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TERMINFO(5)                      File Formats                      TERMINFO(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and  libraries  such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding requirements and initialization sequences.

       Entries  in  terminfo  consist  of  a  sequence of `,' separated fields
       (embedded commas may be escaped with a  backslash or notated as  \072).
       White  space  after  the `,' separator is ignored.  The first entry for
       each terminal gives the names which are known for the  terminal,  sepa-
       rated  by  `|'  characters.   The  first  name given is the most common
       abbreviation for the terminal, the last name given  should  be  a  long
       name  fully  identifying the terminal, and all others are understood as
       synonyms for the terminal name.  All names but the last  should  be  in
       lower  case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry)  should  be  chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing up the terminal should have a root  name,  thus  ``hp2621''.   This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or
       user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a  mode
       suffix.   Thus,  a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The fol-
       lowing suffixes should be used where possible:

       center ; l c l l l l.  Suffix    Meaning   Example -nn  Number of lines
       on  the  screen  aaa-60  -np  Number  of  pages  of  memory     c100-4p
       -am  With automargins (usually the  default) vt100-am  -m   Mono  mode;
       suppress  color        ansi-m -mc  Magic cookie; spaces when highlight-
       ing  wy30-mc -na  No  arrow  keys  (leave  them  in  local)     c100-na
       -nam Without  automatic  margins          vt100-nam -nl  No status line
          att4415-nl   -ns  No   status   line                       hp2626-ns
       -rv  Reverse  video                     c100-rv -s   Enable status line
          vt100-s -vb  Use visible bell instead of  beep   wy370-vb  -w   Wide
       mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)  vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

       The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by  which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by  a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded  by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description Booleans  name Code auto_left_mar-
       gin    bw   bw   T{ cub1 wraps from column 0 to last column T}
       auto_right_margin   am   am   T{ terminal has automatic margins T}
       back_color_erase    bce  ut   T{ screen erased with background color T}
       can_change     ccc  cc   T{ terminal can re-define existing colors T}
       ceol_standout_glitch     xhp  xs   T{ standout not erased by overwrit-
       ing (hp) T} col_addr_glitch     xhpa YA   T{ only positive motion for
       hpa/mhpa caps T} cpi_changes_res     cpix YF   T{ changing character
       pitch changes resolution T} cr_cancels_micro_mode    crxm YB   T{ using
       cr turns off micro mode T} dest_tabs_magic_smso     xt   xt   T{ tabs
       destructive, magic so char (t1061) T} eat_newline_glitch  xenl xn   T{
       newline ignored after 80 cols (concept) T} erase_over-
       strike    eo   eo   T{ can erase overstrikes with a blank T}
       generic_type   gn   gn   T{ generic line type T} hard_copy hc   hc   T{
       hardcopy terminal T} hard_cursor    chts HC   T{ cursor is hard to see
       T} has_meta_key   km   km   T{ Has a meta key (i.e., sets 8th-bit) T}
       has_print_wheel     daisy     YC   T{ printer needs operator to change
       character set T} has_status_line     hs   hs   T{ has extra status line
       T} hue_lightness_saturation hls  hl   T{ terminal uses only HLS color
       notation (Tektronix) T} insert_null_glitch  in   in   T{ insert mode
       distinguishes nulls T} lpi_changes_res     lpix YG   T{ changing line
       pitch changes resolution T} memory_above   da   da   T{ display may be
       retained above the screen T} memory_below   db   db   T{ display may be
       retained below the screen T} move_insert_mode    mir  mi   T{ safe to
       move while in insert mode T} move_standout_mode  msgr ms   T{ safe to
       move while in standout mode T} needs_xon_xoff nxon nx   T{ padding will
       not work, xon/xoff required T} no_esc_ctlc    xsb  xb   T{ beehive
       (f1=escape, f2=ctrl C) T} no_pad_char    npc  NP   T{ pad character
       does not exist T} non_dest_scroll_region   ndscr     ND   T{ scrolling
       region is non-destructive T} non_rev_rmcup  nrrmc     NR   T{ smcup
       does not reverse rmcup T} over_strike    os   os   T{ terminal can
       overstrike T} prtr_silent    mc5i 5i   T{ printer will not echo on
       screen T} row_addr_glitch     xvpa YD   T{ only positive motion for
       vpa/mvpa caps T} semi_auto_right_margin   sam  YE   T{ printing in last
       column causes cr T} status_line_esc_ok  eslok     es   T{ escape can be
       used on the status line T} tilde_glitch   hz   hz   T{ cannot print ~'s
       (hazeltine) T} transparent_underline    ul   ul   T{ underline charac-
       ter overstrikes T} xon_xoff  xon  xo   T{ terminal uses xon/xoff hand-
       shaking T}

       These are the numeric capabilities:

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description Numeric   name Code columns   cols co   T{
       number of columns in a line T} init_tabs it   it   T{ tabs initially
       every # spaces T} label_height   lh   lh   T{ rows in each label T}
       label_width    lw   lw   T{ columns in each label T}
       lines     lines     li   T{ number of lines on screen or page T}
       lines_of_memory     lm   lm   T{ lines of memory if > line. 0 means
       varies T} magic_cookie_glitch xmc  sg   T{ number of blank characters
       left by smso or rmso T} max_attributes ma   ma   T{ maximum combined
       attributes terminal can handle T} max_colors     colors    Co   T{ max-
       imum number of colors on screen T} max_pairs pairs     pa   T{ maximum
       number of color-pairs on the screen T} maximum_windows     wnum MW   T{
       maximum number of defineable windows T} no_color_video ncv  NC   T{
       video attributes that cannot be used with colors T}
       num_labels     nlab Nl   T{ number of labels on screen T} pad-
       ding_baud_rate   pb   pb   T{ lowest baud rate where padding needed T}
       virtual_terminal    vt   vt   T{ virtual terminal number (CB/unix) T}
       width_status_line   wsl  ws   T{ number of columns in status line T}

       The  following  numeric  capabilities  are  present  in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.   They  came  in
       with SVr4's printer support.

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description Numeric   name Code bit_image_entwin-
       ing bitwin    Yo   T{ number of passes for each bit-image row T}
       bit_image_type bitype    Yp   T{ type of bit-image device T} buf-
       fer_capacity     bufsz     Ya   T{ numbers of bytes buffered before
       printing T} buttons   btns BT   T{ number of buttons on mouse T}
       dot_horz_spacing    spinh     Yc   T{ spacing of dots horizontally in
       dots per inch T} dot_vert_spacing    spinv     Yb   T{ spacing of pins
       vertically in pins per inch T} max_micro_address   maddr     Yd   T{
       maximum value in micro_..._address T} max_micro_jump mjump     Ye   T{
       maximum value in parm_..._micro T} micro_col_size mcs  Yf   T{ charac-
       ter step size when in micro mode T} micro_line_size     mls  Yg   T{
       line step size when in micro mode T} number_of_pins npins     Yh   T{
       numbers of pins in print-head T} output_res_char     orc  Yi   T{ hori-
       zontal resolution in units per line T} out-
       put_res_horz_inch     orhi Yk   T{ horizontal resolution in units per
       inch T} output_res_line     orl  Yj   T{ vertical resolution in units
       per line T} output_res_vert_inch     orvi Yl   T{ vertical resolution
       in units per inch T} print_rate     cps  Ym   T{ print rate in charac-
       ters per second T} wide_char_size widcs     Yn   T{ character step size
       when in double wide mode T}

       These are the string capabilities:

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code acs_chars acsc ac   T{
       graphics charset pairs, based on vt100 T} back_tab  cbt  bt   T{ back
       tab (P) T} bell bel  bl   T{ audible signal (bell) (P) T} car-
       riage_return     cr   cr   T{ carriage return (P*) (P*) T}
       change_char_pitch   cpi  ZA   T{ Change number of characters per inch
       to #1 T} change_line_pitch   lpi  ZB   T{ Change number of lines per
       inch to #1 T} change_res_horz     chr  ZC   T{ Change horizontal reso-
       lution to #1 T} change_res_vert     cvr  ZD   T{ Change vertical reso-
       lution to #1 T} change_scroll_region     csr  cs   T{ change region to
       line #1 to line #2 (P) T} char_padding   rmp  rP   T{ like ip but when
       in insert mode T} clear_all_tabs tbc  ct   T{ clear all tab stops (P)
       T} clear_margins  mgc  MC   T{ clear right and left soft margins T}
       clear_screen   clear     cl   T{ clear screen and home cursor (P*) T}
       clr_bol   el1  cb   T{ Clear to beginning of line T}
       clr_eol   el   ce   T{ clear to end of line (P) T}
       clr_eos   ed   cd   T{ clear to end of screen (P*) T} col-
       umn_address hpa  ch   T{ horizontal position #1, absolute (P) T} com-
       mand_character   cmdch     CC   T{ terminal settable cmd character in
       prototype !?  T} create_window  cwin CW   T{ define a window #1 from
       #2,#3 to #4,#5 T} cursor_address cup  cm   T{ move to row #1 columns #2
       T} cursor_down    cud1 do   T{ down one line T} cur-
       sor_home    home ho   T{ home cursor (if no cup) T} cursor_invisi-
       ble    civis     vi   T{ make cursor invisible T} cur-
       sor_left    cub1 le   T{ move left one space T} cur-
       sor_mem_address  mrcup     CM   T{ memory relative cursor addressing,
       move to row #1 columns #2 T} cursor_normal  cnorm     ve   T{ make cur-
       sor appear normal (undo civis/cvvis) T} cursor_right   cuf1 nd   T{
       non-destructive space (move right one space) T} cur-
       sor_to_ll   ll   ll   T{ last line, first column (if no cup) T} cur-
       sor_up cuu1 up   T{ up one line T} cursor_visible cvvis     vs   T{
       make cursor very visible T} define_char    defc ZE   T{ Define a char-
       acter #1, #2 dots wide, descender #3 T} delete_charac-
       ter    dch1 dc   T{ delete character (P*) T}
       delete_line    dl1  dl   T{ delete line (P*) T}
       dial_phone     dial DI   T{ dial number #1 T} dis_sta-
       tus_line     dsl  ds   T{ disable status line T} dis-
       play_clock  dclk DK   T{ display clock T} down_half_line hd   hd   T{
       half a line down T} ena_acs   enacs     eA   T{ enable alternate char
       set T} enter_alt_charset_mode   smacs     as   T{ start alternate char-
       acter set (P) T} enter_am_mode  smam SA   T{ turn on automatic margins
       T} enter_blink_mode    blink     mb   T{ turn on blinking T}
       enter_bold_mode     bold md   T{ turn on bold (extra bright) mode T}
       enter_ca_mode  smcup     ti   T{ string to start programs using cup T}
       enter_delete_mode   smdc dm   T{ enter delete mode T}
       enter_dim_mode dim  mh   T{ turn on half-bright mode T} enter_dou-
       blewide_mode    swidm     ZF   T{ Enter double-wide mode T}
       enter_draft_quality sdrfq     ZG   T{ Enter draft-quality mode T}
       enter_insert_mode   smir im   T{ enter insert mode T} enter_ital-
       ics_mode  sitm ZH   T{ Enter italic mode T} enter_left-
       ward_mode slm  ZI   T{ Start leftward carriage motion T}
       enter_micro_mode    smicm     ZJ   T{ Start micro-motion mode T}
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq ZK   T{ Enter NLQ mode T} enter_nor-
       mal_quality     snrmq     ZL   T{ Enter normal-quality mode T}
       enter_protected_mode     prot mp   T{ turn on protected mode T}
       enter_reverse_mode  rev  mr   T{ turn on reverse video mode T}
       enter_secure_mode   invis     mk   T{ turn on blank mode (characters
       invisible) T} enter_shadow_mode   sshm ZM   T{ Enter shadow-print mode
       T} enter_standout_mode smso so   T{ begin standout mode T} enter_sub-
       script_mode     ssubm     ZN   T{ Enter subscript mode T} enter_super-
       script_mode   ssupm     ZO   T{ Enter superscript mode T} enter_under-
       line_mode     smul us   T{ begin underline mode T}
       enter_upward_mode   sum  ZP   T{ Start upward carriage motion T}
       enter_xon_mode smxon     SX   T{ turn on xon/xoff handshaking T}
       erase_chars    ech  ec   T{ erase #1 characters (P) T}
       exit_alt_charset_mode    rmacs     ae   T{ end alternate character set
       (P) T} exit_am_mode   rmam RA   T{ turn off automatic margins T}
       exit_attribute_mode sgr0 me   T{ turn off all attributes T}
       exit_ca_mode   rmcup     te   T{ strings to end programs using cup T}
       exit_delete_mode    rmdc ed   T{ end delete mode T} exit_dou-
       blewide_mode     rwidm     ZQ   T{ End double-wide mode T}
       exit_insert_mode    rmir ei   T{ exit insert mode T} exit_ital-
       ics_mode   ritm ZR   T{ End italic mode T} exit_left-
       ward_mode  rlm  ZS   T{ End left-motion mode T}
       exit_micro_mode     rmicm     ZT   T{ End micro-motion mode T}
       exit_shadow_mode    rshm ZU   T{ End shadow-print mode T} exit_stand-
       out_mode  rmso se   T{ exit standout mode T} exit_sub-
       script_mode rsubm     ZV   T{ End subscript mode T} exit_super-
       script_mode    rsupm     ZW   T{ End superscript mode T} exit_under-
       line_mode rmul ue   T{ exit underline mode T}
       exit_upward_mode    rum  ZX   T{ End reverse character motion T}
       exit_xon_mode  rmxon     RX   T{ turn off xon/xoff handshaking T}
       fixed_pause    pause     PA   T{ pause for 2-3 seconds T}
       flash_hook     hook fh   T{ flash switch hook T}
       flash_screen   flash     vb   T{ visible bell (may not move cursor) T}
       form_feed ff   ff   T{ hardcopy terminal page eject (P*) T} from_sta-
       tus_line    fsl  fs   T{ return from status line T} goto_win-
       dow    wingo     WG   T{ go to window #1 T} hangup    hup  HU   T{
       hang-up phone T} init_1string   is1  i1   T{ initialization string T}
       init_2string   is2  is   T{ initialization string T}
       init_3string   is3  i3   T{ initialization string T}
       init_file if   if   T{ name of initialization file T}
       init_prog iprog     iP   T{ path name of program for initialization T}
       initialize_color    initc     Ic   T{ initialize color #1 to (#2,#3,#4)
       T} initialize_pair     initp     Ip   T{ Initialize color pair #1 to
       fg=(#2,#3,#4), bg=(#5,#6,#7) T} insert_character    ich1 ic   T{ insert
       character (P) T} insert_line    il1  al   T{ insert line (P*) T}
       insert_padding ip   ip   T{ insert padding after inserted character T}
       key_a1    ka1  K1   T{ upper left of keypad T} key_a3    ka3  K3   T{
       upper right of keypad T} key_b2    kb2  K2   T{ center of keypad T}
       key_backspace  kbs  kb   T{ backspace key T} key_beg   kbeg @1   T{
       begin key T} key_btab  kcbt kB   T{ back-tab key T}
       key_c1    kc1  K4   T{ lower left of keypad T} key_c3    kc3  K5   T{
       lower right of keypad T} key_cancel     kcan @2   T{ cancel key T}
       key_catab ktbc ka   T{ clear-all-tabs key T} key_clear kclr kC   T{
       clear-screen or erase key T} key_close kclo @3   T{ close key T}
       key_command    kcmd @4   T{ command key T} key_copy  kcpy @5   T{ copy
       key T} key_create     kcrt @6   T{ create key T}
       key_ctab  kctab     kt   T{ clear-tab key T}
       key_dc    kdch1     kD   T{ delete-character key T}
       key_dl    kdl1 kL   T{ delete-line key T} key_down  kcud1     kd   T{
       down-arrow key T} key_eic   krmir     kM   T{ sent by rmir or smir in
       insert mode T} key_end   kend @7   T{ end key T} key_enter kent @8   T{
       enter/send key T} key_eol   kel  kE   T{ clear-to-end-of-line key T}
       key_eos   ked  kS   T{ clear-to-end-of-screen key T}
       key_exit  kext @9   T{ exit key T} key_f0    kf0  k0   T{ F0 function
       key T} key_f1    kf1  k1   T{ F1 function key T} key_f10   kf10 k;   T{
       F10 function key T} key_f11   kf11 F1   T{ F11 function key T}
       key_f12   kf12 F2   T{ F12 function key T} key_f13   kf13 F3   T{ F13
       function key T} key_f14   kf14 F4   T{ F14 function key T}
       key_f15   kf15 F5   T{ F15 function key T} key_f16   kf16 F6   T{ F16
       function key T} key_f17   kf17 F7   T{ F17 function key T}
       key_f18   kf18 F8   T{ F18 function key T} key_f19   kf19 F9   T{ F19
       function key T} key_f2    kf2  k2   T{ F2 function key T}
       key_f20   kf20 FA   T{ F20 function key T} key_f21   kf21 FB   T{ F21
       function key T} key_f22   kf22 FC   T{ F22 function key T}
       key_f23   kf23 FD   T{ F23 function key T} key_f24   kf24 FE   T{ F24
       function key T} key_f25   kf25 FF   T{ F25 function key T}
       key_f26   kf26 FG   T{ F26 function key T} key_f27   kf27 FH   T{ F27
       function key T} key_f28   kf28 FI   T{ F28 function key T}
       key_f29   kf29 FJ   T{ F29 function key T} key_f3    kf3  k3   T{ F3
       function key T} key_f30   kf30 FK   T{ F30 function key T}
       key_f31   kf31 FL   T{ F31 function key T} key_f32   kf32 FM   T{ F32
       function key T} key_f33   kf33 FN   T{ F33 function key T}
       key_f34   kf34 FO   T{ F34 function key T} key_f35   kf35 FP   T{ F35
       function key T} key_f36   kf36 FQ   T{ F36 function key T}
       key_f37   kf37 FR   T{ F37 function key T} key_f38   kf38 FS   T{ F38
       function key T} key_f39   kf39 FT   T{ F39 function key T}
       key_f4    kf4  k4   T{ F4 function key T} key_f40   kf40 FU   T{ F40
       function key T} key_f41   kf41 FV   T{ F41 function key T}
       key_f42   kf42 FW   T{ F42 function key T} key_f43   kf43 FX   T{ F43
       function key T} key_f44   kf44 FY   T{ F44 function key T}
       key_f45   kf45 FZ   T{ F45 function key T} key_f46   kf46 Fa   T{ F46
       function key T} key_f47   kf47 Fb   T{ F47 function key T}
       key_f48   kf48 Fc   T{ F48 function key T} key_f49   kf49 Fd   T{ F49
       function key T} key_f5    kf5  k5   T{ F5 function key T}
       key_f50   kf50 Fe   T{ F50 function key T} key_f51   kf51 Ff   T{ F51
       function key T} key_f52   kf52 Fg   T{ F52 function key T}
       key_f53   kf53 Fh   T{ F53 function key T} key_f54   kf54 Fi   T{ F54
       function key T} key_f55   kf55 Fj   T{ F55 function key T}
       key_f56   kf56 Fk   T{ F56 function key T} key_f57   kf57 Fl   T{ F57
       function key T} key_f58   kf58 Fm   T{ F58 function key T}
       key_f59   kf59 Fn   T{ F59 function key T} key_f6    kf6  k6   T{ F6
       function key T} key_f60   kf60 Fo   T{ F60 function key T}
       key_f61   kf61 Fp   T{ F61 function key T} key_f62   kf62 Fq   T{ F62
       function key T} key_f63   kf63 Fr   T{ F63 function key T}
       key_f7    kf7  k7   T{ F7 function key T} key_f8    kf8  k8   T{ F8
       function key T} key_f9    kf9  k9   T{ F9 function key T}
       key_find  kfnd @0   T{ find key T} key_help  khlp %1   T{ help key T}
       key_home  khome     kh   T{ home key T} key_ic    kich1     kI   T{
       insert-character key T} key_il    kil1 kA   T{ insert-line key T}
       key_left  kcub1     kl   T{ left-arrow key T} key_ll    kll  kH   T{
       lower-left key (home down) T} key_mark  kmrk %2   T{ mark key T}
       key_message    kmsg %3   T{ message key T} key_move  kmov %4   T{ move
       key T} key_next  knxt %5   T{ next key T} key_npage knp  kN   T{ next-
       page key T} key_open  kopn %6   T{ open key T}
       key_options    kopt %7   T{ options key T} key_ppage kpp  kP   T{ pre-
       vious-page key T} key_previous   kprv %8   T{ previous key T}
       key_print kprt %9   T{ print key T} key_redo  krdo %0   T{ redo key T}
       key_reference  kref &1   T{ reference key T}
       key_refresh    krfr &2   T{ refresh key T} key_replace    krpl &3   T{
       replace key T} key_restart    krst &4   T{ restart key T}
       key_resume     kres &5   T{ resume key T} key_right kcuf1     kr   T{
       right-arrow key T} key_save  ksav &6   T{ save key T}
       key_sbeg  kBEG &9   T{ shifted begin key T} key_scancel    kCAN &0   T{
       shifted cancel key T} key_scommand   kCMD *1   T{ shifted command key
       T} key_scopy kCPY *2   T{ shifted copy key T} key_scre-
       ate    kCRT *3   T{ shifted create key T} key_sdc   kDC  *4   T{
       shifted delete-character key T} key_sdl   kDL  *5   T{ shifted delete-
       line key T} key_select     kslt *6   T{ select key T}
       key_send  kEND *7   T{ shifted end key T} key_seol  kEOL *8   T{
       shifted clear-to-end-of-line key T} key_sexit kEXT *9   T{ shifted exit
       key T} key_sf    kind kF   T{ scroll-forward key T}
       key_sfind kFND *0   T{ shifted find key T} key_shelp kHLP #1   T{
       shifted help key T} key_shome kHOM #2   T{ shifted home key T}
       key_sic   kIC  #3   T{ shifted insert-character key T}
       key_sleft kLFT #4   T{ shifted left-arrow key T} key_smes-
       sage   kMSG %a   T{ shifted message key T} key_smove kMOV %b   T{
       shifted move key T} key_snext kNXT %c   T{ shifted next key T} key_sop-
       tions   kOPT %d   T{ shifted options key T} key_sprevious  kPRV %e   T{
       shifted previous key T} key_sprint     kPRT %f   T{ shifted print key
       T} key_sr    kri  kR   T{ scroll-backward key T} key_sredo kRDO %g   T{
       shifted redo key T} key_sreplace   kRPL %h   T{ shifted replace key T}
       key_sright     kRIT %i   T{ shifted right-arrow key T}
       key_srsume     kRES %j   T{ shifted resume key T}
       key_ssave kSAV !1   T{ shifted save key T} key_ssuspend   kSPD !2   T{
       shifted suspend key T} key_stab  khts kT   T{ set-tab key T}
       key_sundo kUND !3   T{ shifted undo key T} key_suspend    kspd &7   T{
       suspend key T} key_undo  kund &8   T{ undo key T}
       key_up    kcuu1     ku   T{ up-arrow key T} keypad_local   rmkx ke   T{
       leave 'keyboard_transmit' mode T} keypad_xmit    smkx ks   T{ enter
       'keyboard_transmit' mode T} lab_f0    lf0  l0   T{ label on function
       key f0 if not f0 T} lab_f1    lf1  l1   T{ label on function key f1 if
       not f1 T} lab_f10   lf10 la   T{ label on function key f10 if not f10
       T} lab_f2    lf2  l2   T{ label on function key f2 if not f2 T}
       lab_f3    lf3  l3   T{ label on function key f3 if not f3 T}
       lab_f4    lf4  l4   T{ label on function key f4 if not f4 T}
       lab_f5    lf5  l5   T{ label on function key f5 if not f5 T}
       lab_f6    lf6  l6   T{ label on function key f6 if not f6 T}
       lab_f7    lf7  l7   T{ label on function key f7 if not f7 T}
       lab_f8    lf8  l8   T{ label on function key f8 if not f8 T}
       lab_f9    lf9  l9   T{ label on function key f9 if not f9 T} label_for-
       mat   fln  Lf   T{ label format T} label_off rmln LF   T{ turn off soft
       labels T} label_on  smln LO   T{ turn on soft labels T}
       meta_off  rmm  mo   T{ turn off meta mode T} meta_on   smm  mm   T{
       turn on meta mode (8th-bit on) T} micro_column_address     mhpa ZY   T{
       Like column_address in micro mode T} micro_down     mcud1     ZZ   T{
       Like cursor_down in micro mode T} micro_left     mcub1     Za   T{ Like
       cursor_left in micro mode T} micro_right    mcuf1     Zb   T{ Like cur-
       sor_right in micro mode T} micro_row_address   mvpa Zc   T{ Like
       row_address #1 in micro mode T} micro_up  mcuu1     Zd   T{ Like cur-
       sor_up in micro mode T} newline   nel  nw   T{ newline (behave like cr
       followed by lf) T} order_of_pins  porder    Ze   T{ Match software bits
       to print-head pins T} orig_colors    oc   oc   T{ Set all color pairs
       to the original ones T} orig_pair op   op   T{ Set default pair to its
       original value T} pad_char  pad  pc   T{ padding char (instead of null)
       T} parm_dch  dch  DC   T{ delete #1 characters (P*) T}
       parm_delete_line    dl   DL   T{ delete #1 lines (P*) T} parm_down_cur-
       sor    cud  DO   T{ down #1 lines (P*) T}
       parm_down_micro     mcud Zf   T{ Like parm_down_cursor in micro mode T}
       parm_ich  ich  IC   T{ insert #1 characters (P*) T}
       parm_index     indn SF   T{ scroll forward #1 lines (P) T}
       parm_insert_line    il   AL   T{ insert #1 lines (P*) T} parm_left_cur-
       sor    cub  LE   T{ move #1 characters to the left (P) T}
       parm_left_micro     mcub Zg   T{ Like parm_left_cursor in micro mode T}
       parm_right_cursor   cuf  RI   T{ move #1 characters to the right (P*)
       T} parm_right_micro    mcuf Zh   T{ Like parm_right_cursor in micro
       mode T} parm_rindex    rin  SR   T{ scroll back #1 lines (P) T}
       parm_up_cursor cuu  UP   T{ up #1 lines (P*) T}
       parm_up_micro  mcuu Zi   T{ Like parm_up_cursor in micro mode T}
       pkey_key  pfkey     pk   T{ program function key #1 to type string #2
       T} pkey_local     pfloc     pl   T{ program function key #1 to execute
       string #2 T} pkey_xmit pfx  px   T{ program function key #1 to transmit
       string #2 T} plab_norm pln  pn   T{ program label #1 to show string #2
       T} print_screen   mc0  ps   T{ print contents of screen T}
       prtr_non  mc5p pO   T{ turn on printer for #1 bytes T}
       prtr_off  mc4  pf   T{ turn off printer T} prtr_on   mc5  po   T{ turn
       on printer T} pulse     pulse     PU   T{ select pulse dialing T}
       quick_dial     qdial     QD   T{ dial number #1 without checking T}
       remove_clock   rmclk     RC   T{ remove clock T}
       repeat_char    rep  rp   T{ repeat char #1 #2 times (P*) T}
       req_for_input  rfi  RF   T{ send next input char (for ptys) T}
       reset_1string  rs1  r1   T{ reset string T} reset_2string  rs2  r2   T{
       reset string T} reset_3string  rs3  r3   T{ reset string T}
       reset_file     rf   rf   T{ name of reset file T} restore_cur-
       sor rc   rc   T{ restore cursor to position of last save_cursor T}
       row_address    vpa  cv   T{ vertical position #1 absolute (P) T}
       save_cursor    sc   sc   T{ save current cursor position (P) T}
       scroll_forward ind  sf   T{ scroll text up (P) T}
       scroll_reverse ri   sr   T{ scroll text down (P) T}
       select_char_set     scs  Zj   T{ Select character set, #1 T}
       set_attributes sgr  sa   T{ define video attributes #1-#9 (PG9) T}
       set_background setb Sb   T{ Set background color #1 T} set_bottom_mar-
       gin   smgb Zk   T{ Set bottom margin at current line T} set_bottom_mar-
       gin_parm   smgbp     Zl   T{ Set bottom margin at line #1 or (if smgtp
       is not given) #2 lines from bottom T} set_clock sclk SC   T{ set clock,
       #1 hrs #2 mins #3 secs T} set_color_pair scp  sp   T{ Set current color
       pair to #1 T} set_foreground setf Sf   T{ Set foreground color #1 T}
       set_left_margin     smgl ML   T{ set left soft margin at current col-
       umn.  See smgl. (ML is not in BSD termcap).  T} set_left_mar-
       gin_parm     smglp     Zm   T{ Set left (right) margin at column #1 T}
       set_right_margin    smgr MR   T{ set right soft margin at current col-
       umn T} set_right_margin_parm    smgrp     Zn   T{ Set right margin at
       column #1 T} set_tab   hts  st   T{ set a tab in every row, current
       columns T} set_top_margin smgt Zo   T{ Set top margin at current line
       T} set_top_margin_parm smgtp     Zp   T{ Set top (bottom) margin at row
       #1 T} set_window     wind wi   T{ current window is lines #1-#2 cols
       #3-#4 T} start_bit_image     sbim Zq   T{ Start printing bit image
       graphics T} start_char_set_def  scsd Zr   T{ Start character set defi-
       nition #1, with #2 characters in the set T} stop_bit_image rbim Zs   T{
       Stop printing bit image graphics T} stop_char_set_def   rcsd Zt   T{
       End definition of character set #1 T} subscript_charac-
       ters     subcs     Zu   T{ List of subscriptable characters T} super-
       script_characters   supcs     Zv   T{ List of superscriptable charac-
       ters T} tab  ht   ta   T{ tab to next 8-space hardware tab stop T}
       these_cause_cr docr Zw   T{ Printing any of these characters causes CR
       T} to_status_line tsl  ts   T{ move to status line, column #1 T}
       tone tone TO   T{ select touch tone dialing T} under-
       line_char uc   uc   T{ underline char and move past it T}
       up_half_line   hu   hu   T{ half a line up T} user0     u0   u0   T{
       User string #0 T} user1     u1   u1   T{ User string #1 T}
       user2     u2   u2   T{ User string #2 T} user3     u3   u3   T{ User
       string #3 T} user4     u4   u4   T{ User string #4 T}
       user5     u5   u5   T{ User string #5 T} user6     u6   u6   T{ User
       string #6 T} user7     u7   u7   T{ User string #7 T}
       user8     u8   u8   T{ User string #8 T} user9     u9   u9   T{ User
       string #9 T} wait_tone wait WA   T{ wait for dial-tone T} xoff_charac-
       ter xoffc     XF   T{ XOFF character T} xon_character  xonc XN   T{ XON
       character T} zero_motion    zerom     Zx   T{ No motion for subsequent
       character T}

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.

       center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw18.  Vari-
       able  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code alt_scan-
       code_esc    scesa     S8   T{ Alternate escape for scancode emulation
       T} bit_image_carriage_return     bicr Yv   T{ Move to beginning of same
       row T} bit_image_newline   binel     Zz   T{ Move to next row of the
       bit image T} bit_image_repeat    birep     Xy   T{ Repeat bit image
       cell #1 #2 times T} char_set_names csnm Zy   T{ Produce #1'th item from
       list of character set names T} code_set_init  csin ci   T{ Init
       sequence for multiple codesets T} color_names    colornm   Yw   T{ Give
       name for color #1 T} define_bit_image_region  defbi     Yx   T{ Define
       rectangualar bit image region T} device_type    devt dv   T{ Indicate
       language/codeset support T} display_pc_char     dispc     S1   T{ Dis-
       play PC character #1 T} end_bit_image_region     endbi     Yy   T{ End
       a bit-image region T} enter_pc_charset_mode    smpch     S2   T{ Enter
       PC character display mode T} enter_scancode_mode smsc S4   T{ Enter PC
       scancode mode T} exit_pc_charset_mode     rmpch     S3   T{ Exit PC
       character display mode T} exit_scancode_mode  rmsc S5   T{ Exit PC
       scancode mode T} get_mouse getm Gm   T{ Curses should get button
       events, parameter #1 not documented.  T} key_mouse kmous     Km   T{
       Mouse event has occurred T} mouse_info     minfo     Mi   T{ Mouse sta-
       tus information T} pc_term_options     pctrm     S6   T{ PC terminal
       options T} pkey_plab pfxl xl   T{ Program function key #1 to type
       string #2 and show string #3 T} req_mouse_pos  reqmp     RQ   T{
       Request mouse position T} scancode_escape     scesc     S7   T{ Escape
       for scancode emulation T} set0_des_seq   s0ds s0   T{ Shift to code set
       0 (EUC set 0, ASCII) T} set1_des_seq   s1ds s1   T{ Shift to code set 1
       T} set2_des_seq   s2ds s2   T{ Shift to code set 2 T}
       set3_des_seq   s3ds s3   T{ Shift to code set 3 T} set_a_back-
       ground    setab     AB   T{ Set background color to #1, using ANSI
       escape T} set_a_foreground    setaf     AF   T{ Set foreground color to
       #1, using ANSI escape T} set_color_band setcolor  Yz   T{ Change to
       ribbon color #1 T} set_lr_margin  smglr     ML   T{ Set both left and
       right margins to #1, #2.  (ML is not in BSD termcap).  T}
       set_page_length     slines    YZ   T{ Set page length to #1 lines T}
       set_tb_margin  smgtb     MT   T{ Sets both top and bottom margins to
       #1, #2 T}

        The XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1  versions
        of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses term-
        cap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard,
        they  have  no  termcap  names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use
        these, they may  not  be  binary-compatible  with  System  V  terminfo
        entries after SVr4.1; beware!

