch 20081213).

       Entries in terminfo consist of  a  sequence  of  `,'  separated  fields
       (embedded  commas  may be escaped with a backslash or notated as \054).
       White space after the `,' separator is ignored.  The  first  entry  for
       each  terminal  gives the names which are known for the terminal, sepa-
       rated by `|' characters.  The first  name  given  is  the  most  common
       abbreviation  for  the  terminal,  the last name given should be a long
       name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are  understood  as
       synonyms  for  the  terminal name.  All names but the last should be in
       lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain  upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as comments.
       While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo and
       infotocap  (aliases  for  tic)  will  move  comments so they occur only
       between entries.

       Newlines and leading tabs may be used for formatting entries for  read-
       ability.  These are removed from parsed entries.  The infocmp -f option
       relies on this to format if-then-else expressions: the  result  can  be
       read by tic.

       Terminal  names  (except  for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up  the  terminal  should have a root name, thus ``hp2621''.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or
       user  preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
       suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.   The  fol-
       lowing suffixes should be used where possible:

       center ; l c l l l l.  Suffix    Meaning   Example -nn  Number of lines
       on  the  screen  aaa-60  -np  Number  of  pages  of  memory     c100-4p
       -am  With  automargins  (usually  the default) vt100-am -m   Mono mode;
       suppress color        ansi-m -mc  Magic cookie; spaces when  highlight-
       ing  wy30-mc  -na  No  arrow  keys  (leave  them  in local)     c100-na
       -nam Without automatic margins          vt100-nam -nl  No  status  line
          att4415-nl   -ns  No   status   line                       hp2626-ns
       -rv  Reverse video                    c100-rv -s   Enable  status  line
          vt100-s  -vb  Use  visible bell instead of beep   wy370-vb -w   Wide
       mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)  vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

       The following is a complete table of the  capabilities  included  in  a
       terminfo  description  block  and available to terminfo-using code.  In
       each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by  which  the  programmer  (at  the  terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The  capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and is
       used by a person updating the database.   Whenever  possible,  capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now superseded by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or  very  similar
       names).   Semantics  are also intended to match those of the specifica-

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some  capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability  names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally,  the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that  the  string  is  passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates  that  padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description Booleans  name Code auto_left_mar-
       gin    bw   bw   T{ cub1 wraps from column 0 to last column T}
       auto_right_margin   am   am   T{ terminal has automatic margins T}
       back_color_erase    bce  ut   T{ screen erased with background color T}
       can_change     ccc  cc   T{ terminal can re-define existing colors T}
       ceol_standout_glitch     xhp  xs   T{ standout not erased by overwrit-
       ing (hp) T} col_addr_glitch     xhpa YA   T{ only positive motion for
       hpa/mhpa caps T} cpi_changes_res     cpix YF   T{ changing character
       pitch changes resolution T} cr_cancels_micro_mode    crxm YB   T{ using
       cr turns off micro mode T} dest_tabs_magic_smso     xt   xt   T{ tabs
       destructive, magic so char (t1061) T} eat_newline_glitch  xenl xn   T{
       newline ignored after 80 cols (concept) T} erase_over-
       strike    eo   eo   T{ can erase overstrikes with a blank T}
       generic_type   gn   gn   T{ generic line type T} hard_copy hc   hc   T{
       hardcopy terminal T} hard_cursor    chts HC   T{ cursor is hard to see
       T} has_meta_key   km   km   T{ Has a meta key (i.e., sets 8th-bit) T}
       has_print_wheel     daisy     YC   T{ printer needs operator to change
       character set T} has_status_line     hs   hs   T{ has extra status line
       T} hue_lightness_saturation hls  hl   T{ terminal uses only HLS color
       notation (Tektronix) T} insert_null_glitch  in   in   T{ insert mode
       distinguishes nulls T} lpi_changes_res     lpix YG   T{ changing line
       pitch changes resolution T} memory_above   da   da   T{ display may be
       retained above the screen T} memory_below   db   db   T{ display may be
       retained below the screen T} move_insert_mode    mir  mi   T{ safe to
       move while in insert mode T} move_standout_mode  msgr ms   T{ safe to
       move while in standout mode T} needs_xon_xoff nxon nx   T{ padding will
       not work, xon/xoff required T} no_esc_ctlc    xsb  xb   T{ beehive
       (f1=escape, f2=ctrl C) T} no_pad_char    npc  NP   T{ pad character
       does not exist T} non_dest_scroll_region   ndscr     ND   T{ scrolling
       region is non-destructive T} non_rev_rmcup  nrrmc     NR   T{ smcup
       does not reverse rmcup T} over_strike    os   os   T{ terminal can
       overstrike T} prtr_silent    mc5i 5i   T{ printer will not echo on
       screen T} row_addr_glitch     xvpa YD   T{ only positive motion for
       vpa/mvpa caps T} semi_auto_right_margin   sam  YE   T{ printing in last
       column causes cr T} status_line_esc_ok  eslok     es   T{ escape can be
       used on the status line T} tilde_glitch   hz   hz   T{ cannot print ~'s
       (hazeltine) T} transparent_underline    ul   ul   T{ underline charac-
       ter overstrikes T} xon_xoff  xon  xo   T{ terminal uses xon/xoff hand-
       shaking T}

       These are the numeric capabilities:

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description Numeric   name Code columns   cols co   T{
       number of columns in a line T} init_tabs it   it   T{ tabs initially
       every # spaces T} label_height   lh   lh   T{ rows in each label T}
       label_width    lw   lw   T{ columns in each label T}
       lines     lines     li   T{ number of lines on screen or page T}
       lines_of_memory     lm   lm   T{ lines of memory if > line. 0 means
       varies T} magic_cookie_glitch xmc  sg   T{ number of blank characters
       left by smso or rmso T} max_attributes ma   ma   T{ maximum combined
       attributes terminal can handle T} max_colors     colors    Co   T{ max-
       imum number of colors on screen T} max_pairs pairs     pa   T{ maximum
       number of color-pairs on the screen T} maximum_windows     wnum MW   T{
       maximum number of defineable windows T} no_color_video ncv  NC   T{
       video attributes that cannot be used with colors T}
       num_labels     nlab Nl   T{ number of labels on screen T} pad-
       ding_baud_rate   pb   pb   T{ lowest baud rate where padding needed T}
       virtual_terminal    vt   vt   T{ virtual terminal number (CB/unix) T}
       width_status_line   wsl  ws   T{ number of columns in status line T}

       The following numeric capabilities  are  present  in  the  SVr4.0  term
       structure,  but  are  not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description Numeric   name Code bit_image_entwin-
       ing bitwin    Yo   T{ number of passes for each bit-image row T}
       bit_image_type bitype    Yp   T{ type of bit-image device T} buf-
       fer_capacity     bufsz     Ya   T{ numbers of bytes buffered before
       printing T} buttons   btns BT   T{ number of buttons on mouse T}
       dot_horz_spacing    spinh     Yc   T{ spacing of dots horizontally in
       dots per inch T} dot_vert_spacing    spinv     Yb   T{ spacing of pins
       vertically in pins per inch T} max_micro_address   maddr     Yd   T{
       maximum value in micro_..._address T} max_micro_jump mjump     Ye   T{
       maximum value in parm_..._micro T} micro_col_size mcs  Yf   T{ charac-
       ter step size when in micro mode T} micro_line_size     mls  Yg   T{
       line step size when in micro mode T} number_of_pins npins     Yh   T{
       numbers of pins in print-head T} output_res_char     orc  Yi   T{ hori-
       zontal resolution in units per line T} out-
       put_res_horz_inch     orhi Yk   T{ horizontal resolution in units per
       inch T} output_res_line     orl  Yj   T{ vertical resolution in units
       per line T} output_res_vert_inch     orvi Yl   T{ vertical resolution
       in units per inch T} print_rate     cps  Ym   T{ print rate in charac-
       ters per second T} wide_char_size widcs     Yn   T{ character step size
       when in double wide mode T}

       These are the string capabilities:

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code acs_chars acsc ac   T{
       graphics charset pairs, based on vt100 T} back_tab  cbt  bt   T{ back
       tab (P) T} bell bel  bl   T{ audible signal (bell) (P) T} car-
       riage_return     cr   cr   T{ carriage return (P*) (P*) T}
       change_char_pitch   cpi  ZA   T{ Change number of characters per inch
       to #1 T} change_line_pitch   lpi  ZB   T{ Change number of lines per
       inch to #1 T} change_res_horz     chr  ZC   T{ Change horizontal reso-
       lution to #1 T} change_res_vert     cvr  ZD   T{ Change vertical reso-
       lution to #1 T} change_scroll_region     csr  cs   T{ change region to
       line #1 to line #2 (P) T} char_padding   rmp  rP   T{ like ip but when
       in insert mode T} clear_all_tabs tbc  ct   T{ clear all tab stops (P)
       T} clear_margins  mgc  MC   T{ clear right and left soft margins T}
       clear_screen   clear     cl   T{ clear screen and home cursor (P*) T}
       clr_bol   el1  cb   T{ Clear to beginning of line T}
       clr_eol   el   ce   T{ clear to end of line (P) T}
       clr_eos   ed   cd   T{ clear to end of screen (P*) T} col-
       umn_address hpa  ch   T{ horizontal position #1, absolute (P) T} com-
       mand_character   cmdch     CC   T{ terminal settable cmd character in
       prototype !?  T} create_window  cwin CW   T{ define a window #1 from
       #2,#3 to #4,#5 T} cursor_address cup  cm   T{ move to row #1 columns #2
       T} cursor_down    cud1 do   T{ down one line T} cur-
       sor_home    home ho   T{ home cursor (if no cup) T} cursor_invisi-
       ble    civis     vi   T{ make cursor invisible T} cur-
       sor_left    cub1 le   T{ move left one space T} cur-
       sor_mem_address  mrcup     CM   T{ memory relative cursor addressing,
       move to row #1 columns #2 T} cursor_normal  cnorm     ve   T{ make cur-
       sor appear normal (undo civis/cvvis) T} cursor_right   cuf1 nd   T{
       non-destructive space (move right one space) T} cur-
       sor_to_ll   ll   ll   T{ last line, first column (if no cup) T} cur-
       sor_up cuu1 up   T{ up one line T} cursor_visible cvvis     vs   T{
       make cursor very visible T} define_char    defc ZE   T{ Define a char-
       acter #1, #2 dots wide, descender #3 T} delete_charac-
       ter    dch1 dc   T{ delete character (P*) T}
       delete_line    dl1  dl   T{ delete line (P*) T}
       dial_phone     dial DI   T{ dial number #1 T} dis_sta-
       tus_line     dsl  ds   T{ disable status line T} dis-
       play_clock  dclk DK   T{ display clock T} down_half_line hd   hd   T{
       half a line down T} ena_acs   enacs     eA   T{ enable alternate char
       set T} enter_alt_charset_mode   smacs     as   T{ start alternate char-
       acter set (P) T} enter_am_mode  smam SA   T{ turn on automatic margins
       T} enter_blink_mode    blink     mb   T{ turn on blinking T}
       enter_bold_mode     bold md   T{ turn on bold (extra bright) mode T}
       enter_ca_mode  smcup     ti   T{ string to start programs using cup T}
       enter_delete_mode   smdc dm   T{ enter delete mode T}
       enter_dim_mode dim  mh   T{ turn on half-bright mode T} enter_dou-
       blewide_mode    swidm     ZF   T{ Enter double-wide mode T}
       enter_draft_quality sdrfq     ZG   T{ Enter draft-quality mode T}
       enter_insert_mode   smir im   T{ enter insert mode T} enter_ital-
       ics_mode  sitm ZH   T{ Enter italic mode T} enter_left-
       ward_mode slm  ZI   T{ Start leftward carriage motion T}
       enter_micro_mode    smicm     ZJ   T{ Start micro-motion mode T}
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq ZK   T{ Enter NLQ mode T} enter_nor-
       mal_quality     snrmq     ZL   T{ Enter normal-quality mode T}
       enter_protected_mode     prot mp   T{ turn on protected mode T}
       enter_reverse_mode  rev  mr   T{ turn on reverse video mode T}
       enter_secure_mode   invis     mk   T{ turn on blank mode (characters
       invisible) T} enter_shadow_mode   sshm ZM   T{ Enter shadow-print mode
       T} enter_standout_mode smso so   T{ begin standout mode T} enter_sub-
       script_mode     ssubm     ZN   T{ Enter subscript mode T} enter_super-
       script_mode   ssupm     ZO   T{ Enter superscript mode T} enter_under-
       line_mode     smul us   T{ begin underline mode T}
       enter_upward_mode   sum  ZP   T{ Start upward carriage motion T}
       enter_xon_mode smxon     SX   T{ turn on xon/xoff handshaking T}
       erase_chars    ech  ec   T{ erase #1 characters (P) T}
       exit_alt_charset_mode    rmacs     ae   T{ end alternate character set
       (P) T} exit_am_mode   rmam RA   T{ turn off automatic margins T}
       exit_attribute_mode sgr0 me   T{ turn off all attributes T}
       exit_ca_mode   rmcup     te   T{ strings to end programs using cup T}
       exit_delete_mode    rmdc ed   T{ end delete mode T} exit_dou-
       blewide_mode     rwidm     ZQ   T{ End double-wide mode T}
       exit_insert_mode    rmir ei   T{ exit insert mode T} exit_ital-
       ics_mode   ritm ZR   T{ End italic mode T} exit_left-
       ward_mode  rlm  ZS   T{ End left-motion mode T}
       exit_micro_mode     rmicm     ZT   T{ End micro-motion mode T}
       exit_shadow_mode    rshm ZU   T{ End shadow-print mode T} exit_stand-
       out_mode  rmso se   T{ exit standout mode T} exit_sub-
       script_mode rsubm     ZV   T{ End subscript mode T} exit_super-
       script_mode    rsupm     ZW   T{ End superscript mode T} exit_under-
       line_mode rmul ue   T{ exit underline mode T}
       exit_upward_mode    rum  ZX   T{ End reverse character motion T}
       exit_xon_mode  rmxon     RX   T{ turn off xon/xoff handshaking T}
       fixed_pause    pause     PA   T{ pause for 2-3 seconds T}
       flash_hook     hook fh   T{ flash switch hook T}
       flash_screen   flash     vb   T{ visible bell (may not move cursor) T}
       form_feed ff   ff   T{ hardcopy terminal page eject (P*) T} from_sta-
       tus_line    fsl  fs   T{ return from status line T} goto_win-
       dow    wingo     WG   T{ go to window #1 T} hangup    hup  HU   T{
       hang-up phone T} init_1string   is1  i1   T{ initialization string T}
       init_2string   is2  is   T{ initialization string T}
       init_3string   is3  i3   T{ initialization string T}
       init_file if   if   T{ name of initialization file T}
       init_prog iprog     iP   T{ path name of program for initialization T}
       initialize_color    initc     Ic   T{ initialize color #1 to (#2,#3,#4)
       T} initialize_pair     initp     Ip   T{ Initialize color pair #1 to
       fg=(#2,#3,#4), bg=(#5,#6,#7) T} insert_character    ich1 ic   T{ insert
       character (P) T} insert_line    il1  al   T{ insert line (P*) T}
       insert_padding ip   ip   T{ insert padding after inserted character T}
       key_a1    ka1  K1   T{ upper left of keypad T} key_a3    ka3  K3   T{
       upper right of keypad T} key_b2    kb2  K2   T{ center of keypad T}
       key_backspace  kbs  kb   T{ backspace key T} key_beg   kbeg @1   T{
       begin key T} key_btab  kcbt kB   T{ back-tab key T}
       key_c1    kc1  K4   T{ lower left of keypad T} key_c3    kc3  K5   T{
       lower right of keypad T} key_cancel     kcan @2   T{ cancel key T}
       key_catab ktbc ka   T{ clear-all-tabs key T} key_clear kclr kC   T{
       clear-screen or erase key T} key_close kclo @3   T{ close key T}
       key_command    kcmd @4   T{ command key T} key_copy  kcpy @5   T{ copy
       key T} key_create     kcrt @6   T{ create key T}
       key_ctab  kctab     kt   T{ clear-tab key T}
       key_dc    kdch1     kD   T{ delete-character key T}
       key_dl    kdl1 kL   T{ delete-line key T} key_down  kcud1     kd   T{
       down-arrow key T} key_eic   krmir     kM   T{ sent by rmir or smir in
       insert mode T} key_end   kend @7   T{ end key T} key_enter kent @8   T{
       enter/send key T} key_eol   kel  kE   T{ clear-to-end-of-line key T}
       key_eos   ked  kS   T{ clear-to-end-of-screen key T}
       key_exit  kext @9   T{ exit key T} key_f0    kf0  k0   T{ F0 function
       key T} key_f1    kf1  k1   T{ F1 function key T} key_f10   kf10 k;   T{
       F10 function key T} key_f11   kf11 F1   T{ F11 function key T}
       key_f12   kf12 F2   T{ F12 function key T} key_f13   kf13 F3   T{ F13
       function key T} key_f14   kf14 F4   T{ F14 function key T}
       key_f15   kf15 F5   T{ F15 function key T} key_f16   kf16 F6   T{ F16
       function key T} key_f17   kf17 F7   T{ F17 function key T}
       key_f18   kf18 F8   T{ F18 function key T} key_f19   kf19 F9   T{ F19
       function key T} key_f2    kf2  k2   T{ F2 function key T}
       key_f20   kf20 FA   T{ F20 function key T} key_f21   kf21 FB   T{ F21
       function key T} key_f22   kf22 FC   T{ F22 function key T}
       key_f23   kf23 FD   T{ F23 function key T} key_f24   kf24 FE   T{ F24
       function key T} key_f25   kf25 FF   T{ F25 function key T}
       key_f26   kf26 FG   T{ F26 function key T} key_f27   kf27 FH   T{ F27
       function key T} key_f28   kf28 FI   T{ F28 function key T}
       key_f29   kf29 FJ   T{ F29 function key T} key_f3    kf3  k3   T{ F3
       function key T} key_f30   kf30 FK   T{ F30 function key T}
       key_f31   kf31 FL   T{ F31 function key T} key_f32   kf32 FM   T{ F32
       function key T} key_f33   kf33 FN   T{ F33 function key T}
       key_f34   kf34 FO   T{ F34 function key T} key_f35   kf35 FP   T{ F35
       function key T} key_f36   kf36 FQ   T{ F36 function key T}
       key_f37   kf37 FR   T{ F37 function key T} key_f38   kf38 FS   T{ F38
       function key T} key_f39   kf39 FT   T{ F39 function key T}
       key_f4    kf4  k4   T{ F4 function key T} key_f40   kf40 FU   T{ F40
       function key T} key_f41   kf41 FV   T{ F41 function key T}
       key_f42   kf42 FW   T{ F42 function key T} key_f43   kf43 FX   T{ F43
       function key T} key_f44   kf44 FY   T{ F44 function key T}
       key_f45   kf45 FZ   T{ F45 function key T} key_f46   kf46 Fa   T{ F46
       function key T} key_f47   kf47 Fb   T{ F47 function key T}
       key_f48   kf48 Fc   T{ F48 function key T} key_f49   kf49 Fd   T{ F49
       function key T} key_f5    kf5  k5   T{ F5 function key T}
       key_f50   kf50 Fe   T{ F50 function key T} key_f51   kf51 Ff   T{ F51
       function key T} key_f52   kf52 Fg   T{ F52 function key T}
       key_f53   kf53 Fh   T{ F53 function key T} key_f54   kf54 Fi   T{ F54
       function key T} key_f55   kf55 Fj   T{ F55 function key T}
       key_f56   kf56 Fk   T{ F56 function key T} key_f57   kf57 Fl   T{ F57
