MODULI(5) BSD File Formats Manual MODULI(5)
NAME
moduli  DiffieHellman moduli
DESCRIPTION
The /etc/moduli file contains prime numbers and generators for use by
sshd(8) in the DiffieHellman Group Exchange key exchange method.
New moduli may be generated with sshkeygen(1) using a twostep process.
An initial candidate generation pass, using sshkeygen G, calculates
numbers that are likely to be useful. A second primality testing pass,
using sshkeygen T, provides a high degree of assurance that the numbers
are prime and are safe for use in DiffieHellman operations by sshd(8).
This moduli format is used as the output from each pass.
The file consists of newlineseparated records, one per modulus, contain
ing seven spaceseparated fields. These fields are as follows:
timestamp The time that the modulus was last processed as YYYYM
MDDHHMMSS.
type Decimal number specifying the internal structure of
the prime modulus. Supported types are:
0 Unknown, not tested.
2 "Safe" prime; (p1)/2 is also prime.
4 Sophie Germain; 2p+1 is also prime.
Moduli candidates initially produced by sshkeygen(1)
are Sophie Germain primes (type 4). Further primality
testing with sshkeygen(1) produces safe prime moduli
(type 2) that are ready for use in sshd(8). Other
types are not used by OpenSSH.
tests Decimal number indicating the type of primality tests
that the number has been subjected to represented as a
bitmask of the following values:
0x00 Not tested.
0x01 Composite number  not prime.
0x02 Sieve of Eratosthenes.
0x04 Probabilistic MillerRabin primality tests.
The sshkeygen(1) moduli candidate generation uses the
Sieve of Eratosthenes (flag 0x02). Subsequent
sshkeygen(1) primality tests are MillerRabin tests
(flag 0x04).
trials Decimal number indicating the number of primality tri
als that have been performed on the modulus.
size Decimal number indicating the size of the prime in
bits.
generator The recommended generator for use with this modulus
(hexadecimal).
modulus The modulus itself in hexadecimal.
When performing DiffieHellman Group Exchange, sshd(8) first estimates
the size of the modulus required to produce enough DiffieHellman output
to sufficiently key the selected symmetric cipher. sshd(8) then randomly
selects a modulus from /etc/moduli that best meets the size requirement.
SEE ALSO
sshkeygen(1), sshd(8)
STANDARDS
M. Friedl, N. Provos, and W. Simpson, DiffieHellman Group Exchange for
the Secure Shell (SSH) Transport Layer Protocol, RFC 4419, March 2006.
BSD March 30, 2017 BSD