        center expand; c l l c c l l c lw25 lw6 lw2 lw20.  Vari-
        able  Cap- TCap Description String    name Code enter_horizon-
        tal_hl_mode ehhlm     Xh   T{ Enter horizontal highlight mode T}
        enter_left_hl_mode  elhlm     Xl   T{ Enter left highlight mode T}
        enter_low_hl_mode   elohlm    Xo   T{ Enter low highlight mode T}
        enter_right_hl_mode erhlm     Xr   T{ Enter right highlight mode T}
        enter_top_hl_mode   ethlm     Xt   T{ Enter top highlight mode T}
        enter_vertical_hl_mode   evhlm     Xv   T{ Enter vertical highlight
        mode T} set_a_attributes    sgr1 sA   T{ Define second set of video
        attributes #1-#6 T} set_pglen_inch slength   sL   T{ YI Set page
        length to #1 hundredth of an inch T}

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative of what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal  typically  looks

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
             colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
             cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
             cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
             ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
             ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
             kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
             kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
             kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
             kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
             kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
             op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
             rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
             s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
             sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
             u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries  may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the
       beginning of each line except the first.  Comments may be  included  on
       lines  beginning  with  ``#''.   Capabilities  in terminfo are of three
       types: Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal  has  some
       particular  feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the termi-
       nal or the size of particular delays, and  string  capabilities,  which
       give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal opera-

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals  have  automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-
       feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the  capability
       am.   Hence  the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities
       are followed by the character `#' and  then  a  positive  value.   Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be  specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end  of  line
       sequence)  are  given  by  the  two-character  code, an `=', and then a
       string ending at the next following `,'.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities  for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map to an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the
       sequences  \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return, tab,
       backspace, form-feed, and space.  Other escapes include \^  for  ^,  \\
       for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.  (\0 will produce \200,
       which does not terminate a string but behaves as a  null  character  on
       most  terminals,  providing  CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).)  Finally,
       characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere  in  a  string  capability,
       enclosed  in  $<..>  brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters
       are supplied by tputs to provide this delay.  The delay must be a  num-
       ber  with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed by
       suffixes `*' or '/' or both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required
       is  proportional  to the number of lines affected by the operation, and
       the amount given is the per-affected-unit padding  required.   (In  the
       case  of  insert  character,  the  factor  is still the number of lines
       affected.)  Normally, padding is advisory if the  device  has  the  xon
       capability;  it  is  used  for  cost  computation  but does not trigger
       delays.  A `/' suffix indicates  that  the  padding  is  mandatory  and
       forces  a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for
       which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To  do  this,
       put  a  period before the capability name.  For example, see the second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted  as  the
       pathname  of  a  directory  containing the compiled description you are
       working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code
       will  instead  look  in  the  directory  $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled
       description.  If it fails to find one there, and the environment  vari-
       able TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret the contents of that vari-
       able as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty
       entry  is  interpreted as a command to search /usr/share/terminfo).  If
       no description is found in any of the  TERMINFO_DIRS  directories,  the
       fetch fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will
       be the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo.

       (Neither the $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS  extensions  are
       supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We  now  outline  how  to  prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description  is  by  imitating  the
       description  of  a  similar  terminal  in  terminfo  and  to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented  program to check that they are correct.  Be aware that
       a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability  of  the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal  manufacturer
       did  not  document  it)  a  severe test is to edit a large file at 9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal  is  given  by  the
       cols  numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number of
       lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the  terminal
       wraps  around  to  the  beginning  of the next line when it reaches the
       right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If  the  terminal
       can  clear  its  screen,  leaving the cursor in the home position, then
       this is given by the clear string capability.  If  the  terminal  over-
       strikes  (rather  than  clearing  a position when a character is struck
       over) then it should have the os capability.   If  the  terminal  is  a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies to storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010  series,  as
       well  as  hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to move the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this  will  be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code to pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace)  that  capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes
       to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1,  cuu1,  and
       cud1.   These  local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass
       over, for example, you would not  normally  use  `cuf1= '  because  the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges  of  a  CRT  terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In  order
       to  scroll  text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to  the  top  left  corner  of  the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling  sequences  are  indn  and  rin
       which  have  the same semantics as ind and ri except that they take one
       parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined  except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The  am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply  to
       a  cuf1  from  the last column.  The only local motion which is defined
       from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from  the  left  edge
       will  move  to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is not given,
       the effect is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box  around  the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this  is  on;
       i.e.,  am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first col-
       umn of the next line, that command can be given as nel  (newline).   It
       does  not  matter  if  the  command clears the remainder of the current
       line, so if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be  possible  to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

     33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
     bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

     adm3|3|lsi adm3,
     am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
     ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the  termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string capability, with printf(3S)
       like escapes %x in it.  For example, to address  the  cursor,  the  cup
       capability  is  given,  using  two  parameters:  the  row and column to
       address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to  the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that can  be  indicated
       by mrcup.

       The  parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate
       it.  Typically a sequence will push one  of  the  parameters  onto  the
       stack  and then print it in some format.  Often more complex operations
       are necessary.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

            %%        outputs `%'
                      as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space
            %c        print pop() like %c in printf()
            %s        print pop() like %s in printf()

            %p[1-9]   push i'th parm
            %P[a-z]   set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()
            %g[a-z]   get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it
            %P[A-Z]   set static variable [a-z] to pop()
            %g[A-Z]   get static variable [a-z] and push it
            %'c'      char constant c
            %{nn}     integer constant nn
            %l        push strlen(pop)

            %+ %- %* %/ %m
                      arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())
            %& %| %^  bit operations: push(pop() op pop())
            %= %> %<  logical operations: push(pop() op pop())
            %A, %O    logical and & or operations (for conditionals)
            %! %~     unary operations push(op pop())
            %i        add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

            %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
                      if-then-else, %e elsepart is optional.
                      else-if's are possible a la Algol 68:
                      %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;
                      ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands  in  the  usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to  be
       sent  \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the
       rows and columns is inverted here, and that  the  row  and  column  are
       printed    as    two    digits.     Thus    its   cup   capability   is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded  by
       a   ^T,   with   the   row   and   column  simply  encoded  in  binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which  use  "%c"  need  to  be  able  to
       backspace  the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the
       screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it  is  not  always  safe  to
       transmit  \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.  (The
       library routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that  tabs  are
       never  expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset  by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       `\E=', this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII  value  for  a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the  same
       is  done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very  upper  left
       corner  of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll;  this  may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about  the  effect  of moving up from the home position.  Note that the
       home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left  cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be  given  as  single  parameter  capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).   Sometimes  these  are
       shorter  than  the  more  general  two  parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are  parameter-
       ized  local  motions  (e.g.,  move  n spaces to the right) these can be
       given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating  how
       many  spaces  to move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when  running  a  program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from  terminals
       like  the  Concept  with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,  where  smcup sets the command character to be the one
       used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not  restore  the  screen
       after  an  rmcup  sequence  is output (to the state prior to outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line  to  the  current
       position  inclusive,  leaving  the  cursor  where it is, this should be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current  position  to
       the  end  of  the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before  the  line  where  the
       cursor  is,  this  should  be  given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then  appear  on  the  newly
       blank  line.   If  the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the  first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If  the  terminal  has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set this can be described with  the  csr  capability,  which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr  on
       a  properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) com-
       mands may be useful for ensuring that  your  synthesized  insert/delete
       string  does  not  move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library
       does  this  synthesis  automatically,   so   you   need   not   compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation of index with the memory-lock feature found  on  some  terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting  lines  at  the  top or bottom of the screen can also be done
       using ri or ind on many terminals without a  true  insert/delete  line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To  test  for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top  of  the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom of the region by the  ri  re-appears,  then  scrolling  is  non-
       destructive.   System  V  and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and
       rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their  documentation  cautions
       you  not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is

