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ms(5)									ms(5)


  ms - Text formatting macros


  nroff	-ms  [options] file...


  This package of nroff	macro definitions provides a formatting	facility for
  various styles of articles, theses, and books. When producing	2-column out-
  put on a terminal or lineprinter, or when reverse line motions are needed,
  filter the output through col(1).  All external -ms macros are defined in
  the following	section.  Many nroff requests are unsafe in conjunction	with
  this package.	However, the first four	requests in the	list that follows can
  be used with impunity	after initialization, and the last two may be used
  even before initialization:

  .bp Begin new	page

  .br Break output line

  .sp n
      Insert n spacing lines

  .ce n
      Center next n lines

  .ls n
      Line spacing: n=1	single,	n=2 double space

  .na No alignment of right margin

  Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for example,
  \fIword\fR italicize word. Output of the tbl and neqn	preprocessors for
  equations and	tables ris acceptable as input.


  Macro	Name		   Break/Reset	 Explanation

  .AB x	       -	   y

					 Begin abstract; if x
					 =no, do not label
  .AE	       -	   y		 End abstract.
  .AI	       -	   y		 Author's institution.
  .AM	       -	   n

					 Better	accent mark
  .AU	       -	   y		 Author's name.

  .B x	       -	   n

					 Embolden x; if	no x,
					 switch	to boldface.
  .B1	       -	   y

					 Begin text to be
					 enclosed in a box.

  .B2	       -	   y

					 End boxed text	and print
  .BT	       date	   n

					 Bottom	title, printed at
					 foot of page.
  .BX x	       -	   n

					 Print word x in a box.
  .CM	       if t	   n		 Cut mark between pages.
  .CT	       -	   y/y

					 Chapter title:	page
					 number	moved to CF (TM
  .DA x	       if n	   n

					 Force date x at bottom
					 of page; today	if no x.
  .DE	       -	   y

					 End display (unfilled
					 text) of any kind.
  .DS x	y      I	   y

					 Begin display with keep;
					 x =I,L,C,B; y =indent.
  .ID y	       8n,.5i	   y

					 Indented display with no
					 keep; y =indent.
  .LD	       -	   y

					 Left display with no
  .CD	       -	   y

					 Centered display with no
  .BD	       -	   y

					 Block display;	center
					 entire	block.
  .EF x	       -	   n

					 Even page footer x (3
					 part, as for .tl).
  .EH x	       -	   n

					 Even page header x (3
					 part, as for .tl).
  .EN	       -	   y

					 End displayed equation
					 produced by *neqn.
  .EQ x	y      -	   y

					 Break out equation; x
					 =L,I,C; y =equation
  .FE	       -	   n

					 End footnote to be
					 placed	at bottom of
  .FP	       -	   n

					 Numbered footnote para-
					 graph;	may be redefined.
  .FS x	       -	   n

					 Start footnote; x is
					 optional footnote label.
  .HD	       undef	   n

					 Optional page header
					 below header margin.
  .I x	       -	   n

					 Italicize x; if no x,
					 switch	to italics.
  .IP x	y      -	   y/y

					 Indented paragraph, with
					 hanging tag x;	y=
  .IX x	y      -	   y

					 Index words x,	y and so
					 on (up	to five	levels).
  .KE	       -	   n		 End keep of any kind.
  .KF	       -	   n

					 Begin floating	keep;
					 text fills remainder of
  .KS	       -	   y

					 Begin keep; unit kept
					 together on a single
  .LG	       -	   n

					 Larger; increase point
					 size by 2.
  .LP	       -	   y/y		 Left (block) paragraph.

  .MC x	       -	   y/y

					 Multiple columns; x
					 =column width.
  .ND x	       if t	   n

					 No date in page footer;
					 x is date on cover.