       function key T} key_f58   kf58 Fm   T{ F58 function key T}
       key_f59   kf59 Fn   T{ F59 function key T} key_f6    kf6  k6   T{ F6
       function key T} key_f60   kf60 Fo   T{ F60 function key T}
       key_f61   kf61 Fp   T{ F61 function key T} key_f62   kf62 Fq   T{ F62
       function key T} key_f63   kf63 Fr   T{ F63 function key T}
       key_f7    kf7  k7   T{ F7 function key T} key_f8    kf8  k8   T{ F8
       function key T} key_f9    kf9  k9   T{ F9 function key T}
       key_find  kfnd @0   T{ find key T} key_help  khlp %1   T{ help key T}
       key_home  khome     kh   T{ home key T} key_ic    kich1     kI   T{
       insert-character key T} key_il    kil1 kA   T{ insert-line key T}
       key_left  kcub1     kl   T{ left-arrow key T} key_ll    kll  kH   T{
       lower-left key (home down) T} key_mark  kmrk %2   T{ mark key T}
       key_message    kmsg %3   T{ message key T} key_move  kmov %4   T{ move
       key T} key_next  knxt %5   T{ next key T} key_npage knp  kN   T{ next-
       page key T} key_open  kopn %6   T{ open key T}
       key_options    kopt %7   T{ options key T} key_ppage kpp  kP   T{ pre-
       vious-page key T} key_previous   kprv %8   T{ previous key T}
       key_print kprt %9   T{ print key T} key_redo  krdo %0   T{ redo key T}
       key_reference  kref &1   T{ reference key T}
       key_refresh    krfr &2   T{ refresh key T} key_replace    krpl &3   T{
       replace key T} key_restart    krst &4   T{ restart key T}
       key_resume     kres &5   T{ resume key T} key_right kcuf1     kr   T{
       right-arrow key T} key_save  ksav &6   T{ save key T}
       key_sbeg  kBEG &9   T{ shifted begin key T} key_scancel    kCAN &0   T{
       shifted cancel key T} key_scommand   kCMD *1   T{ shifted command key
       T} key_scopy kCPY *2   T{ shifted copy key T} key_scre-
       ate    kCRT *3   T{ shifted create key T} key_sdc   kDC  *4   T{
       shifted delete-character key T} key_sdl   kDL  *5   T{ shifted delete-
       line key T} key_select     kslt *6   T{ select key T}
       key_send  kEND *7   T{ shifted end key T} key_seol  kEOL *8   T{
       shifted clear-to-end-of-line key T} key_sexit kEXT *9   T{ shifted exit
       key T} key_sf    kind kF   T{ scroll-forward key T}
       key_sfind kFND *0   T{ shifted find key T} key_shelp kHLP #1   T{
       shifted help key T} key_shome kHOM #2   T{ shifted home key T}
       key_sic   kIC  #3   T{ shifted insert-character key T}
       key_sleft kLFT #4   T{ shifted left-arrow key T} key_smes-
       sage   kMSG %a   T{ shifted message key T} key_smove kMOV %b   T{
       shifted move key T} key_snext kNXT %c   T{ shifted next key T} key_sop-
       tions   kOPT %d   T{ shifted options key T} key_sprevious  kPRV %e   T{
       shifted previous key T} key_sprint     kPRT %f   T{ shifted print key
       T} key_sr    kri  kR   T{ scroll-backward key T} key_sredo kRDO %g   T{
       shifted redo key T} key_sreplace   kRPL %h   T{ shifted replace key T}
       key_sright     kRIT %i   T{ shifted right-arrow key T}
       key_srsume     kRES %j   T{ shifted resume key T}
       key_ssave kSAV !1   T{ shifted save key T} key_ssuspend   kSPD !2   T{
       shifted suspend key T} key_stab  khts kT   T{ set-tab key T}
       key_sundo kUND !3   T{ shifted undo key T} key_suspend    kspd &7   T{
       suspend key T} key_undo  kund &8   T{ undo key T}
       key_up    kcuu1     ku   T{ up-arrow key T} keypad_local   rmkx ke   T{
       leave 'keyboard_transmit' mode T} keypad_xmit    smkx ks   T{ enter
       'keyboard_transmit' mode T} lab_f0    lf0  l0   T{ label on function
       key f0 if not f0 T} lab_f1    lf1  l1   T{ label on function key f1 if
       not f1 T} lab_f10   lf10 la   T{ label on function key f10 if not f10
       T} lab_f2    lf2  l2   T{ label on function key f2 if not f2 T}
       lab_f3    lf3  l3   T{ label on function key f3 if not f3 T}
       lab_f4    lf4  l4   T{ label on function key f4 if not f4 T}
       lab_f5    lf5  l5   T{ label on function key f5 if not f5 T}
       lab_f6    lf6  l6   T{ label on function key f6 if not f6 T}
       lab_f7    lf7  l7   T{ label on function key f7 if not f7 T}
       lab_f8    lf8  l8   T{ label on function key f8 if not f8 T}
       lab_f9    lf9  l9   T{ label on function key f9 if not f9 T} label_for-
       mat   fln  Lf   T{ label format T} label_off rmln LF   T{ turn off soft
       labels T} label_on  smln LO   T{ turn on soft labels T}
       meta_off  rmm  mo   T{ turn off meta mode T} meta_on   smm  mm   T{
       turn on meta mode (8th-bit on) T} micro_column_address     mhpa ZY   T{
       Like column_address in micro mode T} micro_down     mcud1     ZZ   T{
       Like cursor_down in micro mode T} micro_left     mcub1     Za   T{ Like
       cursor_left in micro mode T} micro_right    mcuf1     Zb   T{ Like cur-
       sor_right in micro mode T} micro_row_address   mvpa Zc   T{ Like
       row_address #1 in micro mode T} micro_up  mcuu1     Zd   T{ Like cur-
       sor_up in micro mode T} newline   nel  nw   T{ newline (behave like cr
       followed by lf) T} order_of_pins  porder    Ze   T{ Match software bits
       to print-head pins T} orig_colors    oc   oc   T{ Set all color pairs
       to the original ones T} orig_pair op   op   T{ Set default pair to its
       original value T} pad_char  pad  pc   T{ padding char (instead of null)
       T} parm_dch  dch  DC   T{ delete #1 characters (P*) T}
       parm_delete_line    dl   DL   T{ delete #1 lines (P*) T} parm_down_cur-
       sor    cud  DO   T{ down #1 lines (P*) T}
       parm_down_micro     mcud Zf   T{ Like parm_down_cursor in micro mode T}
       parm_ich  ich  IC   T{ insert #1 characters (P*) T}
       parm_index     indn SF   T{ scroll forward #1 lines (P) T}
       parm_insert_line    il   AL   T{ insert #1 lines (P*) T} parm_left_cur-
       sor    cub  LE   T{ move #1 characters to the left (P) T}
       parm_left_micro     mcub Zg   T{ Like parm_left_cursor in micro mode T}
       parm_right_cursor   cuf  RI   T{ move #1 characters to the right (P*)
       T} parm_right_micro    mcuf Zh   T{ Like parm_right_cursor in micro
       mode T} parm_rindex    rin  SR   T{ scroll back #1 lines (P) T}
       parm_up_cursor cuu  UP   T{ up #1 lines (P*) T}
       parm_up_micro  mcuu Zi   T{ Like parm_up_cursor in micro mode T}
       pkey_key  pfkey     pk   T{ program function key #1 to type string #2
       T} pkey_local     pfloc     pl   T{ program function key #1 to execute
       string #2 T} pkey_xmit pfx  px   T{ program function key #1 to transmit
       string #2 T} plab_norm pln  pn   T{ program label #1 to show string #2
       T} print_screen   mc0  ps   T{ print contents of screen T}
       prtr_non  mc5p pO   T{ turn on printer for #1 bytes T}
       prtr_off  mc4  pf   T{ turn off printer T} prtr_on   mc5  po   T{ turn
       on printer T} pulse     pulse     PU   T{ select pulse dialing T}
       quick_dial     qdial     QD   T{ dial number #1 without checking T}
       remove_clock   rmclk     RC   T{ remove clock T}
       repeat_char    rep  rp   T{ repeat char #1 #2 times (P*) T}
       req_for_input  rfi  RF   T{ send next input char (for ptys) T}
       reset_1string  rs1  r1   T{ reset string T} reset_2string  rs2  r2   T{
       reset string T} reset_3string  rs3  r3   T{ reset string T}
       reset_file     rf   rf   T{ name of reset file T} restore_cur-
       sor rc   rc   T{ restore cursor to position of last save_cursor T}
       row_address    vpa  cv   T{ vertical position #1 absolute (P) T}
       save_cursor    sc   sc   T{ save current cursor position (P) T}
       scroll_forward ind  sf   T{ scroll text up (P) T}
       scroll_reverse ri   sr   T{ scroll text down (P) T}
       select_char_set     scs  Zj   T{ Select character set, #1 T}
       set_attributes sgr  sa   T{ define video attributes #1-#9 (PG9) T}
       set_background setb Sb   T{ Set background color #1 T} set_bottom_mar-
       gin   smgb Zk   T{ Set bottom margin at current line T} set_bottom_mar-
       gin_parm   smgbp     Zl   T{ Set bottom margin at line #1 or (if smgtp
       is not given) #2 lines from bottom T} set_clock sclk SC   T{ set clock,
       #1 hrs #2 mins #3 secs T} set_color_pair scp  sp   T{ Set current color
       pair to #1 T} set_foreground setf Sf   T{ Set foreground color #1 T}
       set_left_margin     smgl ML   T{ set left soft margin at current col-
       umn.  See smgl. (ML is not in BSD termcap).  T} set_left_mar-
       gin_parm     smglp     Zm   T{ Set left (right) margin at column #1 T}
       set_right_margin    smgr MR   T{ set right soft margin at current col-
       umn T} set_right_margin_parm    smgrp     Zn   T{ Set right margin at
       column #1 T} set_tab   hts  st   T{ set a tab in every row, current
       columns T} set_top_margin smgt Zo   T{ Set top margin at current line
       T} set_top_margin_parm smgtp     Zp   T{ Set top (bottom) margin at row
       #1 T} set_window     wind wi   T{ current window is lines #1-#2 cols
       #3-#4 T} start_bit_image     sbim Zq   T{ Start printing bit image
       graphics T} start_char_set_def  scsd Zr   T{ Start character set defi-
       nition #1, with #2 characters in the set T} stop_bit_image rbim Zs   T{
       Stop printing bit image graphics T} stop_char_set_def   rcsd Zt   T{
       End definition of character set #1 T} subscript_charac-
       ters     subcs     Zu   T{ List of subscriptable characters T} super-
       script_characters   supcs     Zv   T{ List of superscriptable charac-
       ters T} tab  ht   ta   T{ tab to next 8-space hardware tab stop T}
       these_cause_cr docr Zw   T{ Printing any of these characters causes CR
       T} to_status_line tsl  ts   T{ move to status line, column #1 T}
       tone tone TO   T{ select touch tone dialing T} under-
       line_char uc   uc   T{ underline char and move past it T}
       up_half_line   hu   hu   T{ half a line up T} user0     u0   u0   T{
       User string #0 T} user1     u1   u1   T{ User string #1 T}
       user2     u2   u2   T{ User string #2 T} user3     u3   u3   T{ User
       string #3 T} user4     u4   u4   T{ User string #4 T}
       user5     u5   u5   T{ User string #5 T} user6     u6   u6   T{ User
       string #6 T} user7     u7   u7   T{ User string #7 T}
       user8     u8   u8   T{ User string #8 T} user9     u9   u9   T{ User
       string #9 T} wait_tone wait WA   T{ wait for dial-tone T} xoff_charac-
       ter xoffc     XF   T{ XOFF character T} xon_character  xonc XN   T{ XON
       character T} zero_motion    zerom     Zx   T{ No motion for subsequent
       character T}