       If  the  terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should  be  given  as  the  parameterized
       string  wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should  be  given;  if  display  memory  can be retained below, then db
       should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling  may
       bring  non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character  which  can  be described using terminfo.  The
       most common insert/delete character operations affect only the  charac-
       ters  on  the current line and shift characters off the end of the line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting upon an insert or delete only  to  an  untyped  blank  on  the
       screen  which  is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.
       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the  screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not  spaces)  between  the  "abc"  and  the
       "def".   Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
       in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks  and  untyped  positions.   If  the
       "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  sec-
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands
       for "insert null".  While these are two logically  separate  attributes
       (one  line  versus  multi-line  insert  mode,  and special treatment of
       untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode  cannot  be
       described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give  as  ich1  any
       sequence  needed  to  be  sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  ich1;
       terminals  which  send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement  is  now  rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.   Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually  assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an  entry
       to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in  ip (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal  needs  both  to be placed into an `insert mode' and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be  given,  and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in  insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to  speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting  mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

       Finally,  you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by  giving
       smdc  and  rmdc  to  enter  and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters  (equivalent  to  outputting  n  blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages  and  other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences  to  enter  and
       exit  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one  or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space  to  the  right,  such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to  enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)  invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate  character  set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary  combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  sgr (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
       or  off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

       center; l c c l c c lw28 lw6 lw2 lw20.  tparm  parameterattributeescape

       none none      \E[0m   p1   standout  \E[0;1;7m  p2   underline \E[0;4m
       p3   reverse   \E[0;7m p4   blink     \E[0;5m p5   dim       not avail-
       able  p6   bold      \E[0;1m  p7   invis     \E[0;8m p8   protect   not
       used p9   altcharset^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,  since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220  termi-
       nal  has  a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode  also  is  different  in  that  it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when either p1 or p3 is  true,  that  is,  if  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

       center;  l c c l c c lw28 lw6 lw2 lw20.  sequence       when to output-
       terminfo translation

       \E[0 always    \E[0   ;1   if   p1   or   p6%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;    ;4   if
       p2     %?%p2%|%t;4%;   ;5   if   p4     %?%p4%|%t;5%;   ;7   if  p1  or
       p3%?%p1%p3%|%t;7%; ;8   if p7     %?%p7%|%t;8%; m    always    m ^N  or
       ^O       if p9 ^N, else ^O%?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.

       Terminals  with  the  ``magic  cookie''  glitch  (xmc)  deposit special
       ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect  the
       display  algorithm  rather  than  having extra bits for each character.
       Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout  mode
       when  they  move  to  a  new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the  cursor
       or  sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate  an  error
       quietly  (a  bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is  not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give  this  sequence  as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which  undoes  the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If  your  terminal  correctly  generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it  does  not  overstrike,  then  you
       should  give  the  capability  ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the  capability  os.   If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes  when  the  keys  are
       pressed,  this  information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for  example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Other-
       wise  the  keypad is assumed to always transmit.  The codes sent by the
       left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and  home  keys  can  be
       given  as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there
       are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can  be
       given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the
       default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.
       The  codes  transmitted by certain other special keys can be given: kll
       (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab  (clear  the
       tab  stop  in  this  column),  kclr  (clear screen or erase key), kdch1
       (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert  mode),  kel
       (clear  to  end  of  line), ked (clear to end of screen), kich1 (insert
       character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp  (next  page),
       kpp  (previous  page),  kind  (scroll  forward/down), kri (scroll back-
       ward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column).  In  addition,  if  the
       keypad  has  a  3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the
       other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,  kc1,  and  kc3.   These
       keys  are  useful  when  the  effects  of  a 3 by 3 directional pad are

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in  a  terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
       string;  pfloc  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh  define  the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop  can be given as ht (usually control I).  A ``back-tab'' com-
       mand which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop  can  be  given  as
       cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
       expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the  terminal,  pro-
       grams should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user
       may not have the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware
       tabs  which  are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is pow-
       ered up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spa-
       ces  the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by the tset command to
       determine whether to set the  mode  for  hardware  tab  expansion,  and
       whether  to  set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can
       be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo  description  can  assume
       that they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize  the  terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set  the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput  pro-
       gram,  each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the follow-
       ing order: run the program iprog; output  is1;  is2;  set  the  margins
       using  mgc,  smgl  and smgr; set tabs using tbc and hts; print the file
       if; and finally output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal  modes  can  be
       set  up  without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.  A pair of sequences that does  a
       harder  reset  from a totally unknown state can be analogously given as
       rs1, rs2, rf, and rs3, analogous to is2 and if.  These strings are out-
       put  by  the reset program, which is used when the terminal gets into a
       wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only
       if  they  produce  annoying effects on the screen and are not necessary
       when logging in.  For example,  the  command  to  set  the  vt100  into
       80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying
       glitch of the screen and is not normally needed since the  terminal  is
       usually already in 80 column mode.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of  every  row).   If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals don't support either  XON/XOFF  or  DTR
       handshaking,  including  hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding  char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host  when  its  input  buffers  are
       close  to  full),  set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices  effec-
       tively that don't have a speed limit.  Padding information should still
       be included so that routines can make better decisions  about  relative
       costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no  padding  baud  rate,  then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some  terminals  have an extra `status line' which is not normally used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access  the
       status  line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the  status
       line.   The  capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the  width
       of  the  terminal.   If  this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,  tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for  forms-drawing.
       Terminfo  and  curses  build in support for the drawing characters sup-
       ported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T  4410v1  added.
       This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

       center   expand;   c   l   l   c   c   l   l   c  lw28  lw6  lw2  lw20.
       Glyph          ACSAsciiVT100 Name Name      DefaultName UK  pound  sign
       ACS_STERLINGf}  arrow  pointing  downACS_DARROWv.  arrow pointing left-
       ACS_LARROW<, arrow pointing rightACS_RARROW>+ arrow pointing upACS_UAR-
       ROW^-  board of squaresACS_BOARD#h bullet          ACS_BULLETo~ checker
       board  (stipple)ACS_CKBOARD:a  degree  symbol    ACS_DEGREE\f   diamond
       ACS_DIAMOND+`     greater-than-or-equal-toACS_GEQUAL>z     greek     pi
       ACS_PI*{ horizontal  line  ACS_HLINE-q  lantern  symbol   ACS_LANTERN#i
       large  plus  or  crossoverACS_PLUS+n  less-than-or-equal-toACS_LEQUAL<y
       lower left cornerACS_LLCORNER+m lower right  cornerACS_LRCORNER+j  not-
       equal        ACS_NEQUAL!|  plus/minus       ACS_PLMINUS#g  scan  line 1
       ACS_S1  ~o scan line 3     ACS_S3  -p scan line 7     ACS_S7   -r  scan
       line  9      ACS_S9  _s solid square blockACS_BLOCK#0 tee pointing dow-
       nACS_TTEE+w tee pointing leftACS_RTEE+u  tee  pointing  rightACS_LTEE+t
       tee  pointing up ACS_BTEE+v upper left cornerACS_ULCORNER+l upper right
       cornerACS_URCORNER+k vertical line   ACS_VLINE|x

