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ms(5)                 Standards, Environments, and Macros                ms(5)

       ms - text formatting macros

       nroff -ms [options] filename...

       troff -ms [options] filename...

       This package of nroff(1) and troff(1) macro definitions provides a for-
       matting facility for various styles of  articles,  theses,  and  books.
       When  producing  2-column  output on a terminal or lineprinter, or when
       reverse line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1).  All
       external -ms macros are defined below.

       Note:  this  -ms macro package is an extended version written at Berke-
       ley and is a superset of the standard  -ms macro packages  as  supplied
       by  Bell  Labs.   Some  of  the Bell Labs macros have been removed; for
       instance, it is assumed that the user has little interest in  producing
       headers stating that the memo was generated at Whippany Labs.

       Many nroff and troff requests are unsafe in conjunction with this pack-
       age. However, the first four requests below may be used  with  impunity
       after initialization, and the last two may be used even before initial-

       .bp      begin new page

       .br      break output line

       .sp n    insert n spacing lines

       .ce n    center next n lines

       .ls n    line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space

       .na      no alignment of right margin

       Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for  exam-
       ple,  \fIword\fR  will italicize word. Output of the tbl(1), eqn(1) and
       refer(1) preprocessors for equations, tables, and references is accept-
       able as input.

       tab();   lw(0.785714i)|  lw(0.785714i)|  lw(0.785714i)|  lw(3.142857i).
       Macro  NameInitial  ValueBreak?  Reset?Explanation  .AB   x-yT{   begin
       abstract;  if  x=no do not label abstract T} .AE-yend abstract .AI-yau-
       thor's institution .AM-nbetter accent  mark  definitions  .AU-yauthor's
       name  .B  x-nT{  embolden  x; if no x, switch to boldface T} .B1-ybegin
       text to be enclosed in a box .B2-yend boxed text and  print  it  .BTda-
       tenT{ bottom title, printed at foot of page T} .BX x-nprint word x in a
       box .CMif tncut mark between pages .CT-y,yT{ chapter title: page number
       moved  to  CF (TM only) T} .DA xif nnT{ force date x at bottom of page;
       today if no x T} .DE-yT{ end display (unfilled text) of any kind T} .DS
       x  yIyT{ begin display with keep; x=I,L,C,B; y=indent T} .ID y8n,.5iyT{
       indented display with no keep; y=indent T} .LD-yleft  display  with  no
       keep  .CD-ycentered  display  with  no  keep .BD-yblock display; center
       entire block .EF x-nT{ even page footer x (3 part as for .tl) T} .EH x-
       nT{  even  page  header  x (3 part as for .tl) T} .EN-yT{ end displayed
       equation produced by eqn T} .EQ x y-yT{ break  out  equation;  x=L,I,C;
       y=equation  number  T}  .FE-nT{  end footnote to be placed at bottom of
       page T} .FP-nT{ numbered footnote paragraph; may be redefined T} .FS x-
       nT{  start  footnote;  x  is  optional  footnote  label  T} .HDundefnT{
       optional page header below header margin T} .I x-nT{ italicize x; if no
       x,  switch to italics T} .IP x y-y,yT{ indented paragraph, with hanging
       tag x; y=indent T} .IX x y-yT{ index words x y and so on (up to 5  lev-
       els)  T}  .KE-nend  keep  of any kind .KF-nT{ begin floating keep; text
       fills remainder of page T} .KS-yT{ begin keep; unit kept together on  a
       single  page  T}  .LG-nlarger;  increase  point  size  by 2 .LP-y,yleft
       (block) paragraph.  .MC x-y,ymultiple columns; x=column width  .ND  xif
       tnT{  no  date in page footer; x is date on cover T} .NH x y-y,yT{ num-
       bered header; x=level, x=0 resets, x=S sets to y  T}  .NL10pnset  point
       size  back to normal .OF x-nT{ odd page footer x (3 part as for .tl) T}
       .OH x-nT{ odd page header x (3 part  as  for  .tl)  T}  .P1if  TMnprint
       header  on  first page .PP-y,yparagraph with first line indented .PT- %
       -npage title, printed at head of page .PX x-yT{ print index  (table  of
       contents); x=no suppresses title T} .QP-y,yT{ quote paragraph (indented
       and shorter) T} .Ronnreturn to Roman font .RE5ny,yT{ retreat: end level
       of  relative indentation T} .RP x-nT{ released paper format; x=no stops
       title on first page T} .RS5ny,yT{ right shift: start level of  relative
       indentation   T}   .SH-y,ysection  header,  in  boldface  .SM-nsmaller;
       decrease point size by 2 .TA8n,5nnT{ set TAB characters to 8n  16n  ...
       (nroff)   or 5n 10n ... (troff) T} .TC x-yT{ print table of contents at
       end; x=no suppresses title T} .TE-yend of table processed by  tbl  .TH-
       yend  multi-page  header  of  table  .TL-yT{  title in boldface and two
       points larger T} .TMoffnUC Berkeley thesis mode .TS x-y,yT{  begin  ta-
       ble;  if x=H table has multi-page header T} .UL x-nunderline x, even in
       troff .UX x-nT{ UNIX; trademark message first time; x appended T} .XA x
       y-yT{  another index entry; x=page or no for none;  y=indent T} .XE-yT{
       end index entry (or series of .IX entries) T} .XP-y,yT{ paragraph  with
       first  line indented, others indented T} .XS x y-yT{ begin index entry;
       x=page or no for none; y=indent T} .1Cony,yone column format, on a  new
       page  .2C-y,ybegin  two column format .]--nbeginning of refer reference
       .[0-nT{ end of unclassifiable type of reference T} .[N-nT{  N=  1:jour-
       nal-article, 2:book, 3:book-article, 4:report T}

       Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms by means of built-in num-
       ber registers. For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:

       .nr  LL  6.5i

       Here is a table of number registers and their default values:

       tab();  lw(0.785714i)|  lw(1.571429i)|  lw(1.571429i)|   lw(1.571429i).
       NameRegister  ControlsTakes EffectDefault PSpoint size      paragraph10
       VSvertical spacingparagraph12  LLline  length      paragraph6i  LTtitle
       length     next  pagesame  as LL FLfootnote length next .FS5.5i PDpara-
       graph distanceparagraph1v (if n), .3v  (if  t)  DDdisplay  distancedis-
       plays1v (if n), .5v (if t) PIparagraph indentparagraph5n QIquote indent
       next .QP5n FIfootnote indent next .FS2n POpage  offset      next  page0
       (if n), ~1i (if t) HMheader margin   next page1i FMfooter margin   next
       page1i FFfootnote format next .FS0 (1, 2, 3 available)

       When resetting these values,  make  sure  to  specify  the  appropriate
       units. Setting the line length to 7, for example, will result in output
       with one character per line. Setting FF to 1 suppresses footnote super-
       scripting;  setting  it  to  2 also suppresses indentation of the first
       line; and setting it to 3 produces an .IP-like footnote paragraph.

       Here is a list of string registers available in -ms; they may  be  used
       anywhere in the text:

       tab(); lw(1.375000i)| lw(4.125000i).  NameString's Function \*QT{ quote
       (" in nroff, " in troff ) T} \*U T{ unquote (" in nroff, " in  troff  )
       T}  \*-T{  dash (-- in nroff, -- in troff ) T} \*(MOmonth (month of the
       year)  \*(DYday  (current  date)  \**automatically  numbered   footnote
       \*'acute accent (before letter) \*`grave accent (before letter) \*^cir-
       cumflex (before letter) \*,cedilla (before  letter)  \*:umlaut  (before
       letter) \*~T{ tilde (before letter) T}

       When  using  the  extended  accent mark definitions available with .AM,
       these strings should come after, rather than before, the letter  to  be



       col(1), eqn(1), nroff(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1)

       Floating  keeps  and  regular  keeps are diverted to the same space, so
       they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.

SunOS 5.10                        25 Feb 1992                            ms(5)