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man(5)                Standards, Environments, and Macros               man(5)

       man - macros to format Reference Manual pages

       nroff -man filename...

       troff -man filename...

       These  macros  are  used to lay out the reference pages in this manual.
       Note: if filename contains format input for a  preprocessor,  the  com-
       mands  shown  above must be piped through the appropriate preprocessor.
       This is handled automatically by the man(1) command. See the  ``Conven-
       tions'' section.

       Any  text  argument  t  may be zero to six words. Quotes may be used to
       include <&lt;SPACE>&gt; characters in a "word".  If text is empty, the  special
       treatment is applied to the next input line with text to be printed. In
       this way .I may be used to italicize a whole line, or .SB may  be  used
       to make small bold letters.

       A  prevailing indent distance is remembered between successive indented
       paragraphs, and is reset to default value upon reaching a  non-indented
       paragraph.  Default units for indents i are ens.

       Type  font  and size are reset to default values before each paragraph,
       and after processing font and size setting macros.

       These strings are predefined by -man:

       \*R      `(R)', `(Reg)' in nroff.

       \*S      Change to default type size.

       * n.t.l. = next text line; p.i. = prevailing indent

       tab();   lw(1.000000i)   lw(1.000000i)   lw(1.000000i)   lw(2.500000i).
       RequestCauseIf  noExplanation  BreakArgument  .B tnot=n.t.l.*Text is in
       bold font.  .BI tnot=n.t.l.T{ Join words, alternating bold and  italic.
       T}  .BR  tnot=n.t.l.T{  Join  words,  alternating  bold  and roman.  T}
       .DTno.5i 1i...Restore default tabs.  .HP iyesi=p.i.*T{ Begin  paragraph
       with   hanging   indent.    Set   prevailing   indent   to  i.   T}  .I
       tnot=n.t.l.Text is italic.  .IB tnot=n.t.l.T{ Join  words,  alternating
       italic  and  bold.   T}  .IP  x  iyesx=""Same  as  .TP with tag x.  .IR
       tnot=n.t.l.T{ Join words, alternating italic and roman.  T} .IX  tno-T{
       Index macro, for SunSoft internal use.  T} .LPyes-T{ Begin left-aligned
       paragraph.  Set prevailing indent to .5i.  T} .Pyes-Same as  .LP.   .PD
       dnod=.4vT{ Set vertical distance between paragraphs.  T} .PPyes-Same as
       .LP.  .REyes-T{ End of relative indent.   Restores  prevailing  indent.
       T}  .RB  tnot=n.t.l.T{  Join words, alternating roman and bold.  T} .RI
       tnot=n.t.l.T{  Join  words,  alternating  roman  and  italic.   T}  .RS
       iyesi=p.i.T{  Start  relative  indent, increase indent by i.  Sets pre-
       vailing indent to .5i for nested indents.  T} .SB tno-T{ Reduce size of
       text  by  1  point,  make text bold.  T} .SH tyes-Section Heading.  .SM
       tnot=n.t.l.Reduce size of text by  1  point.   .SS  tyest=n.t.l.Section
       Subheading.   .TH n s d f myes-T{ Begin reference page n, of of section
       s; d is the date of the most recent change.  If present, f is the  left
       page  footer;  m  is  the  main  page (center) header.  Sets prevailing
       indent and tabs to .5i.  T} .TP iyesi=p.i.T{ Begin indented  paragraph,
       with  the tag given on the next text line.  Set prevailing indent to i.
       T} .TX t pno-T{ Resolve the title abbreviation t; join  to  punctuation
       mark (or text) p.  T}

       When formatting a manual page, man examines the first line to determine
       whether it requires special processing. For example a first  line  con-
       sisting of:

              '\" t

       indicates  that  the  manual  page  must be run through the tbl(1) pre-

       A typical manual page for a command or function is laid out as follows:

       .TH title [1-9]         The name of  the  command  or  function,  which
                               serves  as  the title of the manual page.  This
                               is followed by the number  of  the  section  in
                               which it appears.

       .SH NAME                The  name,  or list of names, by which the com-
                               mand is called, followed by a dash and  then  a
                               one-line  summary  of the action performed. All
                               in  roman  font,  this  section   contains   no
                               troff(1)  commands  or  escapes,  and  no macro
                               requests. It is used  to  generate  the  windex
                               database,  which is used by the  whatis(1) com-


                                   The syntax of the  command  and  its  argu-
                                   ments,  as typed on the command line.  When
                                   in boldface, a word must be  typed  exactly
                                   as printed.  When in italics, a word can be
                                   replaced with an argument that you  supply.
                                   References  to bold or italicized items are
                                   not capitalized  in  other  sections,  even
                                   when they begin a sentence.

                                   Syntactic symbols appear in roman face:

                                   [ ]      An  argument,  when  surrounded by
                                            brackets is optional.

                                   |        Arguments separated by a  vertical
                                            bar  are exclusive. You can supply
                                            only one item from such a list.

                                   ...      Arguments followed by an  ellipsis
                                            can  be repeated. When an ellipsis
                                            follows  a  bracketed   set,   the
                                            expression within the brackets can
                                            be repeated.


                                   If  required,  the  data  declaration,   or
                                   #include  directive,  is  shown first, fol-
                                   lowed by the  function declaration.  Other-
                                   wise, the function declaration is shown.

       .SH DESCRIPTION         A  narrative  overview  of the command or func-
                               tion's external behavior. This includes how  it
                               interacts  with  files or data, and how it han-
                               dles the standard input,  standard  output  and
                               standard  error.  Internals  and implementation
                               details  are  normally  omitted.  This  section
                               attempts  to  provide  a  succinct  overview in
                               answer to the question, "what does it do?"

                               Literal text from the synopsis appears in  con-
                               stant width, as do literal filenames and refer-
                               ences to items that  appear  elsewhere  in  the
                               reference manuals. Arguments are italicized.

                               If  a  command interprets either subcommands or
                               an input  grammar,  its  command  interface  or
                               input  grammar is normally described in a USAGE
                               section, which  follows  the  OPTIONS  section.
                               The   DESCRIPTION  section  only  describes the
                               behavior of the command  itself,  not  that  of

       .SH OPTIONS             The list of options along with a description of
                               how each affects the command's operation.

       .SH RETURN VALUES       A list of the values the library  routine  will
                               return  to  the calling  program and the condi-
                               tions that cause these values to be returned.

       .SH EXIT STATUS         A list of the values the utility will return to
                               the  calling   program or shell, and the condi-
                               tions that cause these values to be  returned.

       .SH FILES               A list of files associated with the command  or

       .SH SEE ALSO            A comma-separated list of related manual pages,
                               followed by references to other published mate-

       .SH DIAGNOSTICS         A  list  of diagnostic messages and an explana-
                               tion of each.

       .SH BUGS                A description of  limitations,  known  defects,
                               and  possible problems associated with the com-
                               mand or function.



       man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), whatis(1)

       Dale Dougherty and   Tim O'Reilly, Unix Text Processing

SunOS 5.10                        30 Jan 1995                           man(5)