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw18.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code alt_scan-
       code_esc    scesa     S8   T{ Alternate escape for scancode emulation
       T} bit_image_carriage_return     bicr Yv   T{ Move to beginning of same
       row T} bit_image_newline   binel     Zz   T{ Move to next row of the
       bit image T} bit_image_repeat    birep     Xy   T{ Repeat bit image
       cell #1 #2 times T} char_set_names csnm Zy   T{ Produce #1'th item from
       list of character set names T} code_set_init  csin ci   T{ Init
       sequence for multiple codesets T} color_names    colornm   Yw   T{ Give
       name for color #1 T} define_bit_image_region  defbi     Yx   T{ Define
       rectangualar bit image region T} device_type    devt dv   T{ Indicate
       language/codeset support T} display_pc_char     dispc     S1   T{ Dis-
       play PC character #1 T} end_bit_image_region     endbi     Yy   T{ End
       a bit-image region T} enter_pc_charset_mode    smpch     S2   T{ Enter
       PC character display mode T} enter_scancode_mode smsc S4   T{ Enter PC
       scancode mode T} exit_pc_charset_mode     rmpch     S3   T{ Exit PC
       character display mode T} exit_scancode_mode  rmsc S5   T{ Exit PC
       scancode mode T} get_mouse getm Gm   T{ Curses should get button
       events, parameter #1 not documented.  T} key_mouse kmous     Km   T{
       Mouse event has occurred T} mouse_info     minfo     Mi   T{ Mouse sta-
       tus information T} pc_term_options     pctrm     S6   T{ PC terminal
       options T} pkey_plab pfxl xl   T{ Program function key #1 to type
       string #2 and show string #3 T} req_mouse_pos  reqmp     RQ   T{
       Request mouse position T} scancode_escape     scesc     S7   T{ Escape
       for scancode emulation T} set0_des_seq   s0ds s0   T{ Shift to codeset
       0 (EUC set 0, ASCII) T} set1_des_seq   s1ds s1   T{ Shift to codeset 1
       T} set2_des_seq   s2ds s2   T{ Shift to codeset 2 T}
       set3_des_seq   s3ds s3   T{ Shift to codeset 3 T} set_a_back-
       ground    setab     AB   T{ Set background color to #1, using ANSI
       escape T} set_a_foreground    setaf     AF   T{ Set foreground color to
       #1, using ANSI escape T} set_color_band setcolor  Yz   T{ Change to
       ribbon color #1 T} set_lr_margin  smglr     ML   T{ Set both left and
       right margins to #1, #2.  (ML is not in BSD termcap).  T}
       set_page_length     slines    YZ   T{ Set page length to #1 lines T}
       set_tb_margin  smgtb     MT   T{ Sets both top and bottom margins to
       #1, #2 T}

        The  XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1 versions
        of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses term-
        cap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard,
        they have no termcap names.  If your  compiled  terminfo  entries  use
        these,  they  may  not  be  binary-compatible  with  System V terminfo
        entries after SVr4.1; beware!

        center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
        able  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code enter_horizon-
        tal_hl_mode ehhlm     Xh   T{ Enter horizontal highlight mode T}
        enter_left_hl_mode  elhlm     Xl   T{ Enter left highlight mode T}
        enter_low_hl_mode   elohlm    Xo   T{ Enter low highlight mode T}
        enter_right_hl_mode erhlm     Xr   T{ Enter right highlight mode T}
        enter_top_hl_mode   ethlm     Xt   T{ Enter top highlight mode T}
        enter_vertical_hl_mode   evhlm     Xv   T{ Enter vertical highlight
        mode T} set_a_attributes    sgr1 sA   T{ Define second set of video
        attributes #1-#6 T} set_pglen_inch slength   sL   T{ YI Set page
        length to #1 hundredth of an inch T}

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
             colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
             cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
             cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
             ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
             ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
             kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
             kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
             kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
             kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
             kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
             op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
             rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
             s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
             sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
             u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with ``#''.  Capabilities  in  terminfo  are  of  three
       types:  Boolean  capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
       particular feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the  termi-
       nal  or  the  size of particular delays, and string capabilities, which
       give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal opera-

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and  line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.   Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  `#' and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value  `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string  valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character  code,  an  `=',  and  then  a
       string ending at the next following `,'.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map to  an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the
       sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return,  tab,
       backspace,  form-feed,  and  space.  Other escapes include \^ for ^, \\
       for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.  (\0 will produce \200,
       which  does  not  terminate a string but behaves as a null character on
       most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.   See  stty(1).)   Finally,
       characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay  in  milliseconds  may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,  and  padding  characters
       are  supplied by tputs to provide this delay.  The delay must be a num-
       ber with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed  by
       suffixes `*' or '/' or both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required
       is proportional to the number of lines affected by the  operation,  and
       the  amount  given  is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the
       case of insert character, the factor  is  still  the  number  of  lines
       affected.)   Normally,  padding  is  advisory if the device has the xon
       capability; it is used  for  cost  computation  but  does  not  trigger
       delays.   A  `/'  suffix  indicates  that  the padding is mandatory and
       forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices  for
       which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see  the  second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If  the  environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the
       pathname of a directory containing the  compiled  description  you  are
       working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code
       will instead look in  the  directory  $HOME/.terminfo  for  a  compiled
       description.   If it fails to find one there, and the environment vari-
       able TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret the contents of that vari-
       able as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty
       entry is interpreted as a command  to  search  /etc/terminfo).   If  no
       description is found in any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the fetch

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will
       be the system terminfo directory, /etc/terminfo.

       (Neither  the  $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS extensions are
       supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and  to  build  up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware  that
       a  very  unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a  large  file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of  columns  on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next  line  when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home  position,  then
       this  is  given  by the clear string capability.  If the terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position when  a  character  is  struck
       over)  then  it  should  have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies  to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,  codes
       to  move  to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would  not normally use `cuf1= ' because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo  are  undefined  at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text  down,  a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
       the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left  edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of  the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It
       does not matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
            bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
            am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
            ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string capability, with  printf(3)
       like  escapes  %x  in  it.  For example, to address the cursor, the cup
       capability is given, using  two  parameters:  the  row  and  column  to
       address  to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal  has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to  manipulate
       it.   Typically  a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs `%'

            as  in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a `:' to allow the
            next character to be a `-' flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as  an

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not reset between calls to tparm.  However, that fact is not docu-
            mented in other implementations.  Relying  on  it  will  adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %* %/ %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
            the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t  pops  it
            from  the  stack,  testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
            (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the  structure  of  if-
            the-else's.   Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into  lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are  in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of  the
       rows  and  columns  is  inverted  here, and that the row and column are
       printed   as   two   digits.     Thus    its    cup    capability    is

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a  ^T,  with  the  row   and   column   simply   encoded   in   binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals  which  use  "%c"  need  to  be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on  the
       screen  (cuu1).   This  is  necessary  because it is not always safe to
       transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.   (The
       library  routines  dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be  essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       `\E=',  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous  values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If  the  terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home  position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single  parameter  capabilities  hpa  (horizontal  position
       absolute)  and  vpa  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general  two  parameter  sequence  (as  with  the
       hp2645)  and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to  the  right)  these  can  be
       given  as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how
       many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the  terminal  does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the  terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be  given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If  the  terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to  be  the  one
       used  by  terminfo.   If the smcup sequence will not restore the screen
       after an rmcup sequence is output (to the  state  prior  to  outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If  the  terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as  el.   If
       the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it  is,  this  should  be
       given  as  el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.   Ed  is  only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the  terminal  can  open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is  done  only  from  the
       first  position  of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which  the  cursor  is
       on,  then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the  vt100)  the
       command  to  set  this  can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)  com-
       mands  may  be  useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the  cursor.   (Note  that  the  ncurses(3NCURSES)
       library  does  this  synthesis  automatically,  so you need not compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation  of  index  with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen  can  also  be  done
       using  ri  or  ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow  is  effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write  something  to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom  of  the  region  by  the  ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-
       destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind,  ri,  indn,  and
       rin  will  simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions
       you not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses  implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory  can  be  retained  below,  then  db
       should  be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri  may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are  two  basic  kinds  of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be  described  using  terminfo.   The
       most  common insert/delete character operations affect only the charac-
       ters on the current line and shift characters off the end of  the  line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting  upon  an  insert  or  delete  only to an untyped blank on the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two  untyped  blanks.
       You  can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen
       and then typing text separated by cursor  motions.   Type  "abc    def"
       using  local  cursor  motions  (not  spaces)  between the "abc" and the
       "def".  Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the  terminal
       in  insert  mode.   If typing characters causes the rest of the line to
       shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,  then  your  terminal
       does  not  distinguish  between  blanks  and untyped positions.  If the
       "abc" shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the  end
       of  the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the sec-
       ond type of terminal, and should give the capability in,  which  stands
       for  "insert  null".  While these are two logically separate attributes
       (one line versus multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special  treatment  of
       untyped  spaces)  we have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be
       described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have  an  insert  mode,  and
       terminals  which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as  rmir  the  sequence  to  leave  insert  mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before  sending  the  character  to  be
       inserted.   Most  terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position  should  give
       it here.

       If  your  terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically, you should not give  both  unless  the  terminal  actually
       requires  both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some non-curses
       applications get confused if both are present; the symptom  is  doubled
       characters  in  an  update using insert.  This requirement is now rare;
       most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most  smir  insert
       modes  do  not  require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new
       curses actually assumes this is the case and uses either  rmir/smir  or
       ich/ich1  as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an entry
       to be used under new curses for a terminal old  enough  to  need  both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be  sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal needs both to be placed into an `insert mode'  and  a  special
       code  to  precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1
       can be given, and both will be used.   The  ich  capability,  with  one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If  padding  is  necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while  in  insert  mode  to
       delete  characters  on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion  while  in  insert
       mode  you  can  give  the  capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.   Some  terminals  (notably
       Datamedia's)  must  not  have  mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single  character,  dch  with
       one  parameter,  n,  to  delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete  mode  (any  mode  the  terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A  command  to  erase  n  characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be  represented  in  a number of different ways.  You should choose one
       display form as standout mode,  representing  a  good,  high  contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes,  format  for  highlighting  error  messages and other
       attention getters.  (If you have a choice,  reverse  video  plus  half-
       bright  is  good,  or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and
       exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso,  respectively.   If  the
       code  to  change  into  or  out of standout mode leaves one or even two
       blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray  1061  do,  then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character  and  move  the  cursor  one  space to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting  modes  include  blink
       (blinking)  bold  (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video)  sgr0
       (turn  off  all  attribute  modes) smacs (enter alternate character set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If  there  is  a  sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes),  taking  9  parameters.   Each
       parameter  is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on
       or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline,  reverse,
       blink,  dim,  bold,  blank,  protect, alternate character set.  Not all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

       center;   l   c   c   l   c   c  lw28  lw6  lw2  lw20.   tparm  parame-
       ter     attribute escape sequence

       none none \E[0m     p1   standout  \E[0;1;7m     p2   underline \E[0;4m
       p3   reverse   \E[0;7m  p4   blink     \E[0;5m  p5   dim  not available
       p6   bold \E[0;1m   p7   invis     \E[0;8m   p8   protect   not    used
       p9   altcharset     ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We  begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
       there is no quick way to determine whether they are  active.   Standout
       is  set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220 termi-
       nal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in  sgr  because
       it  protects  characters  on  the screen from the host's erasures.  The
       altcharset mode also is different in  that  it  is  either  ^O  or  ^N,
       depending  on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is  out-
       put  when  either  p1  or  p3  is  true, that is, if either standout or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

       center; l c c l c c lw28 lw6 lw2 lw20.  sequence  when  to  output ter-
       minfo translation

       \E[0 always    \E[0   ;1   if   p1  or  p6    %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;  ;4   if
       p2     %?%p2%|%t;4%;  ;5   if  p4     %?%p4%|%t;5%;   ;7   if   p1   or
       p3    %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%; ;8   if p7     %?%p7%|%t;8%; m    always    m ^N
       or ^O   if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also  specify  sgr0.   Also,
       some  implementations  rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all ter-
       minfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.   Many  terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals  with  the  ``magic  cookie''  glitch  (xmc)  deposit special
       ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect  the
       display  algorithm  rather  than  having extra bits for each character.
       Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout  mode
       when  they  move  to  a  new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the  cursor
       or  sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate  an  error
       quietly  (a  bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is  not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give  this  sequence  as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which  undoes  the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If  your  terminal  correctly  generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it  does  not  overstrike,  then  you
       should  give  the  capability  ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the  capability  os.   If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes  when  the  keys  are
       pressed,  this  information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for  example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Other-
       wise  the  keypad is assumed to always transmit.  The codes sent by the
       left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and  home  keys  can  be
       given  as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there
       are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can  be
       given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the
       default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.
       The  codes  transmitted by certain other special keys can be given: kll
       (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab  (clear  the
       tab  stop  in  this  column),  kclr  (clear screen or erase key), kdch1
       (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert  mode),  kel
       (clear  to  end  of  line), ked (clear to end of screen), kich1 (insert
       character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp  (next  page),
       kpp  (previous  page),  kind  (scroll  forward/down), kri (scroll back-
       ward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column).  In  addition,  if  the
       keypad  has  a  3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the
       other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,  kc1,  and  kc3.   These
       keys  are  useful  when  the  effects  of  a 3 by 3 directional pad are

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in  a  terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
       string;  pfloc  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh  define  the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop  can be given as ht (usually control I).  A ``back-tab'' com-
       mand which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop  can  be  given  as
       cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
       expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the  terminal,  pro-
       grams should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user
       may not have the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware
       tabs  which  are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is pow-
       ered up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spa-
       ces  the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by the tset command to
       determine whether to set the  mode  for  hardware  tab  expansion,  and
       whether  to  set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can
       be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo  description  can  assume
       that they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize  the  terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set  the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput  pro-
       gram,  each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the follow-
       ing order:

              run the program

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal  modes  can  be
       set  up  without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder  reset  from  a  totally  unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by the  reset  program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  produce  annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
       ple, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be
       part  of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not
       normally needed since the terminal is  usually  already  in  80  column

       The  reset  program  writes  strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of  is1,  etc.   If
       any  of  rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of  every  row).   If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF  or  DTR
       handshaking,  including  hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding  char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host  when  its  input  buffers  are
       close  to  full),  set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices  effec-
       tively  that  do  not  have  a speed limit.  Padding information should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no  padding  baud  rate,  then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some  terminals  have an extra `status line' which is not normally used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access  the
       status  line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the  status
       line.   The  capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the  width
       of  the  terminal.   If  this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,  tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for  forms-drawing.
       Terminfo  and  curses  build in support for the drawing characters sup-
       ported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T  4410v1  added.
       This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

       center   expand;   c   l   l   c   c   l   l   c  lw28  lw6  lw2  lw20.
       Glyph     ACS  Ascii     VT100 Name Name Default   Name UK  pound  sign
           ACS_STERLING   f    }   arrow  pointing  down ACS_DARROW     v    .
       arrow    pointing    left    ACS_LARROW     <    ,    arrow    pointing
       right     ACS_RARROW     >    +     arrow     pointing    up   ACS_UAR-
       ROW     ^    -    board    of    squares    ACS_BOARD #    h     bullet
           ACS_BULLET     o    ~          checker         board         (stip-
       ple)  ACS_CKBOARD    :    a degree  symbol        ACS_DEGREE     \    f
       diamond                ACS_DIAMOND    +    `     greater-than-or-equal-
       to ACS_GEQUAL     >    z greek pi            ACS_PI    *    {  horizon-
       tal  line    ACS_HLINE -    q lantern symbol      ACS_LANTERN    #    i
       large   plus    or    crossover ACS_PLUS  +    n    less-than-or-equal-
       to    ACS_LEQUAL     <    y  lower  left corner   ACS_LLCORNER   +    m
       lower        right        corner ACS_LRCORNER   +    j        not-equal
           ACS_NEQUAL     !    |   plus/minus            ACS_PLMINUS    #    g
       scan line 1      ACS_S1    ~    o scan line 3         ACS_S3     -    p
       scan  line  7          ACS_S7     -    r  scan  line  9          ACS_S9
         _    s   solid   square    block  ACS_BLOCK #    0    tee    pointing
       down   ACS_TTEE  +    w tee pointing left   ACS_RTEE  +    u tee point-
       ing right ACS_LTEE  +    t tee pointing up      ACS_BTEE  +    v  upper
       left      corner  ACS_ULCORNER   +    l      upper      right      cor-
       ner  ACS_URCORNER   +    k vertical line       ACS_VLINE |    x