  .NH x	y      -	   y/y

					 Numbered header; x
					 =level, x =0 resets, x
					 =S sets to y.
  .NL	       10p	   n

					 Set point size	back to
  .OF x	       -	   n

					 Odd page footer x (3
					 part, as for .tl).
  .OH x	       -	   n

					 Odd page header x (3
					 part, as for .tl).
  .P1	       if TM	   n

					 Print header on first
  .PP	       -	   y/y

					 Paragraph with	first
					 line indented.
  .PT	       - % -	   n

					 Page title, printed at
					 head of page.
  .PX x	       -	   y

					 Print index (table of
					 contents); x =no,
					 suppresses title.
  .QP	       -	   y/y

					 Quote paragraph
					 (indented and shorter).
  .R	       on	   n		 Return	to Roman font.
  .RE	       5n	   y/y

					 Retreat: end level of
					 relative indentation.
  .RP x	       -	   n

					 Released paper	format;	x
					 =no, stops title on
					 first page.
  .RS	       5n	   y/y

					 Right shift: start level
					 of relative indentation.
  .SH	       -	   y/y

					 Section header, in
  .SM	       -	   n

					 Smaller; decrease point
					 size by 2.
  .TA	       8n,5n	   n

					 Set tabs to 8n	16n ...
					 (nroff) 5n 10n	...
  .TC x	       -	   y

					 Print table of	contents
					 at end; x =no,
					 suppresses title.
  .TE	       -	   y

					 End of	table processed
					 by tbl.
  .TH	       -	   y

					 End multipage header of
  .TL	       -	   y

					 Title in boldface and
					 two points larger.
  .TM	       off	   n		 UC Berkeley thesis mode.
  .TS x	       -	   y/y

					 Begin table; if x =H,
					 table has multipage
  .UL x	       -	   n

					 Underline x, even in
  .UX x	       -	   n

					 UNIX; trademark message
					 first time; x appended.
  .XA x	y      -	   y

					 Another index entry; x
					 =page or no for none; y
  .XE	       -	   y

					 End index entry (or
					 series	of .IX entries).

  .XP	       -	   y/y

					 Paragraph with	first
					 line exdented,	others

  .XS x	y      -	   y

					 Begin index entry; x
					 =page or no for none; y
  .1C	       on	   y/y

					 One-column format, on a
					 new page.
  .2C	       -	   y/y		 Begin two-column format.
  .]-	       -	   n

					 Beginning of refer
  .[0	       -	   n

					 End of	unclassifiable
					 type of reference.
  .[N	       -	   n

					 N= 1:journal-article,
					 2:book, 3:book-article,


  Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms	by means of built-in number
  registers. For example, this sets the	line length to 6.5 inches:

	.nr  LL	 6.5i

  Here is a table of number registers and their	default	values:

  Register Name	  Controls	       Effects	      Default
  PS		  Point	size	       paragraph      10
  VS		  Vertical spacing     paragraph      12
  LL		  Line length	       paragraph      6i
  LT		  Title	length	       next page      same as LL
  FL		  Footnote length      next .FS	      5.5i
  PD		  Paragraph distance   paragraph

						      1v (if n), .3v (if
  DD		  Display distance     displays

						      1v (if n), .5v (if
  PI		  Paragraph indent     paragraph      5n
  QI		  Quote	indent	       next .QP	      5n
  FI		  Footnote indent      next .FS	      2n
  PO		  Page offset	       next page

						      0	(if n),	 ~1i (if
  HM		  Header margin	       next page      1i
  FM		  Footer margin	       next page 1i
  FF		  Footnote format      next .FS

						      0	(1, 2, 3 avail-

  When resetting these values, make sure to specify the	appropriate units.
  Setting the line length to 7,	for example, results in	output with one	char-
  acter	per line. Setting FF to	1 suppresses footnote superscripting; setting
  it to	2 also suppresses indentation of the first line; and setting it	to 3
  produces an .IP-like footnote	paragraph.

  Here is a list of string registers available in -ms; they can	be used	any-
  where	in the text:

  Name	  String's Function

	  Quote	(" in nroff, " in *roff	)

	  Unquote (" in	nroff, " in *roff )


	  Dash (-- in nroff, --	in *roff )
  \*(MO	  Month	(month of the year)
  \*(DY	  Day (current date)
  \**	  Automatically	numbered footnote
  \*'	  Acute	accent (before letter)
  \*`	  Grave	accent (before letter)
  \*^	  Circumflex (before letter)
  \*,	  Cedilla (before letter)
  \*:	  Umlaut (before letter)
  \*~	  Tilde	(before	letter)

  When using the extended accent mark definitions available with .AM, these
  strings should come after, rather than before, the letter to be accented.


  Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted	to the same space, so they
  cannot be mixed together with	predictable results.


      The -ms macro package source file

      Files that are hardlinked	to ???.s files

      Supplemental -ms macros


  col(1), neqn(1), nroff(1), tbl(1)