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add  a  column
       to  a  copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
       (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches) will  be  rendered  as  the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like'  or  `HP-like'.   Tek-
       tronix-like  terminals  have a predefined set of N colors (where N usu-
       ally 8), and can set character-cell foreground and  background  charac-
       ters  independently,  mixing  them  into N * N color-pairs.  On HP-like
       terminals, the use must set each color pair up  separately  (foreground
       and  background  are  not independently settable).  Up to M color-pairs
       may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric capabilities colors and pairs specify the  maximum  numbers  of
       colors  and  color-pairs  that can be displayed simultaneously.  The op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default  values  for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.   Some  terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent background color rather  than  the  power-up  default  background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To  change  the  current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-
       type terminal, use setaf (set ANSI  foreground)  and  setab  (set  ANSI
       background)  or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).  These
       take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only  setaf/setab;  the  XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports
       ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should  be
       coded as setaf and setab, respectively.  If the terminal supports other
       escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.  The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric  argu-
       ment  each.   Argument  values 0-7 are portably defined as follows (the
       middle column is the symbolic #define available in the header  for  the
       curses  or  ncurses  libraries).   The terminal hardware is free to map
       these as it likes, but the RGB  values  indicate  normal  locations  in
       color space.

       center;   l   c   c   c  l  l  n  l.   Color          #define  ValueRGB
       black          COLOR_BLACK00,     0,     0      red  COLOR_RED 1max,0,0
       green          COLOR_GREEN20,max,0            yellow         COLOR_YEL-
       LOW3max,max,0                                   blue COLOR_BLUE40,0,max
       magenta        COLOR_MAGENTA5max,0,max        cyan COLOR_CYAN60,max,max
       white          COLOR_WHITE7max,max,max

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number  parameter  to
       set which color pair is current.

       On  a  Tektronix-like  terminal,  the  capability ccc may be present to
       indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take  a  color  number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters which
       describe the color.  These three parameters  default  to  being  inter-
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capability hls
       is present, they  are  instead  as  HLS  (Hue,  Lightness,  Saturation)
       indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On  an  HP-like  terminal,  initp  may give a capability for changing a
       color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a  color-pair  number
       (0  to  max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first background and
       then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can reg-
       ister these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask  of
       attributes  not to be used when colors are enabled.  The correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

       center; l  c  c  lw25  lw2  lw10.   Attribute      BitDecimal  A_STAND-
       OUT     01  A_UNDERLINE    12 A_REVERSE      24 A_BLINK        38 A_DIM
           416  A_BOLD          532  A_INVIS         664   A_PROTECT      7128
       A_ALTCHARSET   8256

       For  example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is  not  available  in  color  mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.   Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable;
       though the application may set this value to  something  other  than  a
       null,  ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be  indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy  terminal  can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as ff
       (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
       times  (to  save  time transmitting a large number of identical charac-
       ters) this can be indicated with the  parameterized  string  rep.   The
       first  parameter  is the character to be repeated and the second is the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command  character
       is  chosen  which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The  following  convention  is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC variable, and if found, all occurrences of the  prototype  character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions  that  do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and  network,  should  include
       the  gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not  apply
       to  virtual  terminal  descriptions  for which the escape sequences are

       If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift  key,  setting
       the  8th  bit  of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
       with km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th  bit  is  parity
       and  it  will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this ``meta
       mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the
       terminal  can  be  given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4:
       turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When  the  printer
       is  on,  all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal  screen
       when  the  printer  is  on.   A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the  printer  while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am  wrap,  such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required  to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should  indicate  xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
       this is now `dest_tabs_magic_smso'; in  older  versions,  it  was  tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of a  ``magic  cookie'',  that  to  erase
       standout  mode  it  is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.
       The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the  escape
       or  control  C  characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control C.  (Only  certain  Superbees  have  this
       problem,  depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more  capa-
       bilities of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the  base)  with  certain  excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be given with the name of the base terminal.   The  capabilities  given
       before  use override those in the base type named by use.  If there are
       multiple use capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.  That  is,
       the  rightmost  use  reference  is processed first, then the one to its
       left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the  entry  over-
       ride those brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For  example,  the

            2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in  visual  mode.
       This  is  useful  for  different modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date,  no  entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4K string-table maximum.  Unfortunately,
       the termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to  1K),  thus
       termcap translations of long terminfo entries can cause problems.

       The  man  pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the
       user to allocate a 1K buffer for the termcap  entry.   The  entry  gets
       null-terminated  by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe
       length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what  the
       application  and  the termcap library being used does, and where in the
       termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is, sev-
       eral bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others don't; others truncate  the
       entries  to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others don't.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:  before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its  capabilities.  If a termcap entry doesn't use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects  more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term-
       cap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does  not).
       Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
            the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
            if it's the entry it wants,

       *    and  tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is the
            long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long  entry,  or
            doesn't appear in the file at all (so that tgetent() has to search
            the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack,  and  probably
       core  dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.   The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long  termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to  dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since  tgetent()  only does "tc" expansion once it's found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can  cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it's too long  even  before
       "tc"  expansion,  it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap

       When  in  -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1) issues warning messages when the  pre-tc  length  of  a  termcap
       translation  is  too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count  on  portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and  AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all  previous to SVr4, don't
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses  movement  while  in  an
       alternate-character-set  mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters that don't trigger local motions).  The ncurses
       implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises the possi-
       bility that an XPG4 implementation making the  opposite  interpretation
       may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better  update  efficiency.   See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are  deduced  from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to inter-
       pret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals  and  emulators  like  xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in  the  keyboard-input

       Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support  different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds  one  undocumented  extended  string
       capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili-
       ties.  The booleans end with xon_xoff;  the  numerics  with  width_sta-
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX   --  Supports  the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
       num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function  keys  11  through
       63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,  and label_off, plus some incompatible
       extensions in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1M), curses(3X), printf(3S), term(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.