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add  a  column
       to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will  be  rendered  as  the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like'  or  `HP-like'.   Tek-
       tronix-like  terminals  have a predefined set of N colors (where N usu-
       ally 8), and can set character-cell foreground and  background  charac-
       ters  independently,  mixing  them  into N * N color-pairs.  On HP-like
       terminals, the use must set each color pair up  separately  (foreground
       and  background  are  not independently settable).  Up to M color-pairs
       may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
       colors  and  color-pairs  that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default  values  for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent background color rather  than  the  power-up  default  background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To  change  the  current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-
       type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI  foreground)  and  setab  (set  ANSI
       background)  or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).  These
       take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only  setaf/setab;  the  XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports
       ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should  be
       coded as setaf and setab, respectively.  If the terminal supports other
       escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.  The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric  argu-
       ment  each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined as
       follows (the middle column is the symbolic  #define  available  in  the
       header  for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in color space.

       center;   l   c  c  c  l  l  n  l.   Color     #define    Value     RGB
       black     COLOR_BLACK    0    0, 0, 0  red  COLOR_RED      1    max,0,0
       green     COLOR_GREEN    2    0,max,0              yellow    COLOR_YEL-
       LOW   3    max,max,0                   blue COLOR_BLUE     4    0,0,max
       magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA  5    max,0,max
       cyan COLOR_CYAN     6    0,max,max
       white     COLOR_WHITE    7    max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

       center;  l  c  c  c  l  l  n  l.    Color     #define     Value     RGB
       black     COLOR_BLACK    0    0,  0, 0 blue COLOR_BLUE     1    0,0,max
       green     COLOR_GREEN    2    0,max,0
       cyan COLOR_CYAN     3    0,max,max     red  COLOR_RED      4    max,0,0
       magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA  5    max,0,max            yellow    COLOR_YEL-
       LOW   6    max,max,0  white     COLOR_WHITE    7    max,max,max  It  is
       important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities;  otherwise
       red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On  an  HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability  ccc  may  be  present  to
       indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three  more  parameters  which
       describe  the  color.   These  three parameters default to being inter-
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capability hls
       is  present,  they  are  instead  as  HLS  (Hue, Lightness, Saturation)
       indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On an HP-like terminal, initp may give  a  capability  for  changing  a
       color-pair  value.   It will take seven parameters; a color-pair number
       (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first  background  and
       then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can  reg-
       ister  these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask of
       attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The  correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

       center;   l   c  c  lw25  lw2  lw10.   Attribute Bit  Decimal  A_STAND-
       OUT     0    1    A_UNDERLINE    1    2    A_REVERSE 2    4     A_BLINK
            3    8   A_DIM           4    16  A_BOLD          5    32  A_INVIS
            6    64 A_PROTECT 7    128 A_ALTCHARSET   8    256

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute  collides
       with  the  foreground  color  blue  and is not available in color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and  optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
       though  the  application  may  set this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has  no
       pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this  as  ff
       (usually control L).

       If  there  is  a  command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting a large number  of  identical  charac-
       ters)  this  can  be  indicated with the parameterized string rep.  The
       first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second  is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025,  this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character  is  given
       in  the  cmdch  capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of  known
       terminal,  such  as  switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they  do
       not  know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which  the  escape  sequences  are

       If  the  terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key, setting
       the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact  can  be  indicated
       with  km.   Otherwise,  software will assume that the 8th bit is parity
       and it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn  this  ``meta
       mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A  value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual  terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of  the  screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the  printer.   It
       is  undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.  A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All  text,  including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be  displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which  ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout  (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the  variable  indicating
       this  is  now  `dest_tabs_magic_smso';  in  older versions, it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to  position  the  cursor  on  top of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase
       standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete  and  insert  line.
       The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1  key  is  used
       for  escape  and  f2  for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo  versions,
       this capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other  specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capa-
       bilities of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar  terminals,  one  (the  variant)  can  be
       defined  as  being  just  like the other (the base) with certain excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be  given  with  the name of the base terminal.  The capabilities given
       before use override those in the base type named by use.  If there  are
       multiple  use capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.  That is,
       the rightmost use reference is processed first, then  the  one  to  its
       left,  and  so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the entry over-
       ride those brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence  that  imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the

            2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence  does  not  turn  on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a  terminal,  or  for  different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long  terminfo  entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.   Unfor-
       tunately,  the  termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to
       1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of  long  terminfo  entries  can
       cause problems.

       The  man  pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.   The  entry
       gets  null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what
       the  application  and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for  is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries  to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:  before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects  more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term-
       cap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does  not).
       Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
            the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
            if it is the entry it wants,

       *    and  tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is the
            long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long  entry,  or
            does  not  appear  in  the  file  at all (so that tgetent() has to
            search the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack,  and  probably
       core  dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.   The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long  termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to  dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since  tgetent() only does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can  cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even  before
       "tc"  expansion,  it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap

       When  in  -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1) issues warning messages when the  pre-tc  length  of  a  termcap
       translation  is  too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count  on  portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and  AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses  movement  while  in  an
       alternate-character-set  mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters  that  do  not  trigger  local  motions).   The
       ncurses  implementation  ignores  msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite  inter-
       pretation  may  need  terminfo  entries  made  for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in  a  slightly  non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock  and  display_clock  are  not
       documented  in  SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to inter-
       pret  it  as  KEY_MOUSE,  for use by terminals and emulators like xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in  the  keyboard-input

       Different  commercial  ports  of  terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI  --  Supports  the  SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
       capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili-
       ties.   The  booleans  end  with xon_xoff; the numerics with width_sta-
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX  --  Supports  the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]   numerics
       num_labels,  label_height,  label_width,  plus function keys 11 through
       63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and  label_off,  plus  some  incompatible
       extensions in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

       /etc/terminfo/?/*        files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1), infocmp(1), ncurses(3NCURSES), printf(3), term(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.