PGSQL_TABLE(5) File Formats Manual PGSQL_TABLE(5)
pgsql_table - Postfix PostgreSQL client configuration
postmap -q "string" pgsql:/etc/postfix/filename
postmap -q - pgsql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile
The Postfix mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or db format.
Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as PostgreSQL databases.
In order to use PostgreSQL lookups, define a PostgreSQL source as a
lookup table in main.cf, for example:
alias_maps = pgsql:/etc/pgsql-aliases.cf
The file /etc/postfix/pgsql-aliases.cf has the same format as the Post-
fix main.cf file, and can specify the parameters described below.
For compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables, PostgreSQL parame-
ters can also be defined in main.cf. In order to do that, specify as
PostgreSQL source a name that doesn't begin with a slash or a dot. The
PostgreSQL parameters will then be accessible as the name you've given
the source in its definition, an underscore, and the name of the param-
eter. For example, if the map is specified as "pgsql:pgsqlname", the
parameter "hosts" below would be defined in main.cf as "pgsql-
Note: with this form, the passwords for the PostgreSQL sources are
written in main.cf, which is normally world-readable. Support for this
form will be removed in a future Postfix version.
Postfix 2.2 has enhanced query interfaces for MySQL and PostgreSQL,
these include features previously available only in the Postfix LDAP
client. In the new interface the SQL query is specified via a single
query parameter (described in more detail below). In Postfix 2.1 the
parameter precedence was, from highest to lowest, select_function,
query and finally select_field, ...
With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest precedence, and is
used in preference to the still supported, but slated to be phased out,
select_function, select_field, table, where_field and additional_condi-
tions parameters. To migrate to the new interface set:
query = SELECT select_function('%s')
or in the absence of select_function, the lower precedence:
query = SELECT select_field
WHERE where_field = '%s'
Use the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter. Note that the
additional_conditions parameter is optional and if not empty, will
always start with AND.
When using SQL to store lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination,
$relay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to under-
stand that the table must store each list member as a separate key. The
table lookup verifies the *existence* of the key. See "Postfix lists
versus tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.
Do NOT create tables that return the full list of domains in $mydesti-
nation or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.
DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary
value. With SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the key itself
or a constant value.
hosts The hosts that Postfix will try to connect to and query from.
Specify unix: for UNIX-domain sockets, inet: for TCP connections
hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
hosts = unix:/file/name
The hosts are tried in random order, with all connections over
UNIX domain sockets being tried before those over TCP. The con-
nections are automatically closed after being idle for about 1
minute, and are re-opened as necessary.
NOTE: the unix: and inet: prefixes are accepted for backwards
compatibility reasons, but are actually ignored. The PostgreSQL
client library will always try to connect to an UNIX socket if
the name starts with a slash, and will try a TCP connection oth-
The user name and password to log into the pgsql server. Exam-
user = someone
password = some_password
dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
dbname = customer_database
query The SQL query template used to search the database, where %s is
a substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'
This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:
%% This is replaced by a literal '%' character. (Postfix 2.2
%s This is replaced by the input key. SQL quoting is used
to make sure that the input key does not add unexpected
%u When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
%u is replaced by the SQL quoted local part of the
address. Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire search
string. If the localpart is empty, the query is sup-
pressed and returns no results.
%d When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
%d is replaced by the SQL quoted domain part of the
address. Otherwise, the query is suppressed and returns
%[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
in the query parameter identically to their lower-case
counter-parts. With the result_format parameter (see
below), they expand the input key rather than the result
The above %S, %U and %D expansions are available with
Postfix 2.2 and later
%[1-9] The patterns %1, %2, ... %9 are replaced by the corre-
sponding most significant component of the input key's
domain. If the input key is email@example.com, then
%1 is com, %2 is example and %3 is mail. If the input key
is unqualified or does not have enough domain components
to satisfy all the specified patterns, the query is sup-
pressed and returns no results.
The above %1, ... %9 expansions are available with Post-
fix 2.2 and later
The domain parameter described below limits the input keys to
addresses in matching domains. When the domain parameter is non-
empty, SQL queries for unqualified addresses or addresses in
non-matching domains are suppressed and return no results.
The precedence of this parameter has changed with Postfix 2.2,
in prior releases the precedence was, from highest to lowest,
select_function, query, select_field, ...
With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest precedence, see
NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.
result_format (default: %s)
Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
to append (or prepend) text to the result. This parameter sup-
ports the following '%' expansions:
%% This is replaced by a literal '%' character.
%s This is replaced by the value of the result attribute.
When result is empty it is skipped.
%u When the result attribute value is an address of the form
user@domain, %u is replaced by the local part of the
address. When the result has an empty localpart it is
%d When a result attribute value is an address of the form
user@domain, %d is replaced by the domain part of the
attribute value. When the result is unqualified it is
The upper-case and decimal digit expansions interpolate
the parts of the input key rather than the result. Their
behavior is identical to that described with query, and
in fact because the input key is known in advance,
queries whose key does not contain all the information
specified in the result template are suppressed and
return no results.
For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
applying the result format, multiple values are concatenated as
comma separated strings. The expansion_limit and parameter
explained below allows one to restrict the number of values in
the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
at most one value.
The default value %s specifies that each result value should be
used as is.
This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.
NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!
domain (default: no domain list)
This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries.
When specified, only fully qualified search keys with a *non-
empty* localpart and a matching domain are eligible for lookup:
'user' lookups, bare domain lookups and "@domain" lookups are
not performed. This can significantly reduce the query load on
the PostgreSQL server.
domain = postfix.org, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains
It is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL
This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.
NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
the input keys are always unqualified.
expansion_limit (default: 0)
A limit on the total number of result elements returned (as a
comma separated list) by a lookup against the map. A setting of
zero disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error if
the limit is exceeded. Setting the limit to 1 ensures that
lookups do not return multiple values.
OBSOLETE QUERY INTERFACES
This section describes query interfaces that are deprecated as of Post-
fix 2.2. Please migrate to the new query interface as the old inter-
faces are slated to be phased out.
This parameter specifies a database function name. Example:
select_function = my_lookup_user_alias
This is equivalent to:
query = SELECT my_lookup_user_alias('%s')
This parameter overrides the legacy table-related fields
(described below). With Postfix versions prior to 2.2, it also
overrides the query parameter. Starting with Postfix 2.2, the
query parameter has highest precedence, and the select_function
parameter is deprecated.
The following parameters (with lower precedence than the select_func-
tion interface described above) can be used to build the SQL select
statement as follows:
WHERE [where_field] = '%s'
The specifier %s is replaced with each lookup by the lookup key and is
escaped so if it contains single quotes or other odd characters, it
will not cause a parse error, or worse, a security problem.
Starting with Postfix 2.2, this interface is obsoleted by the more gen-
eral query interface described above. If higher precedence the query or
select_function parameters described above are defined, the parameters
described here are ignored.
The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
select_field = forw_addr
table The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
table = mxaliases
The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
where_field = alias
Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'
postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager
postconf(5), configuration parameters
ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
mysql_table(5), MySQL lookup tables
Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate
DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
PGSQL_README, Postfix PostgreSQL client guide
The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.
PgSQL support was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.
Based on the MySQL client by:
Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
IC Group, Inc.
Ported to PostgreSQL by:
Further enhanced by:
Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
P.O. BOX 1-764
RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA